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1 100 INDICATORS FOR THE WORLD'S LEADING ECONOMIES Includ acc to all tabl and graphs in Excel TM OECD Factbook 2006 Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics Population and migration Macroeconomic trends Prices Energy Labour market Science and technology Environment and natural resources Education Public finance Quality of life Focus on: Economic globalisation

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 4 Reader s guide 8 Population and migration TOTAL POPULATION 12 Evolution of the population 12 Regional population 16 ELDERLY POPULATION 18 Ageing societies 18 Elderly population by region 20 INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION 22 Immigrant population 22 Trends in migration 24 Migration of the highly educated 26 Macroeconomic trends GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) 30 Size of GDP 30 National income per capita 34 Regional GDP 36 ECONOMIC GROWTH 38 Evolution of GDP 38 Household saving 40 Investment rates 42 Inflation 46 Steel production 48 PRODUCTIVITY 50 Labour productivity 50 Multi-factor productivity 52 ECONOMIC STRUCTURE 54 Value added by activity 54 Evolution of value added by activity 58 Small and medium-sized enterprises 62 Prices PRICES AND INTEREST RATES 66 Consumer price indices (CPI) 66 Producer price Indices (PPI) 70 Long-term interest rates 72 PURCHASING POWER 74 Rates of conversion 74 Effective exchange rates 78 Energy ENERGY SUPPLY 84 Energy supply 84 Energy supply and economic growth 86 Energy supply per capita 88 Electricity generation 90 Renewable energy 92 ENERGY PRODUCTION AND PRICES 94 Energy production 94 Oil production 96 Oil prices 98 Labour market EMPLOYMENT 102 Employment rates by gender 102 Employment rates by age group 106 Part-time employment 110 Self-employment 112 Hours worked 116 UNEMPLOYMENT 118 Standardised unemployment rates 118 Long-term unemployment 122 Regional unemployment 124 Science and technology RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) 128 Expenditure on R&D 128 Investment in knowledge 130 Researchers 132 Patents 134 ICT 136 Size of the ICT sector 136 Investment in ICT 138 Computer and internet access by households 140 COMMUNICATIONS 142 Exports of information and communications equipment 142 Telephone access 144 Environment AIR, WATER AND LAND 148 Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 148 Water consumption 150 Municipal waste 152 Nutrient use in agriculture 154 NATURAL RESOURCES 156 Fisheries 156 Forests 158 Education OUTCOMES 162 International student assessment 162 Tertiary attainment 166 EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION 170 Expenditure on tertiary education 170 Public and private education expenditure INDICATORS FOR THE WORLD'S LEADING ECONOMIES

3 Public policies GOVERNMENT DEFICITS AND DEBT 176 Government deficits 176 Government debt 178 PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND AID 180 Social expenditure 180 Law, order and defence expenditure 182 Agricultural support estimates 184 Government support for fishing 186 Official development assistance 188 TAXES 192 Total tax revenue 192 Taxes on the average production worker 196 Quality of life HEALTH 200 Life expectancy 200 Infant mortality 204 Obesity 206 Public and private health expenditure 208 LEISURE 210 Tourism: hotel nights 210 Recreation and culture 212 SOCIETY 216 Youth inactivity 216 Income inequality 218 CRIME 220 Prison population 220 Victimisation rates 222 TRANSPORT 224 Road network 224 Road motor vehicles and road fatalities 226 Focus on: Economic globalisation TRADE 232 Share of trade in GDP 232 Import penetration 234 Trade in goods 236 Trade in services 240 High, medium and low technology exports 244 Trading partners 248 Balance of payments 252 INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT 254 FDI flows and stocks 254 Activities of multinationals 258 TSUNAMI AID 262 Analytical Index 263 PRAISE FOR THE BEST-SELLING 2005 EDITION: Essential Choice magazine Ideal for economics students L Expansion The data are accompanied by explanatory analysis and easy-tounderstand graphs which allow clear international comparisons. Publi News an attractive, user-friendly volume... Putting these diverse OECD datasets under one roof is extremely helpful to users of international data who previously had to hunt for them in various places or might not have known they existed... The OECD Factbook fills a unique niche [and is] a major contribution to international comparisons of statistics. Monthly Labor Review NEW FEATURES FOR THE 2006 EDITION INCLUDE: Many new indicators, including information on the brain drain, tsunami recovery aid, and cultural and leisure activities Inclusion of data on key non-oecd member countries: Brazil, China, India, Russian Federation and South Africa Special focus on Globalisation

4 Every indicator is presented INTRODUCTION to the indicator ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES NATURAL RESOURCES FISHERIES How well do national figur COMPARE? DEFINITION of at is being d cribed and measured Fisheries make an important contribution to sustainable income, employment opportunities and overall food protein intake. In certain countries, including at least two OECD countries Iceland and Japan fish is the main source of protein intake. Definition The figures refer to the tonnages of landed catches of marine fish, and cultivated fish and crustaceans taken from inland waters and sea tanks. Landed catches of marine fish for each country cover landings in both foreign and domestic ports. The table distinguishes between marine capture fisheries and aquaculture because of their different production systems and growth rates. Comparability The time series presented are relatively comprehensive and consistent across the years, but some of the variation over time may reflect changes in national reporting systems. In a few cases, the data shown are estimated by OECD. Fish landings in domestic and foreign ports As a percentage of OECD total, 2003 Korea 8% Norway 11% Other OECD 23% GLOBAL CONTEXT, history, and for asts Long-term trends The total production by OECD countries has decreased by more than 10% during the past decade. As the world fish production increased during the same period, the relative contribution of OECD countries dropped from 26% (in 1995) to 21% (in 2003). The decrease of the overall OECD production masks various tendencies. While aquaculture production increased by around 8% between 1995 and 2003, marine capture fisheries production dropped by 19%. This latter evolution mainly reflects both the worrying state of some major fish stocks, especially in the northern hemisphere, and changes in bilateral or international fishing arrangements regarding access to fish stocks in third countries waters. Worldwide, it is estimated that around 25% of the stocks are overexploited, while around 50% of the stocks are fully exploited. Marine captures fell particularly sharply in Denmark, Greece, Japan and Spain between 1995 and 2003; in these countries, the annual decline exceeded 5%. A few countries did, however, increase captures Canada, the Netherlands and Iceland all raised their tonnages by an average of 2% or more per year between 1995 and Japan and the United States remained the largest producers despite their catches declining by 5% and 1% a year, respectively. Most countries increased their aquaculture production, with annual growth of over 10% in Turkey, Greece, Canada and Ireland. Aquaculture production fell rather sharply in Mexico, Finland and Denmark but, by 2003, aquaculture accounted for over 16% of total tonnages of fish production up from 13% in Source OECD (2005), Review of Fisheries in OECD Countries Vol. 2 Country Statistics , OECD, Paris. Futher information Analytical publications OECD (2003), Liberalising Fisheries Markets: Scope and Effects, OECD, Paris. OECD (2003), The Costs of Managing Fisheries, OECD, Paris. OECD (2004), Fish Piracy: Combating Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, OECD, Paris. OECD (2005), Why Fish Piracy Persists: The Economics of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, OECD, Paris. Statistical publications OECD (2005), Review of Fisheries in OECD Countries: Volume 1: Policies and Summary Statistics, 2005 Edition, OECD, Paris. Web sites OECD Fisheries, 156 OECD FACTBOOK 2006 ISBN OECD 2006 EU15 19% Where to find the full databas Japan 20% United States 19% StatLink: FURTHER ANALYSIS on the subje

5 as a double page spread: ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES NATURAL RESOURCES 100 INDICATORS FOR THE WORLD'S LEADING ECONOMIES FISHERIES Marine capture and aquaculture production Thousand tonnes Fish landings in domestic and foreign ports Aquaculture Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy FULL TABLE with the most r ent data Japan Korea Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States EU OECD total StatLink: 4 Fish landings in domestic and foreign ports Average annual growth in percentage, Denmark Greece EU15 Japan Spain Poland Ireland United Kingdom Graph shows KEY MESSAGE Finland Sweden Portugal Korea Turkey OECD total Belgium New Zealand United States Norway Australia OECD FACTBOOK 2006 ISBN OECD Germany Italy Mexico France Iceland Netherlands Canada StatLink: Use our STATLINKS to download the Excel TM tabl!

6 A Activities of multinationals, 258 Ageing societies, 18 Agricultural support estimates, 184 Agriculture, see: Value added by activity (54), Evolution of value added by activity (58), Water consumption (150), Nutrient use in agriculture (154), Fisheries (156), Agricultural support estimates (184), Government support for fishing (186) Agriculture, producer support, see: Agricultural support estimates (184) Aid, see: Official development assistance (188), Tsunami aid (262) Annual hours worked, see: Hours worked (116) Aquaculture, see: Fisheries (156), Government support for fishing (186) Assistance, development, see: Official development assistance (188), Tsunami aid (262) B Balance of payments, 252 Brain drain, see: Migration of the highly educated (26) Broadband access, see: Computer and internet access by households (140) C Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), emission, see: Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (148) Child mortality, see: Infant mortality (204) Communications, see: Exports of information and communications equipment (142), Telephone access (144) Competiveness, see: Effective exchange rates (78) Computer and internet access by households, 140 Consumer price indices (CPI), 66 Crime, victims, see: Victimisation rates (222) Culture, government expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) Culture, household expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) Culture, total expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) D Debt, government, see: Government debt (178) Deficit, government, see: Government deficits (176) Dependency ratio, see: Ageing societies (18), Elderly population by region (20) Development assistance, see: Official development assistance (188), Tsunami aid (262) Dwelling investment, see: Investment rates (42) E Analytical index Education, see: Migration of the highly educated (26), International student assessment (162), Tertiary attainment (166), Expenditure on tertiary education (170), Public and private education expenditure (172) Education, tertiary, see: Migration of the highly educated (26), Tertiary attainment (166) Effective exchange rates, 78 Elderly population by region, 20 Electricity generation, 90 Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), 148 Employment rates, see: Employment rates by gender (102), Employment rates by age group (106) Employment rates by age group, 106 Employment rates by gender, 102 Energy, see: Energy supply (84), Energy supply and economic growth (86), Energy supply per capita (88), Electricity generation (90), Renewable energy (92), Energy production (94), Oil production (96) Energy production, 94 Energy supply, 84 Energy supply and economic growth, 86 Energy supply per capita, 88 Evolution of GDP, 38 Evolution of the population, 12 Evolution of value added by activity, 58 Exchange rates, see: Rates of conversion (74), Effective exchange rates (78) Expenditure on R&D, 128 Expenditure on tertiary education, 170 Exports, see: Exports of information and communications equipment (142), Share of trade in GDP (232), Trade in goods (236), Trade in services (240), High, medium and low technology exports (244), Trading partners (248), Balance of payments (252) Exports of information and communications equipment, 142 Exports of services, see: Trade in services (240) F FDI flows and stocks, 254 Fertility, see: Evolution of the population (12) Fisheries, 156 Fishing, government transfers, see: Government support for fishing (186) Foreigners, foreign born, see: Immigrant population (22), Trends in migration (24), Migration of the highly educated (26) Forests, 158 G GDP, see: Size of GDP (30), Regional GDP (36), Evolution of GDP (38) GDP deflator, see: Inflation (46) GDP per capita, see: Size of GDP (30) GNI, see: National income per capita (34) Government debt, 178 Government deficits, 176 Government support for fishing, 186 Greenhouse gases, emission, see: Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (148) H Health expenditure, see: Public and private health expenditure (208)

7 High, medium and low technology exports, 244 Highly educated, migration of, see: Migration of the highly educated (26) Hours worked, 116 Household saving, 40 I ICT Sector, see: Size of the ICT sector (136), Investment in ICT (138), Computer and internet access by households (140), Exports of information and communications equipment (142), High, medium and low technology exports (244) Immigrant population, 22 Immigration, see: Immigrant population (22), Trends in migration (24), Migration of the highly educated (26) Import penetration, 234 Imports, see: Share of trade in GDP (232), Import penetration (234), Trade in goods (236), Trade in services (240), Trading partners (248), Balance of payments (252) Imports of services, see: Trade in services (240) Income inequality, 218 Industry, see: Steel production (48), Value added by activity (54), Evolution of value added by activity (58) Infant mortality, 204 Inflation, 46. See also: Consumer price indices (CPI) (66), Producer price indices (PPI) (70) Information and Communications Technology, see: Size of the ICT sector (136), Investment in ICT (138), Computer and internet access by households (140), Exports of information and communications equipment (142), High, medium and low technology exports (244) Interest rates, see: Long-term interest rates (72) International student assessment, 162 Internet access, see: Computer and internet access by households (140) Investment, see: Long-term interest rates (72), FDI flows and stocks (254), Activities of multinationals (258) Investment in ICT, 138 Investment in knowledge, 130 Investment rates, 42 Investment, foreign, see: Investment in ICT (138), FDI flows and stocks (254), Activities of multinationals (258) K Knowledge, see: Investment in knowledge (130) L Labour costs, see: Labour productivity (50), Effective exchange rates (78) Labour productivity, 50 Law, order and defence expenditure, 182 Life expectancy, 200 Literacy, see: International student assessment (162) Long-term interest rates, 72 Long-term unemployment, 122 M Machinery investment, see: Investment rates (42) Migration of the highly educated, 26 Mortality, see: Life expectancy (200), Infant mortality (204) Multi-factor productivity, 52 Municipal waste, 152 N National income per capita, 34 NNI, see: National income per capita (34) NNI per capita, see: National income per capita (34) Nutrient use in agriculture, 154 O Obesity, 206 Official development assistance, 188 Oil price, 98 Oil production, 96 P Part-time employment, 110 Patents, 134 PISA, see: International student assessment (162) Population, see: Evolution of the population (12), Regional population (16), Ageing societies (18), Elderly population by region (20), Immigrant population (22), Trends in migration (24), Migration of the highly educated (26) PPP, see: Rates of conversion (74) Price indices, see: Consumer price indices (CPI) (66), Producer price indices (PPI) (70) Prices, see: Inflation (46), Consumer price indices (CPI) (66), Producer price indices (PPI) (70), Long-term interest rates (72), Rates of conversion (74), Effective exchange rates (78) Prison population, 220 Producer price indices (PPI), 70 Productivity, see: Labour productivity (50), Multi-factor productivity (52) Public and private education expenditure, 172 Public and private health expenditure, 208 R 100 INDICATORS FOR THE WORLD'S LEADING ECONOMIES R&D, see: Expenditure on R&D (128), Investment in knowledge (130), Researchers (132), Patents (134) Rates of conversion, 74 Recreation and culture, 212 Recreation, government expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) Recreation, household expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) Recreation, total expenditure, see: Recreation and culture (212) Regional GDP, 36 Regional population, 16 Regional unemployment, 124 Renewable energy, 92 Renewables, see: Renewable energy (92) Research and development, see: Expenditure on R&D (128), Investment in knowledge (130), Researchers (132), Patents (134) Researchers, 132 Road motor vehicles and road fatalities, 226 Road network, 224

8 S Savings, see: Household saving (40) Science scores, see: International student assessment (162) Self-employment, 112 Services, see: Value added by activity (54), Evolution of value added by activity (58), Trade in services (240) Services, exports of, see: Trade in services (240) Services, imports of, see: Trade in services (240) Services, trade, see: Trade in services (240) Services, trade balance, see: Trade in services (240) Share of trade in GDP, 232 Size of GDP, 30 Size of the ICT sector, 136 Small and medium-sized enterprises, 62 SME, see: Small and medium-sized enterprises (62) Social expenditure, 180 Standardised unemployment rates, 118 Steel production, 48 T Taxes on the average production worker, 196 Telephone access, 144 Tertiary attainment, 166 Total tax revenue, 192 Tourism: hotel nights, 210 Tourists, see: Tourism: hotel nights (210) Trade, see: Share of trade in GDP (232), Import penetration (234), Trade in goods (236), Trade in services (240), High, medium and low technology exports (244), Trading partners (248), Balance of payments (252) Trade in goods, 236 Trade in services, 240 Trading partners, 248 Trends in migration, 24 Tsunami aid, 262 U Unemployment, see: Standardised unemployment rates (118), Long-term unemployment (122), Regional unemployment (124) Unit labour costs, see: Labour productivity (50), Effective exchange rates (78) V Value added, see: Value added by activity (54), Evolution of value added by activity (58) Value added by activity, 54 Victimisation rates, 222 W Waste, see: Municipal waste (152) Water consumption, 150 Wooded land, see: Forests (158) OECD FACTBOOK has b ome a key reference tool for everyone working on onomic and policy i u OECD Factbook 2006 is the second edition of a comprehensive and dynamic new statistical annual from the OECD. It is comprehensive because it provides more than 100 indicators covering the full range of policy areas addressed by the OECD. And it is dynamic because Statlinks provided for each statistical table direct the user to a web page where the corresponding data and graphics are available in Excel TM format. Coverage is provided in such areas as the economy, agriculture, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health and quality of life, industry, information and communications, population/labour force, trade and investment, taxation, public expenditure and debt, and R&D. Data are provided for all OECD Member countries, and in some cases, for selected non- Member countries as well. Time series provided are variable according to the nature of the indicator, but in most cases provide coverage from 1990 onwards and in many cases have data for selected years going back as far as For each indicator, there is a two-page spread. The page on the left is textual and includes a short introductory text followed by a detailed definition of the indicator, comments on comparability of the data, an assessment of long-term trends related to the indicator, and a listing of documentation available that provides further information on the indicator. The page on the right contains the data table with a StatLink along with a graphic which provides at a glance the key message provided by the data. For some indicators, there are supplementary tables. Y Young drop-outs, see: Youth inactivity (216) Youth inactivity, 216

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