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1 Name Date Objectives: Instructor Version Explain how multiple networks are used in everyday life. Explain the topologies and devices used in a small to medium-sized business network. Explain the basic characteristics of a network that supports communication in a small to medium-sized business. Explain trends in networking that will affect the use of networks in small to medium-sized businesses. Required Materials: Reading Organizer Packet Tracer Activities: Packet Tracer - Representing the Network Instructions Labs: Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet Instructions Lab - Researching Network Collaboration Tools Lab - Researching Converged Network Services Lab - Mapping the Internet Lab - Researching IT and Networking Job Opportunities Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet Now Instructions Chapter Test Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

2 Page intentionally left blank. Points / 198 Name Date 2

3 Reading Organizer Instructor Version Note: the Reading Organizer has weighted scoring. Any question with the word explain or define in it is expected to have a longer answer and is worth two points each. After completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Explain how multiple networks are used in everyday life. Explain the topologies and devices used in a small to medium-sized business network. Explain the basic characteristics of a network that supports communication in a small to medium-sized business. Explain trends in networking that will affect the use of networks in small to medium-sized businesses. 1.1 Globally Connected 1. What is the IoE or Internet of Everything? The IoE is bringing together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable. It is turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity for individuals, businesses, and countries. 2. What is the human network? The human network centers on the impact of the Internet and networks on people and businesses. 3. List some of the forms of communications that can be accessed by a global audience. a. Instant Messaging (IM) / Texting b. Social Media c. Collaboration Tools d. Weblogs (blogs e. Wikis f. Podcasting g. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File Sharing 4. What is the purpose of a SOHO or Small Office/Home Office? Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

4 The Small Office/Home Office or SOHO network enables computers within a home office or a remote office to connect to a corporate network or access to centralized, shared resources. 5. What does the term Internet mean? The term Internet means a network of networks. The Internet is literally a collection of interconnected private and public networks 6. What is the simplest peer-to-peer network? Two directly connected computers 7. What are the advantages of peer-to-peer networking? a. Easy to set up b. Less complexity c. Lower cost since network devices and dedicated servers may not be required d. Can be used for simple tasks such as transferring files and sharing printers 8. What are the disadvantages of peer-to-peer networking? a. No centralized administration b. Not as secure c. Not scalable d. All devices may act as both clients and servers which can slow their performance 1.2 LANs, WANs, and the Internet 9. List the three network infrastructure categories of network components? a. Devices b. Media c. Services 10. List examples of intermediary network devices. a. Switches b. Wireless access points c. Routers d. Security (firewalls) 11. Processes running on the intermediary network devices perform what functions? 4 a. Regenerate and retransmit data signals b. Maintain information about what pathways exist through the network and internetwork c. Notify other devices of errors and communication failures

5 d. Direct data along alternate pathways when there is a link failure e. Classify and direct messages according to Quality of Service (QoS) priorities f. Permit or deny the flow of data, based on security settings 12. What is network media? The medium provides the channel over which the message travels from source to destination. 13. What are the three most common types of media? a. Metallic wires within cables b. Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable) c. Wireless transmission 14. Different types of network media have different features and benefits. Not all network media has the same characteristics and is appropriate for the same purpose. What are the criteria for choosing network media? a. The distance the media can successfully carry a signal b. The environment in which the media is to be installed c. The amount of data and the speed at which it must be transmitted d. The cost of the media and installation 15. List and explain the two types of topology diagrams. a. Physical topology diagrams Identify the physical location of intermediary devices, configured ports, and cable installation. b. Logical topology diagrams Identify devices, ports, and IP addressing scheme. 16. Explain the function of each of the device categories listed below. End Devices Provides an interface between the human network and the communication network. Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

6 Intermediary Devices Provides a connection for a host to the network and can connect multiple networks to form an internetwork. Network Media Provides a channel for messages to travel from source to destination. 17. List the device name and check whether the component icon is an End Device, Intermediary Device, or Network Media. 18. Explain the two most common types of network infrastructures. a. Local Area Network (LAN) 6

7 A network infrastructure that provides access to users and end devices in a small geographical area. b. Wide Area Network (WAN) A network infrastructure that provides access to other networks over a wide geographical area. 19. Explain the other types of networks available. a. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network infrastructure that spans a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN (e.g., a city). MANs are typically operated by a single entity such as a large organization. b. Wireless LAN (WLAN) Similar to a LAN but wirelessly interconnects users and end points in a small geographical area. c. Storage Area Network (SAN) A network infrastructure designed to support file servers and provide data storage, retrieval, and replication. It involves high-end servers, multiple disk arrays (called blocks), and Fibre Channel interconnection technology. 20. Local Area Networks (LANs) are a network infrastructure that spans a small geographical area. Explain what specific features LANs include: a. LANs interconnect end devices in a limited area such as a home, school, office building, or campus. b. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization or individual. The administrative control that governs the security and access control policies are enforced on the network level. c. LANs provide high speed bandwidth to internal end devices and intermediary devices. 21. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are a network infrastructure that spans a wide geographical area. WANs are typically managed by service providers (SP) or Internet Service Providers (ISP). Explain what specific features WANs include: a. WANs interconnect LANs over wide geographical areas such as between cities, states, provinces, countries, or continents. b. WANs are usually administered by multiple service providers. c. WANs typically provide slower speed links between LANs. 22. Explain what the Internet is? The Internet is a worldwide collection of interconnected networks (internetworks or internet for short), cooperating with each other to exchange information using common standards. 23. Explain the following terms: a. Intranet Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

8 Intranet is a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization, and is designed to be accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. Intranets are basically an internet which is usually only accessible from within the organization. b. Extranet An organization may use an extranet to provide secure and safe access to individuals who work for a different organizations, but require company data. 24. List the most common way home users connect to the internet through an ISP. a. broadband cable b. broadband c. digital subscriber line (DSL) d. wireless WANs e. mobile services 25. Business-class internet is typically done through an SP; this may include? a. business DSL b. leased lines c. Metro Ethernet. 26. What internet connection options are commonly used by SOHO s or Small Office-Home Office users? a. Cable b. DSL c. Cellular d. Satellite e. Dial-up Telephone 27. Out of all the internet connection options which ones do not require a physical cable to be run to the building? a. Cellular b. Satellite 28. Explain in detail the following common connection options for organizations. 8 a. Dedicated Leased Line This is a dedicated connection from the service provider to the customer premise. Leased lines are actually reserved circuits that connect geographically separated offices for private voice and/or data networking. The circuits are typically rented at a monthly or yearly rate which tends to make it expensive. In North America, common leased line circuits include T1 (1.54 Mb/s) and

9 T3 (44.7 Mb/s) while in other parts of the world they are available in E1 (2 Mb/s) and E3 (34 Mb/s). b. Metro Ethernet Metro Ethernet is typically available from a provider to the customer premise over a dedicated copper or fiber connection providing bandwidth speeds of 10 Mb/s to 10 Gb/s. Ethernet over Copper (EoC) is more economical than fiber optic Ethernet service in many cases, quite widely available, and reaches speeds of up to 40 Mbps. However, Ethernet over Copper is limited by distance. Fiber optic Ethernet service delivers the fastest connections available at an economical price per megabit. Unfortunately, there are still many areas where this service is unavailable. c. DSL Business DSL is available in various formats. A popular choice is Symmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (SDSL) which is similar to Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), but provides the same upload and download speeds. ADSL is designed to deliver bandwidth at different rates downstream than upstream. For example, a customer getting Internet access may have downstream rates that range from 1.5 to 9 Mbps, whereas upstream bandwidth ranges are from 16 to 640 kbps. ADSL transmissions work at distances up to 18,000 feet (5,488 meters) over a single copper twisted pair. d. Satellite Satellite service can provide a connection when a wired solution is not available. Satellite dishes require a clear line of sight to the satellite. Equipment and installation costs can be high, with a moderate monthly fee thereafter. Connections tend to be slower and less reliable than its terrestrial competition, which makes it less attractive than other alternatives. 1.3 The Network as a Platform 29. Explain what a converged network is. Converged networks are capable of delivering voice, video streams, text, and graphics between many different types of devices over the same communication channel and network structure 30. There are four basic characteristics that underlying network architectures need to address in order to meet user expectations. These are: a. Fault Tolerance b. Scalability c. Quality of Service (QoS) d. Security 31. Explain how network architecture that is built to be fault tolerant. Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

10 A fault tolerant network is one that limits the impact of a failure, so that the fewest number of devices are affected by it. It is also built in a way that allows quick recovery when such a failure occurs. 32. What is redundancy? Having multiple paths to a destination. 33. Explain in how a Circuit-Switched Connection works. A temporary path, or circuit, is created for the duration of the connection. If any link or device in the circuit fails, the connection is dropped. To reconnect, a new connection has to be made, with a new circuit. 34. Explain in detail how a Packet-Switched Connection works. The premise for this type of network is that a single message can be broken into multiple message blocks, with each message block containing addressing information to indicate the origination point and final destination. Using this embedded information, these message blocks, called packets, can be sent through the network along various paths, and can be reassembled into the original message when reaching their destination 35. What is scalability within a network infrastructure? A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impacting the performance of the service being delivered to existing users. 36. The point where ISPs interconnect is often called a? Border 37. What is the purpose of each of the following ISP Tier s? a. Tier-1 Provide national and international connections. These are the backbone of the internet b. Tier-2 Often smaller and provide regional service. c. Tier-3 Local service providers of service directly to end users 38. What is Quality of Service? Networks must provide predictable, measurable, and at times, guaranteed services. 39. There are two types of network security concerns that must be addressed. List and explain both. 10 a. Network infrastructure security Securing a network infrastructure includes the physical securing of devices that provide network connectivity, and preventing unauthorized access to the management software that resides on them. b. Information security

11 Information security refers to protecting the information contained within the packets being transmitted over the network and the information stored on network attached devices 40. In order to achieve the goals of network security, there are three primary requirements. List and explain each. a. Ensuring confidentiality Data confidentiality means that only the intended and authorized recipients - individuals, processes, or devices can access and read data. This is accomplished by having a strong system for user authentication, enforcing passwords that are difficult to guess, and requiring users to change them frequently. Encrypting data, so that only the intended recipient can read it, is also part of confidentiality. b. Maintaining communication integrity Data integrity means having the assurance that the information has not been altered in transmission, from origin to destination. Data integrity can be compromised when information has been corrupted - willfully or accidentally. Data integrity is made possible by requiring validation of the sender as well as using mechanisms to validate that the packet has not changed during transmission. c. Ensuring availability Availability means having the assurance of timely and reliable access to data services for authorized users. Network firewall devices, along with desktop and server antivirus software can ensure system reliability and the robustness to detect, repel, and cope with such attacks. Building fully redundant network infrastructures, with few single points of failure, can reduce the impact of these threats. 41. Select the appropriate column to identify the network architecture requirement to which each characteristic or feature belongs. Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

12 1.4 The Changing Network Environment 42. Explain Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)? 12

13 BYOD means any device, with any ownership, used anywhere. 43. What is cloud computing? Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network. 49. What are the four primary types of clouds? a. Hybrid b. Private c. Public d. Custom 50. What is a data center used for? A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components. 51. What is powerline networking? Powerline networking is an emerging trend for home networking that uses existing electrical wiring to connect devices, 52. What is a Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP)? An ISP that connects subscribers to a designated access point or hot spot using similar wireless technologies found in home wireless local area networks (WLANs). 53. Where are WISPs commonly found? WISPs are more commonly found in rural environments where DSL or cable services are not available. 54. Another wireless solution for the home and small businesses is wireless broadband. Explain this technology. This uses the same cellular technology used to access the Internet with a smart phone or tablet. An antenna is installed outside the house providing either wireless or wired connectivity for devices in the home 55. Why should network security be implemented in multiple layers? No single solution can protect the network from the variety of threats that exist. For this reason, security should be implemented in multiple layers, using more than one security solution 56. At a minimum, home or small office network security should include what options? a. Antivirus and antispyware b. Firewall filtering 57. What other security options should larger networks include? Cisco Semester 1 Introduction to Networks Robb Jones Frederick County Career & Tech Center, MD

14 a. Dedicated firewall systems b. Access control lists (ACL) c. Intrusion prevention systems (IPS) d. Virtual private networks (VPN) 58. Draw a line between the correct term and its definition. Firewall programs Zero-Day Attack Virus, Worm, or Trojan Access Control List (ACL) Denial of Service An attack which slows down or crashes equipment and Filters network access and data traffic Blocks unauthorized access to your network Network attack that occurs on the first day that a vulnerability becomes known Arbitrary code running on user devices 14

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