PON Technology A Shift in Building Network Infrastructure. Bob Matthews Technical Manager CommScope Canada

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1 PON Technology A Shift in Building Network Infrastructure Bob Matthews Technical Manager CommScope Canada

2 The Evolution to PON In 1980s -1990s, we had: Dial up modems The best data rate we could get from home. 56Kbps Cable TV Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) Service Providers deployed thousands of miles of Optical cable into their Backbone network. 15 years later, Convergence brought us a single connection to the outside world, that supported all of those old services in New ways, at significantly higher data rates

3 Definition: So, what is PON (or POL)? A passive optical network (PON) is a telecommunications network that uses point to multipoint fiber to the premises in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises. A PON consists of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central office and a number of Optical Network Units (ONUs) near the end users. A PON reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point to point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network. credit Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

4 Outdoor Fiber To The x

5 Passive Optical LANs (POL) FTTH ONT Vertical PON ONT Data & Video Single Family Residence FTTmdu ONT Vertical PON ONT Gateway Ethernet FTTB ONT Multi-Tenant OLT Service Provider Network(s) OLT Vertical PON ONT E1/T1 Ethernet PBX Businesses Router / Switch

6 Year Development PON History 1995 FSAN (Full Service Access Network) working group begins working on FTTH ITU does additional work and releases the G.983 Standard based on ATM PON (APON). Downstream speed 622MBps (OC-12); Upstream 155Mbps (OC-3) typical ~1998 BPON (or Broadband PON) Standard released later BPON was the most widely deployed form PON, it integrated WDM to support RF Analog signals BPON supported the transport of POTS, ISDN, Data, Cable TV, Video on Demand LAN Interconnection, Video Conferencing BPON was the defacto standard 2003 ITU ratifies and releases the G.984 standard for Gigabit PON (GPON) GPON supports 2.448Gbs (OC-48) downstream, 1.244Gbs upstream GPON uses either ATM or GEM (GPON Encapsulation Method) transport

7 Year Development PON History cont d 2004 IEEE release the Ethernet in the First Mile standard 802.3ah EPON uses standard Ethernet frames Downstream = Upstream = 1.25Gbs EPON is designed for Data centric networks, and supports Voice, data and video services av (10GE-PON) is ratified as an amendment. 10G-EPON supports 10/1Gbs simultaneously downstream By 2005, Verizon and SBC had rolled out over 800,000 subscribers to their Fiber to the Home networks.

8 Fiber Advantages over Copper Infrastructure for the POL Passive Optical LANs (POL) are ideal solutions for new Infrastructure builds and Upgrades, offering: CAPEX and OPEX Savings Reduced Equipment costs (fewer Aggregation switches), Reduced Cooling needs (reduced HVAC handlers) Future Proof upgrade path to higher Bandwidths Guaranteed Bandwidth: using a Centralized switch is more efficient compared to a traditional layered active switch model. Fiber Cable has shown to be more advantageous compared to Copper solutions in a number of ways: Distance: whether Multimode or Single mode fiber, transmission distance is significantly longer than all Category rated cable solutions Bandwidth: Unlimited (maybe), but at a minimum significantly higher than Category 6A, or even emerging Category 8 Reliability: not susceptible to corrosion Reduced Power Needs: Optical interfaces use less power, compared to Copper NICs

9 The Technology of a POL or PON Central Office Outside Plant ONU ONT User 1 OLT Optical Line Terminal Single Mode Fiber Passive Optical Splitter ONU ONT ONU ONT Category Cable User 2 User 3 Optical Network Unit Network Device

10 The Technology of a POL or PON Head End InBuilding or OSP ONU ONT User 1 OLT Optical Line Terminal Single Mode Fiber Passive Optical Splitter ONU ONT ONU ONT Category Cable User 2 User 3 Optical Network Unit Network Device

11 Down-Stream Point to Multi-Point Downstream Broadcast All Data goes to all ONUs, the ONU address controls the downstream data. ONU User 1 OLT ONU Category Cable User 2 ONU User 3 Optical Line Terminal Passive Optical Splitter Optical Network Unit Network Device

12 Up-Stream Time Division Multiplex Access Upstream TDMA Operation ONUs send information to the OLT in a specific time window/slot ONU User 1 OLT ONU Category Cable User 2 ONU User 3 Optical Line Terminal Passive Optical Splitter Optical Network Unit Network Device

13 WHY POL? Application Usage Web HTTP File Transfer Online Conference Instant Messaging other Data courtesy of IBM

14 Traffic Types Consider This! Application VoIP Phone Cloud Access Web Browsing Virtual Desktop (VDI) Video Conferencing Online Video Video Surveillance Actual Bandwidth ~ 100Kbps 50 ~200 Kbps 50 ~300 Kbps 50 ~ 500 Kbps 500 Kbps ~ 2 Mbps ~ 2 Mbps ~ 2 Mbps ~ 6 Mbps Data courtesy of IBM

15 Percentage of User Population 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Bandwidth Usage Bandwidth Usage 46.3% 40.3% 13.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0-1 Mbps 1 Mbps - 10 Mbps 10 Mbps - 50 Mbps 50 Mbps - 80 Mbps 80 Mbps Mbps Data courtesy of IBM

16 Observations ~ 74% of traffic was and Web Surfing ~ 95% of the Users used less than 80 Mbps in total Bandwidth (86% used less than 50Mbps) That most applications do not require the Bandwidth we think Most traffic was passed through the Core Router, very little peer to peer traffic Enterprise traffic is Hub and Spoke based, generally applications reside in a Central Data Center HTTP traffic increases as Cloud services increase The Usage patterns which give rise to decentralized computing and LANs are shifting back to a centralized model with a different network architecture

17 Traditional LAN Architecture Distance Limited Core Switch Layer Distribution Layer Aggregation Layer Access Layer End User Based on Layered Active Switches Access Layer passes traffic up to Distribution layer, then up to the Core Switch and routed to End Destination If Source and Destination share a similar layer the traffic is switched at that layer and not passed further up Physical Limitations exist with this architecture: End Users cannot be more than 100 M (including Patch cords) from the serving Access Layer switch for Copper cabling Similar limitation exists between Layered Switches if Copper Cabling is used If Multimode Fiber is used, distance is limited by Fiber type and Bandwidth Telecom Closets must be within these guidelines to ensure Standards are met Copper cabling must be kept a minimum distance away from power cables Operational and Management challenges include: All VLANs, Priorities, QoS, CoS etc, must be provisioned in ALL switches and maintained at all levels.

18 Passive Optical LAN Architecture OLT ONT S S Core Switch Layer Distribution Layer Aggregation Layer X Access Layer End User Passive Optical LANs overcome the limitations found in Copper based implementations 1. Significant reduction in Active equipment, resulting in a flatter network topology 2. OLT can function as Core Switch and /or Distribution Layer Switch 3. Distance limits are eliminated, POLs support distance up to 20Kms 4. Elimination of Aggregation Switches reduces /eliminates power and cooling at these locations 5. Potential Elimination of Telecom Closet space, providing more work space 6. Passive Splitters require no HVAC systems 7. Single OA&M system to provision VLANs, CoS, etc 8. Auto-Provisioning of ONTs based on profiles 9. Passive Splitters provide wide range of split ratios (1:4, 1:8,1:32, 1:64, etc)

19 Why EPON? GPON vs. EPON Layering Various services T1/E1 TDM POTS Data Video Layer 5 T1/E1 TDM POTS Data Video TCP-UDP etc Layer 4 TCP-UDP etc IP Layer 3 IP Ethernet ATM cell GEM frame Layer 2 GTC TC Frame GTC sub-layer PON - PHY Layer 1 Ethernet Frame PON - PHY MAC Layer Networks are about Efficiency!

20 EPON & GPON Summary Both EPON and GPON recognized the need to evolve PON to being a Gigabit capable solution for transporting Ethernet IP traffic. Both utilize a common optical infrastructure, but very different in execution. EPON extended native Ethernet to support the PON P2MP architecture, while GPON wished to extend the life of GFP framed SONET/SDH GPON Telco legacy supporting legacy telecom SONET networking GPON link rates match ITU standards like OC3, OC12, etc North American Telcos SONET/GPON Equipment based on ITU/SONET typically more expensive/complicated EPON is designed to support Ethernet and IP EPON link rates match IEEE standards like 1Gbs, 10Gbs, etc North American Cable Operators adopting EPON EPON is widely deployed world-wide Ethernet and IP scale reducing costs and driving investment in EPON systems

21 Where Does PON fit? WEB Browsing File Transfer (FTP) VoIP Cloud Services Video (IPTV or CCTV) Residential ~ ~ Hospitality ~ ~ Residence/ Dorms ~ ~ Condos ~ ~ Retail Space x x Commercial (Office Space) Industrial Space Video Conf ing

22 Case Study Traditional vs. POL Design TR Hotel Design Requirements: 42 rooms /Floor (4) Cat 6 drops/room ( 168/Floor) 5 Floors Total building length 300 ft. Main Equipment Room on Main Floor (1) Telecom Room per Floor

23 Traditional Network Design for Hotel/Dorm 4 Category 6 Cables w/ Patch cords 4 Category 6 Switch Ports in Telecom Closet Bandwidth Available: 1GBps Bandwidth needed: < 100Mbps to support IPTV, VoIP, Internet Access

24 PON Design for Hotel/Dorm 1 Fiber Strand used from Splitter Copper Patch cords Bandwidth Available: 1GBps Bandwidth needed: < 100Mbps to support IPTV, VoIP, Internet Access

25 Conventional Design Wisdom Conventional Wisdom says: Per Floor: 168 Cat 6 Drops (4x42) (4) 48 port Switches (4) 48 port Patch Panels (1) Fiber Patch Panel (1) Rack Main Equipment Room (1 st Floor): 168 Cat 6 Drops (4x42) (4) 48 port Switches (4) 48 port Patch Panels (1) Core Switch/Router (1) Fiber Patch Panel (1) Rack

26 PON Design PON Design: Per Floor: 1 Single Mode Fiber/room (0) 48 port Switches (0) 48 port Patch Panels (0) Rack Fiber Wall Box with Splitters (1) ONU/room Main Equipment Room (1 st Floor): (0) 48 port Switches (0) 48 port Patch Panels (0) Core Switch/Router (1) ONU/room (1) PON OLT w/ L2/3 (1) Fiber Patch Panel (1) Rack

27 Equipment Comparison PON Traditional Cat 6 Cabling Cat 6 Patch Panels Fiber Cabling Fiber Patch Panels Cat 6 Switches Core Switch/Router Fiber Wall Boxes w/splitters PON OLT PON ONU

28 Installation Time Physical Install Cat 6 Cabling 1 Hour/Cable =(4x42x5) =840 Cat 6 Patch Panels.3 Hour/Panel =4x5 =20 Fiber Cabling 1 Hour/Cable =8 /floor Back Bone =42/floor PON Time Qty EPON Traditional Fiber Patch Panels.3 Hour/Panel =1 /floor Back Bone = 1 PON 0.3 Cat 6 Switches.3 Hour/Switch =4x5 =20 Core Switch/Router.5 Hour/Switch =1 0.5 PON OLT.5 Hour/Switch =1 0.5 PON ONU.3 Hour / ONU =42x5 =210 ONUs TOTAL Hours

29 Installation Time Physical Install Cat 6 Cabling 1 Hour/Cable =(4x42x5) =840 Cat 6 Patch Panels.3 Hour/Panel =4x5 =20 Fiber Cabling 1 Hour/Cable =8 /floor Back Bone =42/floor PON Time Qty EPON Traditional Fiber Patch Panels.3 Hour/Panel =1 /floor Back Bone = 1 PON 0.3 Cat 6 Switches.3 Hour/Switch =4x5 =20 Core Switch/Router.5 Hour/Switch =1 0.5 PON OLT.5 Hour/Switch =1 0.5 PON ONU.2 Hour / ONU =42x5 =210 ONUs TOTAL Hours

30 Installation Time Configuration Time Qty EPON Traditional Cat 6 Switches 1 Hour/Switch =20 (4x5) 20.0 Core Switch/Router 2 Hour/Switch =1 2.0 PON OLT 2 Hour/Switch =1 2.0 PON ONU.3 Hour / configuration =210 (42x5) ONUs 1 configuration TOTAL Hours Total Time Needed: Time Qty EPON Traditional Installation Time Configuration Time TOTAL Hours

31 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Summary TCO is comprised of both CAPEX and OPEX costs CAPEX costs for Horizontal, Riser and Main Equipment room include: Equipment acquisition Initial Installation costs The main capital saving of a POL network comes from the installation and equipment in the Riser closets. The elimination of the Edge switches and replacing them with passive optical splitters. OPEX costs for a traditional LAN is one of the biggest expenses for all enterprises. The on-going costs associated with Network Management, HVAC, Telecom Room space are always increasing. Network Management costs include; service provision costs (work orders, testing, VLAN assignments, etc), Switch Maintenance costs (including Patches, upgrades) Training Sparing Floor Space, Heating and Cooling are the major sources of OPEX cost saving. POL networks reduce floor space needs by >60% and reduce energy costs >70%

32 GREEN Benefits of a POL The POL network provides a number of key Green benefits to a building owner: 1. Power savings from eliminated Access and Aggregation Switches 2. Reduced equipment needs Switches, Patch Panels, Cabling and cable trays etc. 3. Reduced Floor space needs elimination of Telecom Rooms 4. Reduced Materials significantly less cabling, reduced packaging and minimal waste

33 Traditional networks vs. POL Summary Passive Optical LAN technology supports all of the requirements of today s enterprise network with a much lower cost than traditional LAN designs. It is a GREEN technology, which seamlessly enables smart buildings. Finally, it supports an easy migration to higher data rates (10G) when needed. REMEMBER: Networks are about Efficiency!

34 Thank You Bob Matthews Technical Manager CommScope Canada Booth 500

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