Pricing strategy of e-commerce platform under different operational models

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1 Picing saegy of e-coece lafo unde diffeen oeaional odels Shuihua Han, Yufang Fu School of Manageen, Xiaen Univesiy, Xiaen, 36000, China Absac: We odel icing saegy unde lafo coeiion wih diffeen e-coece s oeaional odels. The analysis indicaes he oial icing saegies of he wo lafos, as well as he change ends of ice, and suggess fou bagaining saegies based on he cusoe eceived value of he e-coece lafos. Key wods: Picing gae, Oeaional odel, E-coece lafo.inoducion In he ocess of develoen of e-coece lafo, he gowing of eail e-coece always kees he high seed on inceases and he icing odel is a key quesion o eseach. Soe eseach have aleady exloed he icing gaes of eailes and e-eailes (Qihui Lu and Nan Liu,03, Fenando Bensein,008, Ruiliang Yan,008), bu we noice ha he ice coeiion aong e-coece lafos ge oe inense, and he influence of oeaional odels o he e-coece lafos is becoe oe and oe obvious. In his ae, he oeaional odels ae divided ino wo yes: he fis ye is ha he lafo se he ice by and bagain wih sulie, such as Aazon, and he second ye is ha he e-coece ovides a lafo fo sulie and consues and he ice of oduc is decided by sulie, such as Alibaba. Fo he sae oduc which sells on wo e-coece lafos, he icing odel is no only elaed o he cusoe eceived value, bu also influenced by he oeaional odel. The lafo of he fis ye should conside he wholesaling ice, he coeiion wih he second ye lafo and he bagaining gae wih he oduc sulie when hey se he eailing ice. In his ae, we conside hee keys of he icing odel: he oeaional odel, he coeiion of he wo lafos and he cusoe eceived value.. Model desciion Hee, we conside wo yes of oeaional odels which ae adoed by e-coece eaile lafos wih one oduc anufacue. The wo yes of e-coece eaile lafo ae denoed by and. Plafo : he e-coece ovides a lafo fo sulie and consues. Because ha his kind of e-coece lafo does no aiciae in he selling aciviies of online selles and each online selle have a faily weak voice in bagaining owe, so he ice of oduc is decided by sulie; Plafo : he lafo sells oduc hough is own channel. Relying on oweful scale advanage, his kind of e-coece lafos uchase oduc fo sulie se he ice and bagains wih sulie.

2 Sulie s : sulie s ovides oducs o lafo and he online selles of lafo. The diffeence is fo he selles of lafo, sulie s se he ice of he oduc based on wholesaling and eailing, bu fo lafo, he ice of he sae oduc is se by he lafo, based on he sales volue and wholesale ice. We can see ha, he coeiion of e-coece lafo and acually anslaes o a coeiion beween lafo and sulie s. In ode o axiizing he ofi, sulie s has o conside no only he eailing ice bu also he wholesaling ice. The wholesaling icing canno be oo low o else he selling of lafo will encoach on he ake shae of lafo ; in he eanie, i canno be oo high, ohewise he whole sales volue of he ake will decease. Bu fo lafo, hey wan o use hei song bagaining owe o negoiae wih sulie s fo a lowe wholesaling ice. In his way, sulie s and e-coece lafo consiue a uli-sage gae elaionshi which decides he online ice of he wo e-coece lafos ogehe. In his ae, we ehaically analyze he fis wo sages: SageⅠ: e-coece lafo uchases oduc fo sulie s ; sulie s ovides oduc o lafo and se he wholesaling ice; hen, lafo se ice fo iself and sulie s se eailing ice fo he online selles of lafo. SageⅡ: based on he sales volue of sage, lafo bagain wih sulie s ; sulie s se a new wholesaling ice; hen, lafo and sulie s ese he eailing ice esecively. Using he cusoe uiliy heoy, we build he deand funcion of each lafo. We choose aaee v, which is disibued in he [0, ] ineval, o denoe he value of cusoes buying oduc and α ( i =,), which is also disibued in he [0, ] i ineval, denoe he efeence of he e-coece lafo and,(i.e. cusoe eceived value). So, he uiliy of each e-coece lafo can be easued by Ui = αiv i,( i=, ), wih i denoing he eailing ice of lafo and. In he eanie, we assue ha he seach cos of he wo e-coece lafos is 0. This assuion is ealisic because ha he wo lafos ae selling oducs online, he cusoes do no need o send a lo o seach he infoaion of he oduc. In he es a of his ae, we use Beand gae odel o analyze he equilibiu in he wo sages of his gae. 3. Equilibiu analysis of sageⅠ In his secion, we analyze he equilibiu of sageⅠin his gae. The sae oduc is sold on hese wo e-coece lafos, and we assue he oduc is sufficien and uchased fo sulie a he ice of he cuen sage wheneve necessay, so based on cusoe uiliy heoy, we ge: α α, = α( α α) D

3 D(, ) = α α These ae he deand funcions of lafo and. Fo e-coece lafo, he ice of oduc is se by sulie s, so, he ayoff, which should be axiized, consiss of wo as: wholesaling o lafo and eailing o cusoes hough lafo. Bu fo lafo, he whole ayoff deived fo is online selling. Plugging hese funcions ino ayoff funcion, we ge: α α = + C α( α α) α α = ( ) α α Aong hese funcions, denoe he wholesaling ice fo lafo, which is se by sulie s. Fo convenience, in ou ae, we assue he cos of oducion is a fixable consanc. In ode o obain axial ayoff, he ice esonse funcion of lafo and is hen deived as: α α = + α α = + ( α α ) + These funcions can be exessed by. Afe silificaion, we ge: α α α = + 4α α 4α α α + α α α α = + 4α α 4α α Thus, he elaionshi beween and is hen deived as: α + α α α = + Because α ( i =,) is disibued in he [0, ] ineval, so he coefficien of his i α+ α funcion,, is lage han 0, which indicaes ha, when sulie s aises eailing ice of lafo, lafo would follows he sae ah and vice 3

4 vesa. α+ α α α Make β = and β =, we can deive hee siuaions, α > α, α = αand α < α. When α > α, βis less han and β is less han 0, which eans in his siuaion, < ; When α = α, βequals o and β equals o 0, which eans in his siuaion, = =, if lafo oeaes in he cicusances, he ayoff of lafo will un ino 0, and lafo will sell oduc a wholesaling ice; When α < α, βis lage han and β is lage han 0, which eans in his siuaion, >. PoosiionⅠ: In sageⅠ, unde diffeen oeaional odels, he eailing ices of hese lafos change in he sae diecion. A highe consues' sense of a e-coece lafo coesonds a highe eailing ice, in he ean ie, he wo lafos would no ado sae ice saegy, esecially fo lafo. 4. Equilibiu analysis of sageⅡ In his sage, e-coece lafo has choice o bagain wih sulie s, because of song bagaining owe. Theefoe, we sa he analysis by deiving he eailing ice and deand funcion of lafo. We ge: 4( α α ) 8 ( ) 4 ( ) α α α α α = + α + 4α α 4α α 4α α D α = + 4α α 4α α Accoding o he above wo funcions, he coodinae axis of α can be divided α ino hee inevals: 0, 4, α, α 4 esecively. and [ α, ] α Whenα is disibued in he 0, 4. We now discuss he hee cases ineval, in ode o obain ayoff, he α α α value of us in he α, α+ α ineval. In his case, if lafo wan o cu down in bagaining, he eailing ice will incease and he deand of 4

5 α lafo will decease. When α is disibued in he, α 4 ineval, we can ge ha he value of can only beα o guaanee he acical significance of he above equaion. Bu hen, he deand of lafo becoe 0, so, his case is false. When α is disibued in he[ α, ] ineval, he value of us in he[ 0,α ] ineval. In his case, if lafo wan o cu down ice in bagaining, he eailing will decease and he deand of lafo will incease. Then we deive he ayoff of he wo lafos o obain a clea bagaining saegy. α + 8α α + 8α αα α α = + + C ( 4α α) ( 4α α) 4α α 4 α α 8 4 α α α α α = + + α 4α α 4α α 4α α We now ge he axis of syey of he wo ayoff cuves. Cobining wih he above analysis, we coae he osiion of he inevals and ge he discussion as follow: Fo lafo, he axis of syey of he ayoff cuve is: 8α = 8 + α ( α + α ) Fo lafo, he axis of syey of he ayoff cuve is: = α α When α is in he 0, 4 ineval, accoding o he onooniciy of hese wo funcions, he oal ayoff of sulie s is onoonically incease wih, and he ayoff of lafo is onoonically decease wih α α α α, α+ α. So we can ge: α α α PoosiionⅡ:When is in α, α+ α, in he feasible egion ineval, exis a *, which akes he 5

6 ayoff of lafo and lafo ae equal. Because he oal ayoff of sulie s is onoonically inceasing wih in he α α α α, α+ α ineval, we ge ha, sulie s does no have he diving foce o educe he wholesaling ice. Bu fo lafo, he siuaion is jus he oosie. The ayoff of lafo onoonically decease wih in he feasible α α α egion α,, lafo has a sufficien oive o bagain wih he α+ α sulie. Unde he esen cicusances, sulie s has wo kinds of saegies. When >, alhough cuing wholesaling ice will educe is ayoff, bu fo * he sake of exanding he ake shae, sulie s would ado ice-off saegy and cu down he wholesaling ice, and he ciical value of ice educion is is down o * ; When *, he deceasing of will ake he ayoff of sulie s is lowe han lafo. So in his case, sulie s would incease he wholesaling ice o bing u is ayoff o he sae level wih lafo. Above all, we can see ha, in his scenaio, sulie s is he leade of his gae, and can adjus he sales of lafo hough he changes of wholesaling ice. When α is in he [ ] α, ineval, he oal ayoff of sulie s onoonically 8α + α incease wih in he 0, 8 ( α + α) ineval and onoonically decease wih in 8α 8 + α ( α + α ), α ineval. The ayoff of lafo is onoonically deceasing wih, in he feasible egion[ 0,α ]. We now can ge ha, in he 6 8α 8 + α ( α + α ), α ineval, boh sulie s and lafo have he oive o educe he wholesaling ice. In his ineval, when is deceasing, he eailing ice of lafo will decease and he deand of lafo will incease. In he eanie, he ayoff 8α + α of sulie s and lafo will all incease. So in he, α ineval, 8 ( α + α) sulie s would ado wholesaling ice-off saegy while lafo would

7 ado bagaining saegy o aise he ayoff and he deand of oduc. In he 8α + α 0, ineval, wih he deceasing of, he ayoff of lafo is 8 ( α + α) inceasing, bu he ayoff of sulie s is decease, so in his ineval, alhough he deand of he oduc will incease if is coninuously going down, sulie s would no educe he wholesaling ice, while lafo ado bagaining saegy. 5.Final eak In he coeiion of e-coece lafos, a diffeen oeaional odel would lead o a diffeen icing saegy. In his ae, we discuss icing saegy of he fis wo sages, and we ge he conclusions as follow: in he fis sage, hese lafos would no se an idenical ice, and he eailing ices of hese lafos change in he sae diecion. In he second sage, lafo will always ado bagaining saegy in ode o obain a lowe wholesaling ice, bu fo sulie s, α hee ae wo kinds of decisions fo fou easons. When α is in he 0, 4 ineval, sulie s is he leade of ake and can influence he ake hough adjusing he * α( α α) wholesaling ice. A his scenaio, in he, ineval, cuing α+ α wholesaling saegy will be adoed by sulie s fo exanding ake shae; in he α, * ineval, inceasing wholesaling saegy will be adoed by sulie s fo oe ayoffs. When α is in he [ α, ] ineval, in he 8α + α 0, ineval, 8 ( α + α) {bagain, incease} is he olicy se of he wo lafo fo obaining highe ayoffs; in he 8α 8 + α ( α + α ), α ineval, wholesaling ice-off saegy would be adoed by sulie s o aise he ayoff and he deand of oduc, while lafo would ado bagaining saegy. Alhough we ge soe conclusions of he elaionshi of icing saegy and oeaional odels of e-coece lafos, hee ae sill soehing oe o exloe. Fo exale, he icing saegy unde he offe level consained condiions and oe coeios. Wha s oe, alhough soe of he e-coece lafos do no have he icing owe, hey ovide a ading lafo and chage fees, so i would be ineesing o exloe he icing saegy unde evenue shaing. 7

8 Refeences [] Lu Q, Liu N. Picing gaes of ixed convenional and e-coece disibuion channels. Coues & Indusial Engineeing. Januay, 03;64:-3. [] Gabszewicz J, Wauhy X. Veical Poduc Diffeeniaion and Two-Sided Makes. Econoics Lees. Ail 04;3():58-6. [3] Yan R. Picing saegy fo coanies wih ixed online and adiional eailing disibuion akes. Jounal Of Poduc And Band Manageen. 008;7():48-56 [4] Bensein F, Song J, Zheng X. Bicks-and-oa vs. clicks-and-oa : An equilibiu analysis. Euoean Jounal Of Oeaional Reseach Januay, 008;87:

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