A case study of health risk estimate for pesticide-users of fruits and vegetable farmers in Cameroon

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1 Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Academic year A case study of health risk estimate for pesticide-users of fruits and vegetable farmers in Cameroon Christopher Ndi AMUOH Promoters: Dr. ir. Liesbeth Jaxcsen Dr. ir. Pieter Spanoghe Tutor: Ir. Ilse Delcour Master s dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Nutrition and Rural Development, Main subject: Human Nutrition 1

2 Copyright All rights are reserved. The author, the promoters and the tutor permit the use of this Master s Dissertation for consulting purposes and copying of parts for personal use. However, any other use falls under the limitations of copyright regulations, particularly the stringent obligation to explicitly mention the source when citing parts out of this Master s dissertation. Ghent, June 2011 The Promoters Dr. ir. Liesbeth Jaxcsen Dr. ir. Pieter Spanoghe The Tutor The Author Ilse Delcour Christopher Ndi AMUOH i

3 Dedication This piece of work is entirely dedicated to the Amuoh and Achu s family ii

4 Acknowledgement This case study of Cameroon was carried out in five regions of Cameroon under the project VEGI-TRADE within the Department of Food Safety and Food Quality of the Faculty of Bioscience Engineering of the Ghent University. My greatest thanks go to my promoters, Dr. ir. Liesbeth Jaxcsens, Dr. ir. Pieter Spanoghe for accepting, encouraging, guiding me and for their constructive criticisms on which this work is done. I am also very grateful to my tutor Ir. Ilse Delcour for the encouragement and her constructive criticism to this piece of work. My thanks also go to the coordinators and staff of the Department of Nutrition and Rural Development for guiding me through this study programme. I equally wish to extend my sincere thanks and gratitude to the staff and friends of Global Initiative for Sustainable development Programmes for their assistance in data collection and throughout my study period. I wish also to sincerely thank Mrs. Ndikontar Alice of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Cameroon, for her moral and material assistance. I will not forget my friends; Fonbah Cletus Chick, Atanga Wilson Nebafor, Tancho John Siabze and Fru Alfred Ngufor for their assistance in developing and administering the questions I am equally thankful to Mr. Njoh Wanduku Tembong of World Vegetable Centre Cameroon for providing me with documentation and necessary information about vegetable cultivation in Cameroon My warmest gratitude goes to my dear family; my mother Mary Amundam, my brothers and sisters; Amuoh Margeret N., Amuoh Juliana A., Amuoh Anthony S., Amuoh Florence A., Amuoh Pius N., Amuoh Fidelis T., Amuoh Martin F., Amuoh Patricia A., Amuoh Doris N. for their concern, moral support and prayers to the success of my studies. I am particularly very grateful to my beloved wife Anita Injoh Amuoh, my children; Amuoh Velma-Wendi Amundam, Amuoh McRollins Ngoh for their patience and prayers during this period spent in their absence. I will never forget the words of children Dady, how is studies? How is life over there? Have you eating? When are you coming? iii

5 Abstract The present study was carried out under the project Vegi-Trade and was aimed to estimate the health risk of vegetable farmers to pesticide users in Cameroon. The main objective of the study was to investigate the health risk due to pesticide use by small scale independent vegetable farmers and fruits farmers employed under multinational cooperation in Cameroon. The main types of vegetables and fruits produced in Cameroon, the percentage of farmers using chemical pesticides and the frequency and dosage of pesticides use were also investigated. The types, source of pesticides used and method of application of the available pesticides as compared to the recommended standard methods were equally analysed. Finally, common illnesses in the area which may be related to the use of pesticides were also analysed. Developing countries, Cameroon inclusive rely on pesticides for agricultural production. Due to high temperatures coupled with high humidity of tropics, the pest and disease problems increase. The use of pesticides in the tropics has been highly pronounced due to standards for cosmetic quality in export markets for fresh fruits and vegetables. The use of pesticides in Cameroon was 100% sudsidized in the the 80s and 90s and this caused farmers to depend on chemical pesticides for agricultural production. A variety of fruits and vegetables are cultivated in Cameroon, many of which are of economic and regional importance but data is only available for few. In Cameroon, the small scale farmers are most of the time left on their own. They rely on neighbouring cities and local dealers for pesticides and farm inputs. These farmers lack the necessary training to update their knowledge. It is easy to find farmers spraying without body covering, smoking, eating and drinking during spraying or using fake, adulterated and expired pesticides, using pesticides meant for cocoa or cotton on fruits and vegetables, and sometimes the equipment they use leak. Although the multinational companies use technological inputs, the workers are still exposed to pesticides during mixing and also when airplanes are used to spray the fields during working hours. A recent study conducted in Cameroon points out side usage of pesticides banned in other countries (chlordecone in the Caribbean). Common illnesses with small scale farmers include body itches, cough, stomach ulcer (diarrhoea), eye problems, and respiratory problem. The same problems are recorded in the area where the multinational companies are located but higher and including frequent deaths which they attribute to witchcraft. iv

6 Abrreviations ADI: AFSSA: AGRODEC CAM: AU-ICC: AVRDC CARBAP: CCAP: CCHD: CDA: CDC: CEMAC: CFR: CIA: DDT: FAO: FFV: GAP: GDP: ICPM: IFSS: IMF: IRAD: ISO: IUPAC: MAC: MINADER: MINEF: MRLs: Acceptable Daily Intake Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments Agricultural development Company Cameroon Inter-African Phytosanitary Council of the African Union World Vegetable Centre African Regional Centre for Research on Banana and plantains Committee on Pesticides in Central Africa Catholic Committee against Hunger and Development Controlled Drop Application Cameroon Development Cooperation Economic and Monetary Committee of Central African States Code of Federal Regulation Central Intelligence Agency Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Food and Agricultural Organisation Fresh fruits and vegetables Good Agricultural Practices Gross Domestic Product Integrated Crop and Pests Management International Food Safety Standards International Monetary Fund Institute for Agronomic Research International Organisation for Standardisation International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry Maximum Allowable Concentration Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Environment and Forestry Maximum Residue Limits v

7 NGOs: PHP: POPs: SAILD: SOWEDA: SPNP: SPS: SPSS: UK: UN: US-EPA's: WHO: Non-Governmental Organisations Penja Haut Plantation Persistent Organic Pollutants Support Services to Grassroot Initiative of Development South West Development Authority Société des plantations nouvelles de Penja Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Statistical programme for Social Sciences United Kingdom United Nation United State Environmental Protection Agency World Health Organisation vi

8 Table of Contents Copyright... i Dedication... ii Acknowledgement... iii Abstract... iv Abrreviations... v Tables... x Figures... xi Chapter1. General Introduction Advantages of the use of pesticides Disadvantages of Pesticides Problem Statement Objective of the study Overall Objective Specific objectives... 5 Chapter 2: Literature Review Overview of Vegetable Production and Pesticide Usage Major crops Total vegetable production Major vegetable diseases and pests Differences in farming between the small scale vegetable Farmers and Multinational Cooperation Pesticides usage and effects Pesticide pollution Exposure to pesticides Application Techniques Toxicological aspect of pesticides Pesticides and pesticide residues vii

9 2.7.2 Toxicity of pesticides Acute toxicity Chronic effect of pesticides Health effects (see table 2.4) Other problems Chapter 3: Materials and Methods Development of questionnaire Selection of regions Data Collection Administration of the questionnaires Data Analysis Chapter 4: Results, Discussion and Observations Results and Discussion Farm size Quantity Produced Pesticides used by farmers on fruits and vegetables in Cameroon Knowledge on pesticides and harm caused by certain pesticides Pesticide problems Measuring of pesticides Pesticide residue Illegal use of pesticides Pest and disease impact Food Consumption Food Preparation Climate change Observations Infrastructure for pesticide use in Cameroon Legal and institutional infrastructure Pesticide management and registration system Challenges for the Cameroonian Government Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion viii

10 5.2 Recommendation Rational control methods against plant diseases Awareness / Training Use of pesticide application equipment Food Safety References Annexes Annex 1: Sample questions to the farmers (users of pesticides) Annexe 2: Sample questionnaire Pesticide Control body/ministry of Agriculture Annexe 3: List of homologated Pesticides ix

11 Tables Table 2.2: Some main cultivated Fruits and Vegetables in Cameroon... 9 Table 3.2: Cultivated Surface Area (Ha) and production (tonnes) of some major Vegetable crops Table 2.4: A review of some major vegetable pests and diseases Table 2. 5: Toxicity categories for active ingredients Table 3.1: Distribution of respondents per region Table 4.1: Preference for certain crops with respect to regions of the respondent Table 4.2: Pesticide used by farmers on fruits and vegetales in Cameroon Table 4.3: Variation in application frequency Small scale farms Banana and multinational cooperation Table 4.4: Measuring of pesticide dosage to be sprayed x

12 Figures Figure 3. 1: Map of Cameroon showing Regions and ecological zones Figure 4.1: Production of some major fruits and vegetables in the five regions of Cameroon 29 Figure 4.2: Carrots produced per unit surface area in Santa Mbei Figure 4.3: Tomatoes produced per unit surface area in Santa Mbei Figure 4. 4: Some vegetables and fruits cultivated in Cameroon Figure4. 5: Farmers' knowledge on pesticide Figure 4.6: Problems common to pesticide users xi

13 Chapter1. General Introduction According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF, 2010) report, Cameroon is an economic paradox with an incredible amount of natural resources including petroleum, timber, extremely favourable conditions for agriculture and mineral resources. Due to a lack of structural economic reforms, widespread corruption and lack of a clear vision and development strategy for the country, approximately 39.9% of Cameroonians live below the poverty line with less than 1$ per day. Approximately 41% of Cameroonians have access to drinking water, 40% of households have access to electricity and only 31.5% have access to a decent toilet. The country has a GDP per capital Purchasing Power Parity of $2,300 (CIA, 2010) Cameroon is situated in Central West Africa from latitude 3 to 13 north of the Equator. Geographically it is a West African country but politically it belongs to Central Africa (Neba and Aaron, 1999). The country shares its borders with Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Equatoria Guinea and Nigeria. It has a range of agro-ecological zones, from dry desert areas in the north to equatorial rain forest in the south. These zones are namely: the Soudano-Sahelian zone (Maroua, Garoua), the High Guinea Savannah zone (Wakwa Ngaoundéré), the Western High plateau zone (Bambui Mankon), the Humid Forest Monomodal zone (Ekona) and the Humid Forest Bimodal zone (Nkol bisson Yaoundé) which all account for the cultivation of varied crop types (see figure 3.1). The country has a surface area of 475,440 km², with a population of 19,521,645(WB, 2009). Cameroon is subdivided into 10 regions, two of them are English speaking and 8 are French speaking. The official languages are English and French (http://fita.org/countries/cameroon.html?ma_rubrique=panorama). There are more than 260 local African languages spoken in Cameroon. Climatically, Cameroon is hot and dry (November to February), rainy in October with temperatures ranging from 22 C to 29 C in the South. In the North, there are varying temperatures which sometimes exceed 40 C. The Adamawa plateau experiences a sharp drop 1

14 in temperatures at night with rainy season from May-Oct while the Grassland inland areas are much cooler than the Coast with regular rainfall (country ref. December, 2009). The rainfall varies from area to area from mm annually in the semi-arid north regions, 1500mm in Adamaoua highland, mm along the coast and reaching 10000mm of rain along the western slopes of Mount Cameroon, where abundant rain falls almost throughout the year (Neba A., 2010). The economy of Cameroon relies principally on agriculture with about 75% of the active population involved in agricultural production which accounts for approximately 50% of total exports (Wolfgang G., 1997). The country has a great agricultural potential with the climate ranging from humid to semi-arid. In 1972, through the Cameroon Green Revolution that was launched in Buea, the government encouraged mono-cropping with the use of chemical inputs, subsidizing up to 65% and 100% of the cost of fertilizer and pesticides respectively. With the government subsidies and credit, many farmers shifted towards export crop production and agriculture became heavily dependent on external inputs like fertilizers and pesticides. (Wolfgang G., 1997). Cameroon is the bread basket for the West and Central African regions in terms of food production. Significant proportions of the population depend on the production of fruits and vegetables for their livelihood. Majority of the fruits and vegetables produced in Cameroon are exported to neighbouring countries of Central and West Africa, Europe and America, Bananas, cabbages, lettuces for example are exported to Europe fresh. Top vegetables cultivated include: onion, tomatoes, cabbages, carrots, Irish potatoes, leeks, celery, parsley, green beans, pepper, water melon, okra, lettuce and cucumbers. Top fruits cultivated in Cameroon include: bananas, oranges, papaw (papaya), pineapples, plums, mangoes, pears, sugarcanes. Though the country has fertile soils, the agricultural sector still face some major constrains like; inappropriate farming techniques, poor availability of pesticides/equipment, lack of safety precautions, absence of effective control measures on Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), and absence of government regulatory role on pesticide control. The use of pesticides for effective pest control is generating a lot of public health and environmental concern. 2

15 1.1 Advantages of the use of pesticides The use of agrochemicals is both beneficial and harmful. Beneficial effects are associated with increased plant yields, an increase in animal crops and less spoilage during storage. Agrochemicals combined with genetically improved varieties of crop species have contributed positively to the successes of the green revolution that has helped to increase food supply to the rapidly increasing world population. As an example, rice is the main staple food for millions of people worldwide. Negatively, agrochemicals (pesticides) have produced contamination which involves the widespread presence of pesticide residues in virtually all wildlife, well water, and food and even in humans. Some people believe that residues of some of the chemicals used in animal husbandry ends up as a problem, for example traces of antibiotics and bovine growth hormones in consumer products like meat or milk (Fernando P. and Carvalho, 2005) According to Wiki Answers,: pesticides are an economical way of controlling pests. The use of pesticides requires low labour input and large areas can be effectively treated within the shortest possible time. In 2004, Dini et al. pointed out that there is four-fold return on every dollar a farmer spends on pesticides. A suitable pesticide is available for almost all pest problems with variation in type, activity and persistence. Using pesticides will reduce diseases and increase food production with a higher supply and variety of high quality products at reasonable prices (Wiki Answers). Nutritious free food, that is foods that are free of pesticides or disease causing agents, and flowers that have not been damaged by pests cannot be obtained without the use of pesticides. Pesticides are often used to stop the spread of pests in imports and exports, preventing weeds in gardens and protecting house and furniture from destruction (Wiki Answers). 1.2 Disadvantages of Pesticides The above website equally indicates the following disadvantages: the use of some pesticides will lead to reduction of beneficial species such as bees, birds, soil and aquatic organisms, applying chemicals on fields can affect animals which interact with the targeted pests. The reduction in these other organisms can result in changes in the biodiversity of an area and affect natural biological balances. 3

16 Pesticides can affect other areas during application and can cause severe problems in different crops, livestock, waterways and the general environment, wildlife and fish are the most affected. Taking special note of weather conditions can reduce drift. The use of pesticides may lead to residues in human food. This can either be by direct application onto the food, or by bio-magnification along the food line. Not all levels are undesirable but unnecessary and dangerous levels must be avoided through good agricultural practice. Persistent use of products in agricultural areas can lead to chemicals reaching the underground aquifers causing ground water contamination. When the same pesticides are overused, the targeted pest can develop resistance to the pesticide. Excessive exposure to pesticides without safe handling procedures and wearing of protective clothing can lead to poisoning. Poisoning risks depend on dose, toxicity, duration of exposure and sensitivity. Farmers and farm-workers can get exposed to pesticides through four primary routes namely ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption, and absorption through the eyes. Individuals in a farm situation can get exposed to pesticides in various ways (Okello J.J. and Swinton S.M., 2010). These include entry into freshly sprayed fields, eating while spraying pesticides, skin contact with liquid, powder or aerosol forms of pesticides, eating contaminated foods, eating unwashed products. Exposure to toxic pesticides can result in health hazards in the form of acute or chronic illnesses (Maumbe B.M. and Swinton S.M., 2003). 1.3 Problem Statement The use of pesticides for effective pest control is regulated in a way that the safety limits are not reached when applying according to the good agricultural practices (GAP). Environmental contamination, water contamination, air pollution, aquatic habitat as well as human health are endangered due to sources of the pesticides, poor equipment, lack of safety measures, and wrong dosage of pesticides, pesticide misuse, poor extension services and the absence of strong policies regulation of the pesticide. 4

17 1.4 Objective of the study Overall Objective The overall objective of the study is to investigate the health risk due to pesticide use by small scale independent vegetable farmers and fruits farmers employed under multinational cooperation in Cameroon Specific objectives To determine the main types of vegetables and fruits produced in Cameroon, the percentage of farmers using chemical pesticides and the frequency and dosage of pesticides use; To determine the types, the source of pesticides used and method of application of the available pesticides compared to the recommended standard methods; To determine the common illnesses in the area which maybe related to the use of pesticides; To assess the policies in place with regards to pesticides application and make comparison between the existing policies with the recommended standard policies and then possibly make some recommendations. 5

18 Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Overview of Vegetable Production and Pesticide Usage In order to produce for international markets, developing country farmers rely on pesticides for agricultural production (Maumbe B. M. & Swinton S.M., 2003). High temperatures coupled with high humidity of tropical climates exacerbate the pest and disease problems (Okello J.J., 2005). The use of pesticides in the tropics has been highly pronounced due to standards for cosmetic quality in export markets for fresh fruits and vegetables. Many developing countries seeking to diversify their production from staples to high value commodities have made improvements in production and export of fresh produce. Growth has especially been greatest in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) and in the flower subsectors. In the 1980s and 1990s due to fall in the prices of coffee and cocoa, most African country farmers embarked on the cultivation and exports of FFV with most of these destined to Europe (with UK, Holland, Germany, and Italy being the leading importers) (Okello J.J. et al., 2010). As is the case with the Kenyan Green bean sector, the strong expansion in green bean exports is largely targeted at European consumers who demand aesthetic quality attributes such as spotlessness that generally encourage increased use of pesticides (Farina. E and Reardon T, 2000). The demand for cosmetic quality attributes (color, shape, spotlessness) has been held responsible for increasing pesticide use in the production of fresh exports from developing countries. Ohayo- Mitoko, 1997 documents cases of widespread use of pesticides in Asia and Kenya respectively. Excessive use of pesticides in Kenyan horticultural industry has also been reported (Mwanthi M. and Kimani V., 1990; Okado M., 2001 and Jaffee S., 2003). These studies suggest that many Kenyan fresh export vegetable farmers used pesticides indiscriminately, in some cases, applying pesticides meant for other crops (such as coffee) on 6

19 fresh vegetables. As a result of the abusive use of pesticides and its effect on human health and the environment, developing countries governments have revised their pesticide residue standards. This standard is aimed at introducing a new order in the use of pesticides for the production of fruits and vegetables destined for developed countries. According to standards by International Food Safety Standards (IFSS), only pesticides that are safe to farmers and farm-workers, other non-target species and the consumers should be used in production of vegetables for exports. However, the safer pesticides are often either more expensive or less efficacious (Jaffee S., 2003). The same standards points to the fact that farmers and pesticide users are required, under International Food Safety Standards (IFSS), to handle, apply and discard leftover pesticides safely in order to reduce the hazards they pose to non-target animals, themselves and plant species. These requirements are reinforced by farmer training on safe use, storage and disposal of pesticides and enforced via close monitoring for compliance. According to African analysts the expected benefits to European consumers would impose unacceptable costs on African producers, especially smallholders and hence, the welfare effects of African producers (Mungai N., 2004). The compliance with European IFSS has been a subject of intense debate Major crops A non exhaustive literature review (Tankou C., 1996; SAILD, 1998; SAILD, 2001) showed that the main categories of vegetables cultivated in Cameroon comprise of root, bulb, leafy and fruit vegetables. Root vegetables include carrot, beet root and potato. Onion and garlic are the major bulb vegetables whereas major leafy vegetables include huckleberry, amaranth, cabbage, bush okra, lettuce, parsley, celery, leeks. Other major vegetables grown in Cameroon include pepper (sweet and hot), green beans, tomatoes, garden egg, okra, and sweet melon, cucurbits, cucumber and water melon. 7

20 2.1.2 Total vegetable production Out of the list in table 2.1, 20 vegetables and fruits are of economic and regional importance as reported by Kouamé C., (2007), for the humid zone of West and Central Africa: These are illustrated in table 2.4. According to the same source, literature of their total production and cultivated surface area was available only for five, namely, egusi, okra, onion, hot pepper and tomato. 8

21 Table 2.1: Some main cultivated Fruits and Vegetables in Cameroon Count Scientific Name English French 1 Allium cepa onion oignon 2 Allium porrum leeks poireaux 3 Allium sativum garlic ail 4 Amaranthus hybridus amaranthus amaranthe 5 Apium graveolens celery celeri 6 Brassica oleracea cabbage choux 7 Capsicum annuum sweet pepper poivron 8 Capsicum frutescens hot pepper piment 9 Citrullus vulgaris water melon pastèque 10 Corchorus olitorius bush okra corette portagère 11 Cucumis mani egusi, gourd pistache 12 Cucumis sativus cucumber concombre 13 Cucumis melo sweet melon melon 14 Curcurbita moschata pumpkin citrouille 15 Daucus carota carrot carotte 16 Hibiscus esculentus okra gombo 17 Lactuca sativa lettuce Laitue 18 Lycopersicon esculenttum tomato tomate 19 Petroselinum sativum parsley Persil 20 Phaseolus vulgaris green bean haricot vert 21 Solanum melongena garden egg aubergine 22 Solanum nigrum huckleberry morelle 23 Solanum tuberosum irish potato pomme de terre 24 Musa spp banana banane 25 Carica papaya L pawpaw papaye 26 Ananas comosus L. pineapple ananas 27 Persea americana Miller Avocado Avocat 28 Citrus sinensis orange orange 29 Mangifera indica mango mangue Source: (Kouamé C., 2007; Fontem D., 1991) 9

22 Table 2.2: Cultivated Surface Area (Ha) and production (tonnes) of some major Vegetable crops Vegetable Egusi/Concombre Okra/ Onion/ Hot pepper/ Tomatoes Year Gombo Oignon Piment SA (ha) PROD(t) SA (ha) PROD(t) SA (ha) PROD(t) SA (ha) PROD(t) SA (ha) PROD(t) Source: (IRAD, 2007) The review showed that at each year from 2001 to 2005, tomatoes recorded the highest production, followed by egusi then onion, okra and lastly by pepper. However, the tendency was different for the cultivated area, with egusi occupying the widest area for each subsequent year from 2001, followed by okra, then tomatoes, onions and lastly by pepper. 2.2 Major vegetable diseases and pests A study conducted on some of the major fruits and vegetales (Fontem D., 1991; Tankou C., 1996; SAILD, 1998; SAILD, 2001; Nounamo et al., 2005; Djiéto-Lordon and Aléné C., 2006,) reveals the following diseases and pests shown in table 3. 10

23 Table 2.3: A review of some major vegetable pests and diseases No. Vegetable Major diseases Major pest 1 Tomato Bacteria wilt, early blight, late blight, damping off, mosaic virus Leaf miners, mites, corn earthworm, rootknot nematode 2 Onion Pink root, downy mildew, neck root, soft rot, yellow dwarf, smut Red spider, onion thrips, pea leaf miner larvae, cutworms, nematodes, wireworms, onion maggots 3 Cabbage Stemphylium, diverse rots, damping-off Cutworms, aphids, cabbage moth (Mamestra 4 Sweet pepper Mildew, cercospora leaf spot, phytopthora blight, fusarium wilt, anthracnose, ripe rot, tobacco mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, gal formations (Barathra) brassicae), slugs, caterpillars Flee beetles, cutworms, aphids, vegetable weevil, caterpillars, grasshoppers, pepper maggots, leaf miners 5 Hot pepper Anthracnose, die-back, mosaic virus Ants, cératite (Mediterranean fly) 6 Bush okra Wilt Sweet potato butterfly, root-knot nematode, cotton leafworm 7 Egusi, gourd Oidium (Erysiphe cichoracearum), sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp), cercospora, virus, mildew Nematode, mites, aphids, thrips 8 Okra Leaf spot, powdery mildew, dry rot Melon aphids, cotton stainer, corn earworm, root-knot nematode, flea beetle, jassides 9 Green Wet rot of leaves, damping of seedlings Leaf miner, cutworms, nematodes 10 Garden egg Bacterial wilt Flea beetles 11 Huckleberry Late blight, yellow vein clearing, viral Cutworms, ants disease 12 leeks Leaf miners, mites, corn earthworm,, rootknot nematode 13 banana Antracnose, Crown rot, Sigatoka disease Colletotrichum musae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Botryodiplodia theobromae), Ceratocystis paradoxa, Colletotrichum musae, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Verticillium theobromae, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella fijiensis 14 pawpaw Antracnose, Phytophthora rot, Stem end rots Glomerella cingulata, Phytophthora palmivora, Mycosphaerella caricae 15 avocados Anthracnose/black spot, Stem end rots, Glomerella cingulata,lasiodiplodia (Botriodiplodia) theobromae, Phomopsis perseae, Dothiorella 16 pineapple black rot (soft rot/stem-end rot/water rot), Fruitlet core rot (brown rot/black rot/eye rot/black spot) Source: Kouame C, 2007 Ceratocystis paradoxa, Gibberella fujikuroi, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium funiculosum, Pseudomonas ananas. 11

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