Annex D: Technological developments

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1 Annex D: Technological developments 1 Technology Radar Distribution Technology Demand Research Advanced Modulation Mac VLC / LiFi LPLT Spectrum Modulation Low Loss Zero Bend- Loss M-MIMO Floated In Development Dynamic Spectrum Access LTE-C HETNETS Cloud RAN SDN 5G Controllers G.Fast LTE-B embms Multi Layer Optimisation Micro Ducting Micro Trenching Retractable New To Terabit Ethernet C-RAN PassPoint WDM-PON LTE Advanced DOCSIS 3.1 White Space Optical Control Plane Improved HVAC Tunable Laser Silicon Photonics FTTH/ PtoP WDM 80 OTN Switching WDM 40 Aerial Ducting Mass Silicon Consolidation 400gGpbs Ethernet G-PON Small Cell Mac Multilayer Optimisation Network Function Virtualisation Segment Routing SDN Orchestration IP / Optical 100Gbps Object Coded Audio Contextual Advertising IP Production UHD 4K Companion Applications HD-TV OTT TV / Device Synchronization PLC HBB TV UHD over DTT-T2 Digital Lockers Weightless UHD 8K Energy White Space Meter Ultra Narrow Band XAAS VPN SAAS Collaboration Social TV Mass Grids LTE M2M Buildings Automation Identity Management Federated Cloud Assisted Living Multi Screen Persistence New To Cross Domain Orchestration Virtual Office Overlay Networks Contextual Facial Recognition Wearable's Personal Fabrication In Research Development

2 2 Technical description of IP networks The document, and in particular, the scenarios refer to a number of supporting technologies, which are used in the provision of services. The diagram below seeks to define the relationship and dependencies of these technologies in a simple format. There are many more complexities to the UK telecoms infrastructure: this is a simple representation. Below is a description of these technologies Physical layer This is the infrastructure within which telecoms capabilities are carried around the country. It refers to the ducting, aerial poles and other infrastructure required to carry the physical connections to subscribers. Trunk This is the fibre cable running within the physical infrastructure, sometimes known as dark fibre when it is not in use. Optical Multiplexing Optical Multiplexing generically refers to the means by which raw fibre capacity is enhanced and segmented to support multiple services and bitrates. Additional capacity can be delivered using technologies such as Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM). Packet Based Optical Increasingly the WDM and Packet Layer are being combined providing a more dynamic use of the raw fibre capacity. Providers favour this approach as a means to leverage greater statistical gain especially where resilient services are required. For example this allows latent capacity to be assigned on demand in the event of an underlying failure supporting efficient resilience. IP and Packet Core This refers to what is known as the. There are two use cases today, residential and business. Residential internet is delivered through a number of

3 providers in the UK who provide access to their own content and others via Exchange Points (IXP). Business Services follow the same model but services tend to be delivered using virtual private networks (VPN) to ensure security and privacy of content. In most cases the and Business Services will share core capacity but they connect differently. Business Services connect separately from the internet although interconnects may be shared with other Business Services. Direct This is the delivery of high bandwidth (10Gbps +) low latency services. Whilst these can be delivered by the packet layer the service type and economics may make direct connectivity more attractive. Use cases for direct fibre connectivity include data centre connectivity which requires resilience and high bandwidth video postproduction work flows. Satellite Satellite delivery provides one of the lowest cost points for the mass distribution of content. For pure telecoms applications it provides a means to deliver connectivity where there are geographical or commercial restrictions. Newer Ka-Band satellite communications provide capabilities similar to that provided by today s fibre services, although they are subject to additional factors, such as the weather, and are constrained on the uplink. Mobile, WiFi and Fixed Wireless The vast array of mobile and wireless technologies span from 2G to 5G, through to fixed wireless and WiFi. Delivering a heterogeneous access infrastructure that is distributed and connected via the IP and packet core. Low Bit Rate Low bit rate technologies are used for the delivery of telemetry and control protocols such as smart metering and automation of physical plant monitoring. Radio and Fixed line technologies such as Industrial, Scientific and Medical band (ISM) and power line communication (PLC) are currently in trial. Whilst the bit rates associated are small at an individual level they are aggregated and delivered to applications in the IP and Packet Layer. Commercial MultiProtocol Layer Switching (MPLS) These are the services that are deployed to support business to business connectivity. Increasingly the nature of these services is migrating towards business to cloud. Access Access services provide connectivity in the last mile. Access services are used to reach premises for FTTP or the cabinet for FTTC. Techniques such as FTTC or FTTDP use underlying connectivity such as and G-PON to establish connectivity to the access environment. With FTTP Access services are delivered point to point utilizing carrier ethernet technology direct to the premise.

4 4 Current Conceptual Physical Architecture Earth Station Foreign Exchanges ADSL GPON Transport over other networks National Exchange Cable Access Leased Line Microwave Leased Line Web Server Mobile Broadband Core Network Backhaul Access Network Local Area Network Example Access Flow Earth Station Foreign Exchanges ADSL Traffic GPON Transport over other networks National Exchange Cable Access Leased Line Microwave Leased Line Web Server Mobile Broadband Traffic Core Network Backhaul Access Network Local Area Network

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