1 Green Data Centre Design A Holistic Approach Stantec Consulting Ltd. Aleks Milojkovic, P.Eng., RCDD, LEED AP Tommy Chiu, EIT, RCDD, LEED AP
2 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION
3 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Data Center Definition? A data center is a centralized repository, either physical or virtual, for the storage, management, and dissemination of data and information organized around a particular body of knowledge or pertaining to a particular business.
4 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION What Does it Mean to Be Green? Sustainability Process Efficiency Energy Usage Material Usage Measure Lifecycle Costs
5 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sustainability Being able to repeat what we are doing indefinitely because there is no limit imposed on us by forces beyond our individual control.
6 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sustainable Design Topics Standards Energy IT Equipment Materials
7 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sustainable Design Topics Standards Energy IT Equipment Materials
8 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sustainable Design Topics Standards Energy IT Equipment Materials
9 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sustainable Criteria Standards Energy IT Equipment Materials
10 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Data Center Is A System IT Equipment Loads Operational Continuity Structured t Cabling Electrical Mechanical Physical Protection Architectural Space Physical Pathways Security Systems
11 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Data Centre Availability Failure in electrical grid (blackouts etc.) 8% 9% Failure in UPS system 18% Failure due to mechanical systems, security, natural disaster, human error, etc. 65% Wiring & devices between UPS & load Distribution Utility UPS Other
12 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Reliability Availability Service Ability Electrical l UPS Generator Generator Dual Power Dual Power Dual Power System + System System + System System + System Mechanical Redundant components Thermal Storage Dual Pipe Fans & Pumps on UPS Thermal Storage Passive automation 24/7 Staffing Work performed during Facility Operations simulation change Compartmentalization regular hours management Failure By-pass options In-house knowledge On-site spaces In-house suspension
13 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION TIA/EIA Tier Classification Tier I Tier II Tier III Tier IV Number of delivery paths Only 1 Only 1 1 Active 1 Passive 2 Active Redundant components N N +1 N +1 2(N+1) or S+S Support space to raised floor ratio 20% 30% 80-90% 100% Initial watts / sq. ft Ultimate watts / sq. ft Raised floor height 12" 18" 30-36" 30-36" Floor loading pounds/sq. ft Utility Voltage 208, , kV 12-15kV Months to implement 3 3 to 6 15 t to 20 Year first deployed Construction $/Sq. Ft. Raised floor * $ 450 $ 600 $ 900 $1,100+ Annual IT downtime due to site 28.8 hrs 22.0 hrs 1.6 hrs 0.4 hrs Site availability % % % % * excludes land and abnormal civil cost. Assumes minimum of 15,000 sq.ft.. of raised floor, architecturally plain one story building fitted out for the initial capacity, but with the backbone designed to reach the ultimate capacity with the installation of additional components. Make adjustments for NYC, Chicago, and other high cost areas.
14 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION EIA/TIA 942 Document Pros Sets a standard in terms of up-time Standardized Infrastructure Criteria System Detail Cons Heavy Focus on Infrastructure Uptime not guaranteed No allowance for distributed processing
15 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Reliability vs. Efficiency? Redundant Components Oversized Systems Larger Spaces Energy Efficiency
16 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Wiring Closets (1-3 Racks) Computer Rooms (1-5 Racks) Small Data Centres (5-20 Racks) Medium Data Centres ( Racks) Large Data Centres (Over 100 Racks) Server Farms (20,000 ft² and over) Typical IT Loads Range KW KW KW Cooling 1 2 ton split AC unit Split AC/ High Precision Ceiling AC Raised floor Overhead ducting Hot / Cold Aisle Raised Floor KW Overhead Ducting Hot / Cold Aisle Over 200 KW MW range Raised floor Hot / Cold Aisle Supplemental cooling Raised floor Hot / Cold Aisle Supplemental cooling C ldai l d h t i l Sea Containers 700 kw Cold Aisle and hot air plenum Overhead cooling
17 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Available METRICs for Data Centre Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE): Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE):1/PUE PUE of f20 2.0: 1kW of fit power, an additional ddii l1kwi is consumed to cool and distribute power to the IT equipment. Factors influencing PUE: - Location - Climate conditions
18 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Cabling Topics Fiber vs. Copper Materials Topics Green Cabling Strategies Higher Density Higher Quantities
19 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE): PUE Scenario Current Trends 1.9 Improved Operations 1.7 Best Practices 1.3 State-of-the-Art 1.2 Figure 1: EPA Estimated PUE Values in 2011
20 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Data Center Energy Usage 30 Billion kw/h in Billion kw/h in 2006 (1.5% of all US electricity consumption) Estimated growth of 12% per year
21 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION National Data Center Energy Efficiency Information Program Coordinates a wide variety of activities the DOE Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now initiative, DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and EPA ENERGY STAR program.
22 ENERGY STANDARDS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Program Overview Energy efficiency metrics and benchmarking Energy saving tools and training Certification of data center energy efficiency experts Equipment performance specification and labeling li Recognition of Best-in-Class data centers
23 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION IT Equipment Energy Efficiency Hardware Selection Higher Processing Density Higher Power Virtualization
24 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION IT Equipment Servers Server Virtualization Data Storage Data Network Equipment
25 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Servers Energy Efficient i High Power Factor Power Supplies Defined Minimum Criteria for Server Idle Power
26 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Server Virtualization The Climate Savers Computing Initiative offers resources to identify powerefficient servers.
27 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Data Storage / Network Equipment De-duplication software WAN acceleration Thin provisioning software POE devices
28 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Hot-aisle/ Cold-aisle Principle Courtesy: ASHRAE Datacom Equipment Power Trends and Cooling Applications
29 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Most common configuration (Chilled Air) Raised Floor Courtesy: ASHRAE Datacom Equipment Power Trends and Cooling Applications
30 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION High Density Spots In-row Cooling Units + Raised Floor (Liquid Cooling + Chilled Air) Courtesy: ASHRAE Datacom Equipment Power Trends and Cooling Applications
31 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Recommendations to optimize i Air Management Hot and cold aisle configuration Sealing the raised floor Blanking Panels and racks Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Return air plenums Minimizing obstructions to proper airflow
32 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Sizing i it Right Drivers for sizing of equipment: Vague projections for future load Caution!! Scalability Redundancy Oversize the right equipment ducts, chillers etc
33 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Improve Humidity Controls ASHRAE has widened the vector diagram on the psychometric chart. No real need to humidification as most of the air is recirculated. Make-up air is too less in comparison to worry about. Evaporative (adiabatic) cooling actually cools the air stream while the steam generators add heat. Increase the dead band Newer equipment can handle more humidity Avoid simultaneous dehumidification and humidification.
34 EQUIPMENT STANDARDS ENERGY MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Important to know. Measures and Verification Dynamic PUE measurement and monitoring. Change cost allocation from space based to power consumption based.
35 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Material Usage Material and Space Considerations LEED Program Effective Cabling Strategies
36 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Typical Space Allocations
38 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION What is LEED? Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Measurement and rating system used to certify a building as having a reduced environmental impact throughout its life cycle. Administered by the US Green Building Council, a nonprofit consisting of over 6500 companies and organizations.
39 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION The LEED Rating System Initially established for new buildings, but different programs are in development for existing building, and based on use (commercial, healthcare, schools, etc.) Consists of four different recognition level: l Certified, Silver, Gold, Platinum. Rating based on a point (credit) system.
40 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Does LEED = Sustainability? Not entirely LEED is part of the solution but not the final answer Tougher standards will emerge in the future
41 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Underfloor Cabling Pathways
42 MATERIALS STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Overhead Cable Trays
43 EXAMPLES STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONCLUSION Data Centre Best Practices There are many helpful resources to improve the efficiency performance of your facility; here are some tips from our experts. Measure PUE. Know your data center's efficiency performance by measuring energy consumption and frequent PUE monitoring. Manage air flow. Good air flow management is a fundamental to efficient data center operation. Start with minimizing hot and cold air mixing and eliminate hot spots.
44 EXAMPLES STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONCLUSION Data Centre Best Practices Adjust the thermostat. Raising the cold aisle temperature will minimize chiller energy use. Don't try to run at 70F in the cold aisle, try to run at 80F; virtually all equipment manufacturers allow this. Use free cooling. Water or air-side economizers can Use free cooling. Water or air side economizers can greatly improve energy efficiency.
45 EXAMPLES STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONCLUSION Data Centre Best Practices Optimize power distribution. Whenever possible use high-efficiency transformers and UPS systems. Buy efficient servers. Specify high-efficient servers and data storage systems. The Climate Savers Computing Initiative offers resources to identify power-efficient efficient servers.
46 STANDARDS ENERGY EQUIPMENT MATERIALS EXAMPLES CONCLUSION Thank You For Your Time Questions or Comments?
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