MLA (Modern Language Association) style, 7th ed.

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1 Learning Makes the Difference MLA (Modern Language Association) style, 7th ed. Presenting someone else's words or ideas as your own is plagiarism, an academic offense. Avoid plagiarism by always citing the sources of information/ideas/quotations presented in your paper (Portage College Library has guides on ways to avoid plagiarism). As a student, you will be writing research papers for a number of assignments given by your instructors during your studies. In doing so, you will be going through the following steps: 1. You will use different sources to get the information you need to write a paper on a particular topic 2. You will be including this information directly or indirectly in your paper, or, in other words, you will use various types of quotation - A quotation is a written or spoken passage that is repeated word for word in another context (your paper), usually with appropriate scholarly acknowledgment (a correct citation) of the original source. 3. You will need to give a citation for every quotation that you are using - a reference or listing of the key pieces of information about a work that make it possible to identify and locate it again. The elements of a citation normally include author, title, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for a book; and journal title, volume, number, issue, year, and page numbers for an article. The main goals of any citation are to credit the author(s) and enable a reader to find the source. This guide shows how to use MLA (Modern Language Association) style, 7th ed. to cite the most common types of sources including books, periodical articles, and electronic material on the Internet. For more examples see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th ed. available in the Portage College Library [ MLA 2009]. Changes to MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7 th edition The Modern Language Association published the 7 th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers in March Details of the three major changes are below. Titles in italics Titles are now italicized rather than underlined. Medium of publication Each entry in the citation list requires the inclusion of the medium of publication, such as print, web or DVD at the end of the citation, followed by a period. URLs when citing web publications Web addresses, known as URLs, are now optional. Include one if it is unlikely that the reader can find the article without the URL or if required by your instructor. A website citation now ends with the medium type (Web) followed by a period, then the date of access, followed by a period, then the URL if required. A research paper must cite sources in 2 ways: 1. Citing sources in your paper through: a) in-text parenthetical citations or b) endnotes or footnotes 2. Creating a list of Works Cited at the end of your paper. Citing Sources in the text Besides providing the list of Works Cited at the end of your paper, you also need to cite the sources either through a) in-text parenthetical citations or b) in the endnotes or footnotes. Portage College Library Box 417, Ave. Lac La Biche, AB T0A 2C0 Phone: (780) 623-.portagecollege.ca (updated January 2011)

2 1 a) PARENTHETICAL CITATION Chapter 6 of MLA Handbook Below are examples of how to cite sources in the text using parenthetical citations. Remember you need to document not only direct quotations, but also any ideas that are not your own. Sample 1: "What is quality? A product or a service possesses quality if it helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market" (Deming and Wang 2). In parentheses (), state the last name(s) of the author(s) and the page number(s) where the quotation can be found in the work you are citing. If more than one work by the same author appear in Works Cited, also provide the title [in italics] in your parenthetical citation (e.g., Deming, New Economics, 2). Sample 2: Deming et al. inform us that a product or service has quality "if it helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market" (2). If the author is already identified in the sentence, you only need to indicate the page number(s) of the source where the quotation appears. When there are more than 3 authors, provide only the last name of the first author and use et al. If the source does not provide an author's name, state the title in the parenthetical citation. Internet sources often lack fixed page numbers or section numbering. In such cases, only state the name(s) of author(s) in the parenthetical citation. CITING MORE THAN ONE WORK IN A PARENTHETICAL CITATION Section MLA Handbook If you want to cite two or more works in a parenthetical citation or in the same sentence, use semicolons to separate the citations. (Atwood 101; Conrad 57-58) (Guidelines 25; Hallin 37) QUOTATIONS Section MLA Handbook The accuracy of quotations is very important in a research paper. Quotations must be written exactly as they appear in the original sources. Spelling, capitalization and punctuation cannot be changed unless the changes are indicated in brackets. Below are some examples of quotations. " He was obeyed," wrote Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness, "yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect" (84). Joseph Conrad wrote in Heart of Darkness, "He was objected, yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect" (84). If a quotation is more than four lines, begin a new line indenting one inch (or five spaces) from the left margin. You do not need to add quotation marks around the quote. Generally you provide page number(s) of the work where your quotation appears in. However, if you are citing a poem, provide the line numbers instead. Below is an example of a poem cited. Langston Hughes describes a dream deferred in one of his poems: What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore--- And then run? (1-5) Provide the line numbers because this is a poem. For prose, use page number(s) of where the quotation appears. If you need to omit word(s), phase(s) or sentence(s) in your quotation, use three periods with a space after the last word and a space before the first word [ ].

3 George Melnyk writes of the literary history of Alberta in glish forms only a tiny part of a much wider English literary tradition 1 b) ENDNOTES OR FOOTNOTES Section 6.5 of the MLA Handbook An instructor may ask you to use endnotes or footnotes instead of parenthetical citations. First, place a note number at the end of the sentence or paragraph in which you are quoting a source. Stuttard suggested that practices and preparation improve public speaking. 1 Next, write a note for indicating the author(s), title, publishing details and page numbers for the source cited. The note can be placed either in the endnotes (a list of all the references at the end of your paper) or in the footnotes (at the bottom of each page). 1 Marie Stuttard, The Power of Public Speaking: Effective Techniques for Dynamic Communication Print. While you use the same information in your Works Cited list to create your notes, the form of entry is different. The first line of each footnote and endnote is indented, while each subsequent line is flush left. See more examples below. BOOKS Endnotes or footnotes: 1 Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (New York: Morrow, 1990) 52. Print. Author(s) [first name stated first], Title (Place of publication: Publisher, publication year) page number(s) where the quotation appears. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE Endnotes or footnotes: 2 Business Week 1 Feb. 1999: Print. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ARTICLE ON THE WEB Endnotes or footnotes: 3 Journal of Modern Business 1.1. (1999), Web. 8 Dec < page21.html>. Works cited (Chapter 5 of the MLA Handbook) publication year. The order, punctuation and capitalization are all important and specific. Follow the example that best matches your source. Author(s). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, publication year. Publication medium. Examples are single-spaced to save space. In a research paper, citations are double-spaced. Begin the first line of your citation flush with the left margin; subsequent lines are indented 5 spaces (or 1/2 inch). BOOK BY ONE AUTHOR Section MLA Handbook Stuttard, Marie. The Power of Public Speaking: Effective Techniques for Dynamic Communication. Hauppauge, s, Print.

4 TWO OR MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR Section MLA Handbook To cite two or more books by the same author, give the author name in first entry only. For subsequent works, start with three hyphens followed by a period and the title. Scholes, Robert. The Crafty Reader. New Haven: Yale UP, Print. ---,Textual Power: Literary Theory and the Teaching of English. New Haven: Yale UP, Print. If two or more publishers are given, include all of them, with the corresponding city of publication and publication year. Use a semicolon to separate the publisher information e.g., Toronto: McGraw, 1998; London: Usborne, For publication date use latest copyright year. For republished books, give the original copyright year before the publication details e.g., New York: Doubleday, BOOK BY TWO OR MORE AUTHORS Section MLA Handbook To cite a book by multiple authors, give their names in the same order as indicated on the title page of the book, not necessarily in alphabetical order. Krannich, Ronald L., and Caryl Rae Krannich. Dynamite Cover Letters and Other Great Job Search Letters. 3rd ed. Manassas Park, VA: Impact, Print. Only for the first author, the last name is stated first. For subsequent author(s), provide the name(s) in normal form. Even if the authors have the same last name, state each name in full. If more than 3 people wrote the book, name the first author and add et al. (and others). Schwind, Hermann F., et al. Canadian Human Resource Management. 4th ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Print. If the persons listed on the title page are editors, use the abbreviation eds. after the final name. Ellmann, Richard and Robert O'Clair, eds. The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, Print. CORPORATE AUTHOR (includes government documents) Section MLA Handbook Canadian Bankers Association. Banking on Employment Equity: A Casebook. Toronto: Canadian Bankers Association, Print. A corporate author may be a commission, an association, or any group whose individual members are not identified on the title page. List a corporate body as author even when it is also the publisher. A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY (a collection of essays or stories) OR A CHAPTER IN A BOOK Section Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing. Eds. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen G. Mandell. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, Print. Title of the anthology. Ed(s). Name(s) of editor(s). Place of publication: publisher, publication year. Page number(s) of the cited piece. Publication medium. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK (e.g. encyclopedia, dictionary, almanac, etc.) Section The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed Print. If the author is not indicated, begin with the article's title. When citing familiar reference works such as encyclopedia or dictionary, provide edition and publication year rather than full publication details. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION Section MLA Handbook Darwin, Ann. "Critical Reflections on Mentoring in Work Settings." Adult Education Quarterly 50 (2000): Print Journal title volume number (publication year): page number(s). Publication medium.

5 For a journal using continuous pagination give only the volume, not the issue number. For example, vol. 5 issue 1 ends on page 290 while issue 2 begins on 291. List only 5 and the page numbers. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL THAT SEPARATELY PAGES EACH ISSUE Section MLA Handbook Harvard Business Review 74.3 (1996): Print. When a journal separately pages each issue (each issue begins on page 1), add a period and issue number after the volume number e.g for volume 74, issue 3. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE Section MLA Handbook Business Week 1 Feb. 1999: 68+. Print. For a magazine, do not give the volume and issue numbers, but give publication date. The plus sign (+) is used when an article is not printed on consecutive pages. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Section MLA Handbook Edmonton Journal 6 Feb. 1998: A3. Print. A FILM OR VIDEO RECORDING Section MLA Handbook Production companies Time to Grow. Preschool Social Development. Prod. Coast Community College District, the Corporation for Community College Television and KOCE-TV. Magic Lantern Communications, Videocassette.. Distributor Grapes of Wrath. Dir. John Ford. Perf. Henry Fonda and Jane Darwell Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, DVD. Original release year After the title, list the director (Dir. for director), production company (if it is indicated), the distributor and release year. You may include other relevant details (e.g., writer, performers, or producer) between the title and the distributor. Include the original release date, if relevant, before the distributor. AN INTERVIEW THAT YOU CONDUCTED Section MLA Handbook Gates, Bill. Personal interview. 17 Feb Name of person interviewed. Kind of interview (personal/telephone). Date. PUBLISHED INTERVIEW Section MLA Handbook Canadian Business Jan. 1990: 21. Source Title publication year: page number. ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT ON THE WORLD-WIDE-WEB General Rule: Begin with the same information you would provide for a printed source and add a retrieval statement (date of access) for the Web information. New in the 7 th edition: Web addresses, known as URLs, are now optional. Include it if it is unlikely that the reader can find the article without the URL or if required by your instructor. A website citation now ends with the medium type (Web) followed by a period, then the date of access, followed by a period, then the URL if required. PERSONAL OR PROFESSIONAL SITE Title of main website. Date of electronic or original print publication (or latest update). Name of the organization that is hosting or sponsoring the website. Publication medium. Date you accessed the Web source <URL> (if required).

6 Mandelbaum, Michael. The Plains Cree: an Ethnographic, Historical, and Comparative Study First Nations on SchoolNet, Industry Canada. Web. 17 March 2004 < Atwood, Margaret. "In the Secular Night." O.W.Toad: The Margaret Atwood Reference Site. N.d. Web. 10 January 2004 < If a site does not list an author, begin with the title of the Web page or document. Use n.d. if no date is indicated on the page. date of electronic publication. Sometimes, you have to go to the home page of the website to find the missing information. The general rule is that you need to provide as much information as you could when citing a webpage. "City Profile: San Francisco." CNN.com Cable News Network. Web. 14 May 2002 < A WORK FROM AN ONLINE DATABASE Section MLA Handbook Scholarly journals are available online independently (as shown in the examples above) or as part of a subscriptionbased database of journals (which usually is from a commercial vendor). Portage Library subscribes to a number of electronic databases on the Internet for student and staff use. For citation purposes note each of the following databases and their sources. If you are not sure what database you are using, check with a librarian on how to cite it. Begin with the details you would give for the print source, including inclusive page numbers or the first page number and a plus sign when pagination is not continuous. If pagination is not available, use n.pag. Conclude the entry with the database title [in italics], publication medium, the access date (day, month, year) and, if necessary, the URL. Lortie, Marie- - Marketing Magazine (1998): 13+. Canadian Business and Current Affairs and Canadian Newstand. Web. 8 Dec Case of IBM Rochester." Journal of Managerial Issues 10 (1998): 13+. Web. Electric Library. 8 Dec < Roberts-Witt, Sarah L. "It's the Customer,Stupid! Do what they want, or you're out of business." PC Magazine 27 June 2000: 107. Web. Academic One File. 1 November DeCloet, Derek. "Entertainment Weakly: Edgar Bronfman Jr. Has Transformed Seagram into a Lot of Iffy Propositions Wrapped Around a Booze Empire." Canadian Business 6 March 2000: Web. CPI.Q. 1 November 2006 < Presenting someone else's words or ideas as your own is plagiarism, an academic offense. Avoid plagiarism by always citing the sources of information/ideas/quotations presented in your paper (Portage College Library has guides on ways to avoid plagiarism).

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