AIRBORNE BROADBAND COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALS

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1 AIRBORNE BROADBAND COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALS K.-D. Büchter Future Technologies and Ecology of Aviation Photonics, Sensorics, and Information Technologies

2 Introduction Aeronautical Radio Telecommunication is Facing Major Challenges: Air Traffic Growth : Air Traffic Management Communications Bottlenecks expected ~ 2020s SESAR*, NextGen Air Traffic System Modernization Programs Aeronautical Passenger Communication : SatCom, Terrestrial Services with Limited Bandwidth NewSky, SANDRA Projects Evolutionary Airborne Communication Programs BHL DLRK 2012: Drivers and Elements of Future Airborne Communication Networks Focus on time horizon ~ 2035 * Single European Sky ATM Research Program Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 2

3 Drivers Aeronautical Services Spectrum of Aeronautical Communication Services: Main Driver for Per-aircraft Communication Capacity: Aeronautical Passenger Communication Low Quality of Service (QoS) Moderate Bandwidth Applications like ATS, UAS TC/TD, AHM: High Quality of Service (QoS) Low Latency 1 Gbps 100 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps 100 kbps 10 kbps 1 kbps Aeronautical Networking Aeronautical Passenger Comm. UAS Mission Data Air Traffic Services Air Health Management Weather Data UAS TC / TD Scientific Mission Data Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 3

4 Drivers Aeronautical Services Spectrum of Aeronautical Communication Services: Main Driver for Per-aircraft Communication Capacity: Aeronautical Passenger Communication Low Quality of Service (QoS) Moderate Bandwidth Applications like ATS, UAS TC/TD, AHM: High Quality of Service (QoS) Low Latency 1 Gbps 100 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps 100 kbps 10 kbps 1 kbps Aeronautical Networking Aeronautical Passenger Comm. UAS Mission Data Air Traffic Services Air Health Management Weather Data UAS TC / TD Scientific Mission Data Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 4

5 Internet Traffic Trends Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 5

6 Internet Traffic Trends Current internet trends: Media Rich Services: Still Images Proliferation of online video (SD/HD) Cloud Storage / Computing Typical Web Services: News sources Social networking Video portals Feasible scenario: Bitrates on the order of 1-10 Mbps per passenger (streaming video) Content Types HTML-like Data e.g. websites with images, low-quality video, audio SD-Video HD-Video VoIP-Audio MP3-Music Desired Bitrate 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 kbps 128 kbps Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 6

7 Internet Traffic Trends Current internet trends: Media Rich Services: Still Images Proliferation of online video (SD/HD) Cloud Storage / Computing Typical Web Services: News sources Social networking Video portals Feasible scenario: Bitrates on the order of 1-10 Mbps per passenger (streaming video) Content Types HTML-like Data e.g. websites with images, low-quality video, audio SD-Video HD-Video VoIP-Audio MP3-Music Desired Bitrate 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 kbps 128 kbps Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 7

8 Internet Traffic Modeling: Single User Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 10 Dynamic Behavior of AirCom Internet Users on Long- Haul North Atlantic Flights, Unger et al., IEEE 2004 Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 8594 sec. Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 2060 sec. Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 206 sec. Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 250 Coupled to year via webpage size Mean acc. to Unger et al.: 480 Bytes Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 8

9 Internet Traffic Modeling: Many Users Parameters: 333 users, page size according to 2012, 10 8 sec. simulation time Mean: 2.33 Mbps Std. deviation: 780 kbps Percentiles: 50 %: 2270 kbps 90 %: 3371 kbps 99 %: 4436 kbps Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 9

10 Internet Traffic Modeling: Streaming Services Results for 2012, A380 (555 PAX, 60% internet users: 333) Ca. 4.4 Mbps desirable for & internet what about streaming services? Video: H.264 standard 128 kbps 10 Mbps (per user, standard quality) Audio: mp3 standard 32 kbps 320 kbps (uncompressed: kbps) Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 10

11 Internet Traffic Modeling: Streaming Services Users classified by web use: Web surfing Video-streaming Audio-streaming In the following (333 active users): 60 % surf the web 20 % stream video Average bitrate: 1 Mbps assumed 20 % stream audio Average bitrate: 128 kbps assumed Average media duration: 30 minutes Session intermissions according to web surfer (acc. Unger et al., 2004) Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 11

12 Internet Traffic Modeling: Streaming Services Difference between video / audio and web surfing : Prolonged streams approx. constant bitrates <Video> = 384 kbps ( kbps) <Audio> = 128 kbps ( kbps) <Data> = 7.4 kbps Ca. 3 h Constant stream generation as simple model Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 12

13 Internet Traffic Modeling: Streaming Services Simulation Time: 287 s (before: 267 s) Humps : Probably due to bounded bitrates (video / audio) Mean: 11.1 Mbps Std. dev.: 6.2 Mbps Percentiles: 50 %: 9.2 Mbps 90 %: 19.5 Mbps 99 %: 30.3 Mbps Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 13

14 Internet Traffic Modeling: Streaming Services Simulation Time: 287 s (before: 267 s) First Estimation: BUT: - Validity of Statistical assumptions - E.g. large inactive periods for all users Humps : Probably due to bounded bitrates (video / audio) Mean: 11.1 Mbps Std. dev.: 6.2 Mbps Percentiles: 50 %: 9.2 Mbps 90 %: 19.5 Mbps 99 %: 30.3 Mbps Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DLRK 2012 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 14

15 Broadband Aeronautical Communication Communications Bandwidth Requirements: Today Aeronautical radio: 40 MHz overall communications bandwidth (HF / VHF) for all participants Plus: SatCom, AirCell: ~ few Mbps Future ~100s Mbps capacity per aircraft not unrealistic: would be exploited if available! Can This Be Met and How? Foreseeable Solution: Airborne Networking Multiplication of capacity requirement by throughput traffic Gbps! Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 15

16 Broadband Aeronautical Communication Terrestrial Telecommunication: Heterogeneous, layered system: Backbone networks Backhaul networks Optical fiber networks: Today: ~ 100 Gbps R&D: ~ 10 Tbps WAN (Wide Area Network) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) LAN (Local Area Network) Mobile Networks Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 16

17 Broadband Aeronautical Communication Terrestrial Telecommunication: Heterogeneous, layered system: Backbone networks Backhaul networks Optical fiber networks: Today: ~ 100 Gbps R&D: ~ 10 Tbps WAN (Wide Area Network) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) LAN (Local Area Network) Mobile Networks Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 17

18 Broadband Aeronautical Communication DLRK 2012: Three basic elements Photonic high capacity links E.g. serial hub topology ~ 500 km span distance feasible Hybrid photonic / RF diversity networking Network initialization (ADS-B ) High-QoS backup solution Flexibilty HAPS-based ACN-to-Internet connectivity Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 18

19 Summary Major Challenge: Aeronautical Passenger Communication Bandwidth Capacity >> 10 Mbps per aircraft reasonable in the near future High-Capacity Links Required for Future Airborne Networks Main Aspect: Aircraft become part of communication infrastructure new business model? Novel applications and opportunities: E.g. resource sharing ( cloud computing ) BHL Enabling Concept with Three Major Elements ( DLRK 2012) Photonic High-Capacity Links Hybrid Photonic/RF Communication Networks HAPS-based Connectivity to Terrestrial Internet Alle Rechte bei / All rights with Bauhaus Luftfahrt DGLR 2013 / Bauhaus Luftfahrt, Seite 19

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