Citations in scientific communication

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1 **** 1 Citations in scientific communication Citing information sources in your documents

2 2 Citing information sources in your documents: introduction When writing a document, in most cases you should refer in your text to other material written/produced by others. If you copy, quote, summarise or paraphrase a fragment/part of the work of another author, you need to make a reference to it. If you do not, you may be committing plagiarism. This procedure is called citing or quoting references.

3 3 Citing information sources in your documents: formal aspects How to make a reference in your text? How to structure citations / references in your reference list = bibliography? Document text reference list = bibliography

4 4 Citing information sources in your documents: formal aspects Many formal systems (styles) are used. In case of a publication guided by an editor/publisher: use the system / style that is recommended. Be consistent! Rather give too much information in a citation than too little.

5 **-- 5!! Task - Assignment!! Learn how to to refer to to documents in in your bibliographies, according to to the ISO System: for for instance instance by by reading reading Excerpts from from International Standard ISO ISO 690:1987 Information and and documentation -- Bibliographic references -- Content, form form and and structure [online] [online] Available from: from: [cited [cited 2004] 2004]

6 **-- 6!! Task - Assignment!! Learn Learn how how to to refer refer to to electronic documents according to to the the ISO ISO System System in in your your bibliographies: for for instance instance by by reading reading Information and and documentation -- --Bibliographic references Part Part 2: 2: Electronic documents or or parts parts thereof. thereof. Excerpts from from International Standard ISO ISO [online] [online] Available partly partly from: from: [Cited [Cited 2004] 2004] and and partly partly from: from: [Cited [Cited 2003] 2003] Specifies the the data data elements and and their their prescribed order order in in bibliographic references to to electronic documents.

7 7 Citing information sources in your documents: the Harvard System In the Harvard System,» cited publications are listed in a bibliography or references list at the end of the text and» are referred to in the text by giving the author's surname and the year of publication. Document text reference list = bibliography

8 8 Citing information sources in your text: the Harvard System Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's surname and the year of publication. Examples:» A recent study stated that we have to teach good practices (Harvey 1999 p.27).» In a recent study Harvey (1999 p.27) stated `good practices have to be taught.

9 9 Citing information sources in your text: the Harvard System» Author s surname and year are given in brackets with the part cited or quoted in the text. If the authors name occurs naturally in the sentence then only the year is given in brackets.» For citations of particular parts of the document the page number may be given after the year.» Author = originator = the person or organisation shown most prominently in the source as responsible for the content in its published form.

10 10 Citing information sources in your text: the Harvard System» For anonymous works use `Anon' instead of a name.» For certain kinds of work, e.g. dictionaries or encyclopaedias, or if an item is the co-operative work of many individuals, none of whom have a dominant role, e.g. videos or films, the title may be used instead of an originator or author.» Dates: if an exact year or date is not known, an approximate date preceded by 'ca.' may be supplied and given in square brackets.

11 11 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System Books Example: RUSSELL, R.S. & TAYLOR, B.W., Operations management: focusing on quality and competitiveness. 2nd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.

12 12 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System» Author(s) or editor(s): Put the surname first, followed by initial(s) of forename(s). If there are two or three contributing names, include them all in the order they appear on the title page. If there are more than three, record the first followed by et al. If the book is edited, signify this by using ed. after their name. British Standards give all examples of author s names in capitals but it is not compulsory.

13 13 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System» Date: Use the year of publication, usually on back of title page» Title: Always take the title from the title page. Capitalise the first letter. Use italics or underline if writing freehand.» Edition: Give edition number if it is not the first.

14 14 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System» Place of publication and Publisher: These are usually on the back of the title page. Separate with a colon (:)» Pages: You will need to include these if quoting from a specific section or chapter of a book.

15 15 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System Journal Articles» Example: CANNEL, M. et. al., The missing link. People Management, 6 (9), 51-52» Author: Follow the guidelines given for books.» Date: Use the year of publication.

16 16 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System» Article Title: Use the title given at the beginning of the article.» Title of Journal: Give the full title of the journal in italics.» Volume and Issue Number: Volume number goes first; issue number is next in brackets.» Pages: Page numbers should also be part of your reference. If one page use p.

17 17 Citing information sources in your bibliography: the Harvard System Web pages» Author/editor» Date» Title of the web page [online]» Place of publication and publisher if ascertainable» Available from: URL [accessed date]

18 **-- 18!! Task - Assignment!! Read Rumsey, Sally How to to find information: A guide for researchers. Maidenhead: Open University Press, Citing references

19 **** 19 Citations in scientific communication Computer systems to write a bibliography

20 20 Computer systems to write a bibliography: introduction Various computer systems can assist you in various actions related to bibliographic references:»creating, writing, updating, maintaining, structuring a list or references, a bibliography»searching/retrieving relevant references from your collection»inserting references in your text, and including the references as endnotes in the specific format that is required

21 21 Computer systems to write a bibliography: advantages Such programs can»increase speed of work,»increase the level of consistency in formatting

22 22 Computer systems to write a bibliography: various software (1) Types of software that can be applied:»general purpose database management software Example: Microsoft Access, Filemaker»specialised database management software for bibliographies on a pc Examples: BibTech, ProCite, Reference Manager, Endnote

23 23 Computer systems to write a bibliography: various software (2)»specialised database management software for bibliographies on a server through the Internet Example: service provided by CSA»open source bibliography database tool, that is included in OpenOffice.org Writer»module of program for word processing Microsoft Word 2008

24 24 Computer systems to write a bibliography: various software (3)»word processing software (not using any database, but applying paragraph styles only) Examples: Microsoft Word, OpenOffice Writer Advantages: program is available and used already, so that it does not have to be acquired and learned; integration with text writing is good as the same program is used

25 25?? Question?? What are styles? What are paragraph styles? What are heading styles?

26 26!! Task - Assignment!! See that you can apply styles to to improve your efficiency in in word processing.

27 27!! Task - Assignment!! Apply heading styles to to format a few citations.

28 **** 28 Citations in scientific communication Exploiting citations received by a document

29 29 Information retrieval: exploiting citations received Information retrieval is in most cases carried out by searching for a particular subject/concept by using (key)words and terms. An alternative, complementary method is finding relevant documents by using the system of citations. You start with a known, identified, relevant, good seed document and you investigate which other documents have cited this one.

30 **-- 30!! Task - Assignment!! Read Rumsey, Sally How to to find information: A guide for researchers. Maidenhead: Open University Press, Citation searching

31 31 Information retrieval: using citations Citations = references in publications to earlier work. Citations may lead to other, useful, relevant information: starting from a particular, interesting seed document,»citations in that document may lead you to older relevant publications (+ snow-ball effect)»citation indexes allow you to identify more recent publications which contain citations to that particular document

32 32 Information retrieval: using citations (scheme) Seed document Now Snowball citation searching Citation indexing Past Future Time

33 33 Information retrieval: ISI citation indexes Citation indexes are produced by the company I.S.I., the Institute for Scientific Information:»Science Citation Index,»Social Sciences Citation Index,»Arts and Humanities Citation Index These have been combined in the online accessible database Web of Science.

34 34 Information retrieval: formats of ISI citation indexes (Printed) (is obsolete) On CD-ROM»for use on a single microcomputer, or»for implementation on a local network Online»through online access information services»all together as the Web of Science, implemented on many sites, accessible by all users of an institute/company that pays a fixed fee per year

35 35 Information retrieval: the Web of Science This is a bibliographic database that covers the articles published in the most important scientific journals. The system is not only suitable for subject searching, but also for citation searching. Web of Knowledge Web of Science

36 36 Information retrieval: cited reference searching and the Web of Science An introduction to cited reference searching (and other aspects of using databases online) is offered through WWW by the company ISI: [cited 2004]

37 37!! Task - Assignment!! Have a look at at a presentation with slides by by ISI to to learn the basics of of the Web of of Science and of of citation searching.

38 Collection of Bibliographic information 38 Journal name Article title Authors Addresses Keywords Abstracts With Cited References

39 Searching for bibliographic data 39 Articles published by Prusiner on Prion Protein

40 Bibliographic data 40

41 Cited References 41

42 42 Traditional search

43 Cited Reference Search 43

44 Cited Reference Results 44

45 45 Power of Citation Searching

46 46!! Task - Assignment!! You can read the Introduction to to citation indexing and citation indexes that is is made available through the WWW by by the producer of of the Web of of Science.

47 47!! Task - Assignment!! When the Web of of Science database is is available to to you, then use it it for subject searching, and also for citation searching.

48 48!! Question!! What is is the name of of the most famous and well-established database of of bibliographic descriptions of of academic, scientific articles, that can be be used for citation searching?

49 49 Information retrieval: Google Scholar for citations (Part 1) Google Scholar allows us to search and find some scholarly information sources (documents), including journal articles as well as sources that cite those documents. Beta (test) version available since November The system is accessible starting from the home page of Google as one of the additional services. The online manual explains the system:

50 50 Information retrieval: Google Scholar for citations (Part 2) The information is harvested in a more or less automatic way from the public WWW and from databases of some scholarly publishers, and is processed to extract citations. This system competes with the more classical bibliographic scholarly databases. The ranking of the results of a query is determined greatly by the number of citations that have been received by the document.

51 Example 51 Information retrieval: : Google Scholar: screenshot Link to citing sources

52 52!! Task - Assignment!! Use Google Scholar for subject searching, and also for finding publications that cite a seed document.

53 53?? Question?? For which kinds of of investigation can exploiting received citations be be particularly useful // appropriate?

54 54 Information retrieval: when is citation searching appropriate? Exploiting/investigating received citations is appropriate mainly when you search journal articles or documents in general, that contain citations of a particular document (or author), for instance to study the impact in science of a particular idea or proposal»in that particular document, or»of that particular author less appropriate when you search for papers on a more general subject

55 55?? Question?? Which information systems that cover all all subject domains offer not only subject searching, but also the possibility to to find citations that have been received by by a particular document?

56 56?? Question?? Which database // search engine allows every person to to find (efficiently and free of of charge) most of of the citations that have been received by by a concrete, specific scientific article (for instance an an article of of which that person knows the title)?

57 57 Information retrieval: databases for citation searching Only a few databases / retrieval systems that cover all subject domains offer not only subject searching, but also citation searching: 1. Web of Science (NOT free of charge) 2. Google Scholar (free of charge) 3. Elsevier Scopus (NOT free of charge) Some other databases offer citation searching in a more specific domain of science.

58 58 Comparison of databases for citation searching 1. ISI Web of Science is the most classical and well known 2. Google Scholar is freely available 3. Elsevier Scopus is more complete in the natural sciences The overlap is great.

59 **-- 59?? Question?? Bibliographic databases that allow you to to find citations received by by a particular document must have more complex database records than more simple bibliographic databases that do do not offer this function. Explain this.

60 60?? Question?? The Web of of Science offers ways of of citation searching/analysis that are NOT offered by by Google Scholar. Can you explain?

61 **** 61 Citations in scientific communication Evaluating authors and journal articles, using citations

62 62 The number of citations received by an author The number of citations received by a particular author can be important as a factor in the evaluation of the relevance / impact / scientific / importance of published scientific research or ideas or proposals by a particular author can be estimated by a citation search, using for instance the Web of Science

63 63 The number of citations received by a journal article The number of citations received by a particular journal article can be important as a factor in the evaluation of the relevance / impact / scientific / importance of a published scientific research report or an idea or proposal published in a particular journal article can be estimated by a citation search using for instance»the Web of Science!»Elsevier Scopus»Google Scholar

64 **** 64 Citations in scientific communication Internet indexes for citation searching

65 65 Internet indexes for citation searching: introduction Some Internet indexes / search engines allow you to search for documents / pages / URLs that link to a particular page, to some URL that you already know (such as one of the web pages that you have developed or that you have made available yourself). Linking to a URL is similar to citing an information source. Such search systems can be used to analyse web citations. Web citations are sometimes named sitations, referring to the term web site.

66 66 Internet indexes for citation searching: applications Citation searching on the WWW or on an intranet can be used»to get an idea of the importance, the fame, the impact of a particular web document, as measured by the number of links/citations to that page»to find out who has considered a particular page as interesting enough to make a link to»to find comments/criticisms on a particular web document

67 67 Internet indexes for citation searching: query syntax For details about the required query syntax, query formulation, see the online manual or help pages of the search system that you want to use. Take care to search for all variants such as»//web-server-computer.country/website/index.html»//web-server-computer.country/website/»//web-server-computer.country/website

68 **-- 68 Internet indexes for citation searching: link versus linkdomain Do not confuse links to a particular web page, using for instance a query like link:this-page.html with links to a whole web domain, using for instance a query like linkdomain:this_site

69 Examples 69 Internet indexes for citation searching: examples of systems Google Yahoo! (All the Web) (AltaVista) (HotBot) (Lycos)

70 **-- 70!! Task - Assignment - Exercise!! Use a WWW search engine for citation searching, using specialised searching for links.

71 **-- 71 Internet indexes for citation searching: specific desiderata Can the query that is used to find WWW citations be formulated in such a way that self-citations can be excluded from the search results? Does the system allow us to find not only citations to a document on the web, but also citations to underlying documents in the further branches of the web site hierarchical tree structure, all in one action; in other words with only one query? (for instance with some form of right truncation in the query)

72 **-- 72 Internet indexes for citation searching: desiderata What we want from systems for citation searching is generally similar to our desiderata in the case of more general web search engines.

73 * Internet indexes for citation searching: gateway sites Some sites/pages on the WWW offer an easy gateway to sites that allow some analysis of web citations. Example

74 74 Internet indexes for citation searching: using normal searching When we want to find web documents that cite a specific, particular web document or web site that we already know, then we can NOT ONLY use an internet index search engine with specialised searching in hyperlink fields on web pages, but we can ALSO search more normally for web documents/pages, that contain words or exact phrases that occur in the URL of that specific, particular web document or site. For example: searching through the WWW for the string

75 75!! Task - Assignment - Exercise!! Use a WWW search engine for citation searching, NOT by by using specialised searching for links, but by by using more normal searching for words that occur in in the URL of of a web document or or site that you know already.

76 **-- 76 Citations in classical documents versus citations on the WWW Classical documents are normally not modified anymore after their creation. In classical documents, we normally see citations by/from a newer document of/to an older document. On the WWW, documents can be modified; for instance citations of other WWW documents or sites can be added. Documentsonthe WWW canciteeachother. document 1 document 1 document 2 document 2

77 77?? Question?? How exactly can you use one of of the general, common, popular WWW search engines to to find WWW documents that cite another particular, specific WWW page that you already know?

78 **-- 78?? Question?? How can we we find citations to to a particular WWW site? (Be concrete and specific when you answer.)

79 **-- 79?? Question?? Why would you want to to search for citations=links to to a particular WWW page or or site?

80 **-- 80!! Task - Assignment!! Read Judit Bar-Ilan Can scientific collaboration and excellence be be measured by by Web presence and Web links? [online] Available from:

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