# 1.264 Lecture 35. Telecom: Fiber optics. Next class: Green chapter Exercise due before class

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1 1.264 Lecture 35 Telecom: Fiber optics Next class: Green chapter Exercise due before class 1

2 T1 T1 is shorthand for 1.5 Mbps connection T1 is the standard over copper T1 is used as a shorthand for this data rate over any medium More formally, we use DS-1 to designate 1.5 Mbps over fiber (or coax or ) And DS-0 to designate 64 kbps (a voice call) And DS-3 to designate a T-3, which is 28 T-1s, and which fits within the fiber standard OC-1 (51 Mbps) 2

3 Optical networking exercise Long spans possible 0.2 db/km loss implies 1% of signal carries 100 km without amplification DB= 100 km * 0.2 db/km= 20 db Loss= 10 (DB/10) = 10 2 = 100 Signal= 1/loss= km spans are common on land, longer undersea Exercise: With 0.15 db/km loss, what is signal strength 200 km from origin? 3

4 Optical networking solution Long spans possible 0.2 db/km loss implies 1% of signal carries 100 km without amplification DB= 100 km * 0.2 db/km= 20 db Loss= 10 (DB/10) = 10 2 = 100 Signal= 1/loss= km spans common on land, longer undersea Exercise solution: With 0.15 db/km loss, what is signal strength 200 km from origin? DB= 200 km * 0.15 db/km= 30 db Loss= 10 DB/10 = 10 3 = 1000 Signal= 1/loss=

5 WAN: Optical networking hardware Optical Links Electrical Signals Terminal Protection Switch Regencrator Terminal Protection Switch Hot Standby Link Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. 5

6 Optical networking terminals and muxes Fiber optic terminals: convert optical/electrical Slow and expensive compared to all-optical switch/router Optical amplifiers now exist: fast, low power Amplifiers available for 5 Tbps (5000 Gbps) signals Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) We can send light of different colors in the same fiber to increase capacity Coarse WDM has 16 wavelengths Dense WDM has 40 wavelengths, going to

7 Optical network operations Common fiber operation in telecom trunks: OC-48 to OC-768 (2.5 to 40 Gb/sec) on a single pair of fibers Separate receive and transmit paths (no circuits) 32,000 to 512,000 64kb/sec circuits for voice or data About 1,000 to 16,000 video channels at 1.5 Mbps Nationwide systems in US: Typically 48-fiber bundles over 25,000 mile network Several competing networks exist Diverse routing a problem for reliability (fiber cuts) Rights of way limited; multiple carriers hit by same outage Dark fiber becoming available for users Over metro area, can run corporate Ethernet to multiple sites Fiber to the premises (home, small business, ) available Verizon not building out home FIOS; business fiber continues Fiber used within corporate buildings and campuses Little fiber to desktop yet, but likely to come 7

8 Image removed due to copyright restrictions. 8

9 Exercise Suppose 10 real time video channels (training, videoconference, customer contact ) are active in each of the 48 lower states in the US and made available to your company s facilities in each state (You may be FedEx, UPS ) Real time channel is 6 Mbps Assume the location in each state uses every channel, so all 48 * 10 channels must be sent to each state All locations are in metro areas How much bandwidth into each state is required? Can one 40 Gbps network handle it? If not, how many networks must be used? Once the data gets to a metro area, can a 1 Gbps Carrier Ethernet handle all the traffic? 9

10 Solution 48 states * 10 channels * 6 Mbps= 2880 Mbps= 2.88 Gbps One network can handle it, though it takes almost 10% of its capacity In a metro area, 1 Gbps is not enough. At least 3 1 GB networks are needed. This fills the entire capacity of these three networks. The carrier providing them must dedicate three sets of core and edge routers, plus spares. 10

11 Optical network bandwidth Fiber is faster than coax, copper or other electronics due to basic physics. Informally: There can be many bosons (e.g., photons) in one place (quantum state) at the same time There can only be one fermion (e.g., electron) in one place (quantum state) at the same time This won t change unless physics changes Fiber networks can haul 5,000,000 Mbps on a single wavelength on a single pair of fibers Fiber nets are often 48 pairs Dense wavelength division multiplexing can put wavelengths on a fiber pair Wireless LANs (WiFi) can haul 30 Mbps (60% of 54 Mbps) 4G metro wireless can haul 20 Mbps for a user All other telecom technologies serve to provide access to fiber optic links. Fiber drives location for some industries. 11

12 Alcatel. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see Or go to submarinecablemap.com 12

13 KMI Corporation. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see 13

14 Courtesy of Steve Song on Flickr. License CC BY. 14

15 Courtesy of Steve Song on Flickr. License CC BY. 15

16 African fiber links Annotations contributors to the afterfibre.net project; underlying map Google, INEGI. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see afterfibre.net 16

17 Exercise A supplier is based in the interior of the Congo. It currently uses satellite communications at 128 kbps to access the Internet. It pays \$500 per month per link. A fiber optic link becomes available that provides up to 45 Mbps, in 1.5 Mbps increments. The first 1.5 Mbps chunk costs \$100 per month, and each increment costs \$50 It both sends and receives 100,000 XML messages per 8 hour day (orders, catalog, shipment, etc.). Half the messages are 10,000 bytes; the other half are 1 MB (with graphics) How many satellite links did it need, at what cost? If it needed more than 2, satellite was infeasible. It would have needed custom software to extract minimal data to/from XML messages handled by proxy elsewhere How much fiber bandwidth does it need, at what cost? What if it only sent and received 1,000 XML msgs per day? 17

18 Solution Bandwidth up= bandwidth down, as is common in business communications Bits/day= 50,000*8*(10, ,000,000)= 404 Gb Time= 8*3600= 28,800 seconds Bandwidth= 404 Gb/ sec=~ 14 Mb/sec This is infeasible with satellites With 1,000 versus 100,000 messages, the bandwidth is 140 kb/sec. It would need 2 satellite links, at \$1,000/mo. With fiber this requires 15 Mb/sec at \$ *\$50, or \$550 per month No proxy server or custom software are required, and the supplier is fully integrated via Internet/Web 18

19 Technology comparison Fiber optics (WAN) Bandwidth up to 5 Tbps (5000 Gbps) per fiber pair Number of fiber pairs unlimited Bit error rate: Distance spanned: 400 km between repeaters, global Copper (existing telephone plant) (Access to WAN) Bandwidth up to 1.5 Mbps (T1) for long distances w/repeaters Up to 5 Mbps (DSL) up to 5 kilometers Up to 100 Mbps (LAN) up to 100 meters Bit error rate: Distance spanned: 2 km between repeaters, on land CATV (coax) somewhat better than copper Radio (microwave, mobile phone, wireless data) (WAN Access) Bandwidth up to~50 Mbps (microwave, WLAN), ~20 Mbps (mobile) Number of links limited by spectrum width (~5 GHz) Total wireless bandwidth ~ Gbps at any point (2-3 bits/hz) Bit error rate: 10-6 Distance spanned: 100m (WLAN) to 20 km (microwave, mobile) Satellite has very high distance but same bandwidth, error rates Error rates are critical; we ll return to them 19

20 MIT OpenCourseWare J / ESD.264J Database, Internet, and Systems Integration Technologies Fall 2013 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit:

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