1 **** 1 Computer software Overview **** Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 1) 2 The following presents an overview of various aspects and types of computer software: Computer (disk) operating system(s) Graphical user interfaces The popular family of Microsoft Windows operating systems in particular Utility software packages Local area network software
2 **** Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 2) 3 Application software packages (excluding software to build presentations with slides, software to create web sites, because these are discussed in more detail in other chapters) General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages **** Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 3) 4 Computer file formats in general Computer file formats for text only Computer file formats for graphics/images Computer file formats for documents with text and images Compression, archiving and conversion of computer files
3 **** 5 Computer software Computer (disk) operating systems **** 6 Computer operating systems: functions A computer operating system brings many basic functions to a computer:»process management»memory management»file input/output»device input/output
4 **** Computer operating systems are NOT user interfaces only 7 Do not confuse a user interface with a computer operating system. An operating system often comes with a particular interface for the use of many functions, which causes this confusion. ****?? Question?? 8 List and discuss widespread computer operating systems for small, personal microcomputers.
5 **** Computer operating systems for microcomputers 9 For microcomputers with Intel compatible CPU»DOS; DOS + Windows 3.x; Windows 95; Windows 98; Windows 98 SE; Windows ME,»(OS/2)»Windows NT 4 Workstation; Windows 2000 Professional; Windows XP;»Linux, Apple operating systems **** Computer operating systems for server computers 10»Unix (and variants such as Linux and Solaris)»Windows NT 4 server; Windows 2000 server; Windows 2003 server;»...
6 ?? Question?? 11 Why can multitasking on on computers be be useful? (even though people mostly work on on 1 activity at at the same time) Multitasking: uses 12 Switching among programs the ability to load several programs and easily and quickly switch among them Running tasks in the background for instance:»downloading data,»printing,»monitoring disk space,»receiving electronic mail,...
7 **** Computer operating systems: evolution 13 More user-friendly interfaces Increasing power Bigger in size because of more sophistication More Web enabled (Parallel evolution for application software) 14 Computer software Microsoft Windows: an operating environment
8 !! Task - Assignment!! 15 Apply copy and paste in in the same document managed by by the same program.!! Task - Assignment!! 16 Apply copy and paste between various documents managed by by the same program.
9 !! Task - Assignment!! 17 Apply copy and paste between different programs. For instance: copy a result from Microsoft Windows Calculator (such as as a long number) into a document of of Microsoft Word. Microsoft Windows tutorials 18 Computer-assisted learning about Windows is offered by the Windows package itself.
10 Evolution of Microsoft operating systems for PC s from 1995 to Windows 95 Windows NT 4 (also for servers = multi-user) Windows 98 Windows 98 SE Windows ME Windows 2000 (also for servers = multi-user) Windows XP (also for servers = multi-user) Windows 2003 (for servers = multi-user) Windows Vista?? Question?? 20 How can you rename a collection of of files in in a folder, in in 1 action, with the operating system that you use? In In which case is is this useful?
11 21 Computer software Utility software packages Utility software packages: definition 22 Not a well defined term One meaning is: Software which helps to run the computer system, but which is not directly useful on the application level. Operating systems include utility programs; others can be installed besides these or can replace these.
12 Utility software packages: some categories: anti-virus 23 Anti-virus shielding and scanning + anti-spyware + local network and Internet firewall (checking incoming and outgoing data) ****?? Question?? 24 Which concrete anti-virus software protects your pc?
13 ****?? Question?? 25 What is is the meaning of: of: keeping your anti-virus-software up-to-date? ****?? Question?? 26 How do do YOU concretely keep YOUR anti-virus software up-to-date on on YOUR specific computer system?
14 ****?? Question?? 27 How do do you search for a particular file on on your pc? Utility software packages: some categories: file management 28 Making space by searching and deleting files that are not used or that are not useful Compression / decompression of files Archiving / de-archiving of files Checking disk integrity/quality Backing up data Transferring files and settings to another computer
15 ****?? Question?? 29 How do do YOU concretely maintain your data backing-up system? **** 30 Computer software Application software packages
16 **** Categories of application software packages 31 Text editing...word processing...desktop publishing Spreadsheet Presentation creation Graphics (bitmap/pixels and vector/object or mixed) Multimedia authoring + distribution Data communications (basic layers + applications) Portable document software Database management systems... **** Software for text editing: categories 32 Simple text editors Simple word processing software Powerful word processing software Page-layout software / Desktop publishing software
17 33 Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 1) Is the general appearance attractive (not messy)? Does the text look well (not squashed up)? Do the pages have a basic shape? Is there adequate white space? Is the line length short enough? Are letters in CAPITALS avoided? Is underlining of letters avoided? Are fonts chosen well? Is the character size OK? Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 2) 34 Is the typography consistent throughout the document? Are colours used well? Are illustrations/graphics/pictures used well?
18 Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 3) 35 Is it easy to see the main points? Are there a sufficient number of chapter and sub-chapter headings? Are the headings informative? Is the number of heading levels not too high? Are the differences in heading levels well supported by differences in formatting of chapter numbers and characters??? Question?? 36 What are the benefits of of using styles for all all types of of paragraphs in in word processing? Give 2. 2.
19 ?? Question?? 37 Besides the general benefits of of using styles, what are the more specific benefits of of using heading styles for heading paragraphs in in word processing? Give Software for word processing: the advantages of paragraph styles 38 In comparison with more manual formatting, styles offer a way to format paragraphs that is easier, faster and more consistent. Using heading styles allows»outlining = outline view»automatic sorting of paragraphs»automatic creation of a table of contents»saving a document as a file in HTML format, which is formatted automatically according to the heading levels in the original document
20 ?? Question?? 39 What is is the relation in in word processing between paragraph styles and outline view?!! Task - Assignment!! 40 Learn about styles in in the program that you use for word processing.
21 !! Task - Assignment - Exercise!! 41 Create a document with chapters, using heading styles. For For instance, select some document that that you you have have to to write write anyway, or or that that you you have have already written; take take the the chapter titles titles (that (that is: is: the the headings), and and format these these with with heading 1, 1, 2, 2, 3 styles; assign different fonts fonts and and sizes sizes and and colours to to the the styles. In In case case that that you you do do not not have have a a text text available, available, then then use use the the file file that that should should be be available available from from the the WWW WWW through through (note: (note: BIBLIO BIBLIO and and not not biblio) biblio)!! Task - Assignment - Exercise!! 42 Choose a document with heading styles, and apply outlining.
22 !! Task - Assignment!! 43 Choose a document with chapters, using heading styles, and create a table of of contents on on 1 page, using styles. Portable document software: What is it? (Part 1) 44 Ideally, this type of programs allows the distribution of a formatted document, while maintaining the visual integrity of the document is independent of computer platform, (computer, operating system, application software, or fonts) that is used»to create the document, and»to view (read, search,...) the document compresses the document
23 Portable document software: What is it? (Part 2) 45 allows printing the document allows searching for character strings in the document allows zooming in, without loss of details in the characters allows copying text fragments allows integration with a WWW browser allows hyperlinks / WWW links in the document... Examples Portable document software: some programs 46 Adobe Acrobat!»Viewer software is available free of charge»software to create PDF files is NOT free of charge. A free trial has been possible through the WWW at (Catchword RealPage)
24 Portable document software: applications 47 On-line help documents coming with software. Electronic publications on CD-ROM and on-line, in particular when a version printed on paper also exists! Database systems: definition 48 A database (management) system is a program or set of programs, providing a means by which a user can easily store and retrieve data in the form of databases.
25 Information retrieval software: related terms 49 Software for information storage and retrieval (ISR software) Text(-oriented) database management systems (Text-DBMS) Text information management systems (TIMS) Document retrieval systems Document management systems Information retrieval software: applications (Part 1) 50 Archives Documentation centres Libraries Musea Medical files Marketing departments Schools Bibliographic databases Archived documents Documents Books / Documents Objects / Books /... Patient s histories Clients / Potential clients Courses / Teachers Publications /...
26 Information retrieval software: applications (Part 2) 51 Meeting calendars Product information Laboratories Personal documentation Patent office Co-operating information networks... Meetings = conferences Product descriptions Recipes Documents Patents Documents / Persons / Institutes / Events /... Text-information management systems: characteristics and definition 52 The information in the database is text oriented. Therefore, several features are required:»ability to store relatively long blocks of texts»ability to retrieve items in which specific words or terms occur anywhere
27 Text-information management: from free-form to structure 53 Free form text information without structure Text database with information (each record) is further structured in fields, sub-fields, with links/relations among records... (Ideally, each fields is repeatable = can be multi-valued, = can occur more than once in each record.) Functions of database management software 54 Input / edit using keyboard or batch input Indexing of the database(s) Browse or Search data from database Output (Sort / Display / Print to file / Print to paper) + Export / Import
28 Hierarchy in the use of a database 55 Database structure Input / Editing Searching / Output 56 Computer software File formats for text only
29 File formats for text only: examples 57 Type Files containing unformatted ASCII text Normal file name extension.txt Files with text coded by the Hypertext Markup Language.HTML or.htm 58 Computer software File formats for documents with text and images
30 Documents with text and images: available file formats (Part 1) 59 Many! Too many? Examples:»formats of the various programs for word processing and page design, in their various versions (DOC, )»Rich Text Format (RTF)»PostScript (PS)»Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) Documents with text and images: available file formats (Part 2) 60»bitmap-related format, primarily for graphics, but they can also show characters: BMP, GIF, JPG/JPEG, PCX, PNG, TIFF...»SGML, HTML, XML... considered here together with the graphics files that they link to»
31 61 Computer software File compression, archiving and conversion File compression, archiving and conversion 62 Compression to make files smaller Archiving to keep related files together Conversion for transfer via computer networks :&& FclPBT#$-D!3!!!%!&!!!!2 H#3)!%!f 9!)!!+8QpcF
32 ?? Question?? 63 Which benefits are offered by by compression of of files? Data compression: benefits 64 Storage capacity required on magnetic or optical disks is smaller In data communication:»transmission times are shorter»transfer of less bits less network congestion
33 **** Essential skills in computer use 65 Task File management Finding files on a computer Text editing and formatting Copy and paste from one document to the same or to another document Printing Software used Operating system Operating system Word processing software (e.g. Word for Windows) Operating system + applications software Operating system + applications software **** 66 You are free to copy, distribute, display this work under the following conditions:»attribution: You must mention the author.»noncommercial: You may not use this work for commercial purposes.»no Derivative Works: You may not change, modify, alter, transform, or build upon this work. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work.
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