Optical Fiber. Smart cabling: constructing a cost-effective, reliable and upgradeable cable infrastructure for your enterprise network

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1 Optical Fiber Smart cabling: constructing a cost-effective, reliable and upgradeable cable infrastructure for your enterprise network Carl Roberts

2 Cabling considerations for DCs and Enterprise Power Life Cycle Data Rate 40/100GbE MMF vs. SMF BIMMF Running cost Density Cooling Standards Latency Efficiency Capital cost Fibre or Copper OM 2,3 or 4

3 Agenda Cabling considerations for DC s and Enterprise Overview of Optical Fibre MMF vs. SMF: Why MMF is cost effective Fibre vs. Copper Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre 100G

4 Overview of Optical Fibre Glass fibre that carries light along its length at 200 million meters per second Light waves are reflected and guided down the length of an optical fibre The light strikes the interface at shallow enough angle to reflect itself along the propagation p path θ 1 > θ c n 1 n 2 n 1 Cladding n 2 > n 1 Core

5 Mode Propagation in Single-mode and Multimode Path in which light travels Multimode fibre supports many modes Graded index of multimode core allows different modes to propagate more evenly Single mode fibre Single-mode fibre supports only one mode

6 Why Optical Fibre? Higher data rates and longer link lengths Flexible, reliable networks with low latency Unparalleled network security Immune to EMI, RFI and cross-talk Small lightweight cables Maximizes pathway and space utilization Higher port density Easy installation, handling and termination Longer cable life cycle Lower power consumption, less expensive to operate

7 Fibre Deployment Multimode fibre Riser 80% fibre and increasing Horizontal <1%fibre 10/100/1000 Mb/s Multimode fibre Data Centres 60% fibre and increasing Single-mode fibre Interbuilding 95% fibre and increasing Source: Corning Optical Fibre/Corning Cable Systems Analysis

8 Cost breakdown of optical cabling In a typical 300 meter backbone Transceivers 24% fibre Optic Cable 1% Jumpers & Connectors < 1% Switch Electronics (fixed costs) 74% Patch Panel, Rack 1% Source: Corning analysis

9 Multimode fibre types classified based on bandwidth values Optical Multimode (OM) designations are per ISO/IEC OM Designation OFL 850/1300nm (MHz.km) EMB 850nm 1Gb/s 10Gb/s (MHz.km) Link Length Link Length OM1 200/ m 33 m OM2 500/ m 82 m OM3 1500/ m 300 m OM4 3500/ m 550 m OFL = Overfilled Bandwidth (Legacy/LED BW) EMB = Effective Modal Bandwidth (Laser BW) 10 Gb/s Link Length based on 850nm (lowest cost) wavelength operation EMB OLF bandwidth is certifies only a predictor performance of performance capability in of applications OM3 and with OM4data in high- speed transmission applications; rates of << 101 Gb/s, Gbs Gbs Gb/s reach & 100 of OM1 Gb/s& OM2 is not certified

10 Multimode fibre types classified based on bandwidth values Optical Multimode (OM) designations are per ISO/IEC OM Designation OFL 850/1300nm (MHz.km) EMB 850nm 1Gb/s 10Gb/s (MHz.km) Link Length Link Length OM1 200/ m 33 m OM2 500/ m 82 m OM3 1500/ m 300 m OM4 3500/ m 550 m OFL = Overfilled Bandwidth (Legacy/LED BW) EMB = Effective Modal Bandwidth (Laser BW) 10 Gb/s Link Length based on 850nm (lowest cost) wavelength operation EMB bandwidth certifies performance capability of OM3 and OM4 in high- speed applications; 10 Gb/s, 40 Gb/s & 100 Gb/s

11 Multimode fibre solution saves ~50% over single-mode fibre solution Multimode fibre is the most flexible and cost-effective solution for a broad range of data rates from 10 Mb/s to 100 Gb/s systems Cost comparison for a 200m link; 200m 48F cable, 24-Way/Port cross connect panel 24 Port 24 Port 24 Port 24 Port 48F Source: OptoMark & advantageoptics.com

12 Multimode fibre solution saves ~50% over single-mode fibre solution Multimode fibre is the most flexible and cost-effective solution for a broad range of data rates from 10 Mb/s to 100 Gb/s systems Gbps Gbps 100-Gbps (100m) Relative Cos st OM2 850nm OM3 850nm OM4 850nm Fibre Type & Operating wavelength SMF 1310nm Relative Cost NOT supported OM2 850nm OM3 850nm OM4 850nm SMF 1310nm Fibre Type & Operating wavelength Multimode systems using 850nm transceivers are always the lowest cost OM3 fibre: Offers the lowest cost upgrade path to 10Gb/s (up to 300m) OM4 fibre: Small overall higher cost but provides further upgrade options Source: OptoMark & advantageoptics.com

13 Agenda Cabling considerations for DC s and Enterprise Overview Optical Fibre MMF vs. SMF: Why MMF is cost effective Fibre vs. Copper Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre 100G

14 Fibre vs. Copper Efficient and High speed For the future?

15 Where in the DC are Fibre and Copper used Fibre is mainly used in trunk cables Distances >10m High density cables High speed transmission Copper used for patch cables and low data rate systems Low material cost Familiar technology Density Optical fibre cabling offers > 20 X data density over Cat5/6 copper; 8.8 vs 0.4 Gbps/mm 2 [10G per fibre pair vs 10G per Cat5/6]

16 Advantages/ Disadvantages of Copper Low cost transceivers Low cost cables 10GBASE-T Familiarity High power consumption This has decreased over the years from >8W to ~4W, still much higher than Fibre Low density Lower data rates Cross Talk and Interference Led to the development of CAT6A cables Long testing time Has become more difficult to install and test

17 Advantages/ Disadvantages of fibre High density Low power consumption Easy Upgrade path Higher Bandwidth Longer link distances Higher Data rate capability EMI Immunity Easier to Install Quicker to test Smaller Size More robust Lower long term cost Optical transceivers are more expensive Less familiar with some vendors However Cost has more than halved over the last 6 yrs In the future low cost 850nm VCSEL s could challenge copper PHY cost

18 Cost: Think long term All too often the price of the individual components determine the decision of copper or fibre This may not determine what solution has the greatest long-term value Base decisions on other criteria: Total installed system cost Life cycle cost Management and maintenance cost Optical cabling can reduce total installation cost Lower labour time and faster more efficient testing time Most timportantly- tl How much power will the system consume?

19 Fibre Green Advantage The high insertion loss of copper cables + electronic DSP means that energy consumption will inevitably be higher than that of low-loss fibre connections Cat 5 Insertion loss of copper 40dB Insertion loss of Fibre <1dB Optical transceivers consume a ~0.5 watt per port compared to +4 watts per port for a 10GBASE-T copper switch A 10G optical system requires far fewer switches and line cards for equivalent bandwidth capability of a 10G copper system This translates into less energy consumption for electronics and cooling

20 The Energy Savings of Fibre For every kw-hr required to power 10G electronics, kw-hr of power is typically required for cooling Savings range from 76 percent to 86 percent depending on port count At 12p/kW.hr that equates to over 75k a year savings for one 288-port optical switch vs. a copper switch 80,000 90% Ann nual Energy Cost ( ) 60,000 40,000 20, % 70% 60% Port Count Copper Switch Fibre Switch Energy Reduction (%) Energy Sav vings Source: Corning Cable Systems

21 Efficiency: Copper still lags IEEE 802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) Next generation 10GBase-T EEE PHYs are expected to consume less than 4Watts The new standard reduces energy consumption by defining low power modes No data to transmit PHY can be put into a low power mode Estimated savings while in low power up to 90% However For 10GBase-T EEE PHY to average ~1W, requires low power mode for 85% of the time Therefore EEE only helps if the load level is around 20Mbps For 10Gb Ethernet, fibre PHYs will remain more energy efficient than copper PHYs even with EEE High traffic Relative Po ower Low traffic Copp per Fibre Copp per Fibre Source: Optical Society of America

22 Data Center Must Have points to need for effective cable management Increase density of factoryterminated solutions Improve slack management Relieve congestion in pathways and spaces Improve airflow Eliminate polarity concerns Improve MACs

23 High density provides efficient cooling and best space utilisation = lower operating costs 10GBASE-SR enhances green data centre installations by utilizing high-port-density electronics with very low power and cooling requirements Additionally, an optical network provides premier pathway and space performance in racks, cabinets and trays to support high cooling efficiency when compared to 10GBASE-T copper connectivity

24 A Comparison of density: cost and efficiency One MTP connector Typically 3mm diameter cable 12 or 24 fibres Up to 24 x 10Gb lanes in a 1 connector Much lower number of cables Cost Reliability Increased airflow Efficient cooling Lower energy costs

25 Fibre connectivity solutions offer many advantages Pre-terminated solutions 75% faster installations than traditional cabling solutions Modular component design facilitates moves, adds and changes Small-form-factor factor products (LC, MT-RJ, MTP, ribbon cable) reduce space needed under floor, overhead and in racks/cabinets Optical fibres for PN applications benefit from in- factory measurements Even for 10Gb/s applications each fibre only requires a single insertion loss measurement In contrast Copper cables increasingly require a number of more complicated tests which can be sensitive to cable routing and other electrical hardware or communications systems Small diameter cable 6 connectors 72 terminations

26 Agenda Cabling considerations for DC s and Enterprise Overview Optical Fibre MMF vs. SMF: Why MMF is cost effective Fibre vs. Copper Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre 100G

27 Moves, adds and changes (MACs) can cause a structured cabling system to look more like a rats nest However Initial installations that follow bend radius guides and structured cabling paths don t have to worry about signal loss due to inappropriate bends Over time, MACs lead to mis-managed cabling resulting in: Congestion in sub-floor space l d i i b d Bend-induced attenuation Restricted air flow Negative impact on cooling efficiency

28 Fibre Bend Performance Definition of Macrobending Macrobending defines the degree or severity of a fibre bend; Bend radius Tighter bend (smaller) radius leads to higher signal loss Bend length Longer length or more bends leads to higher signal loss Standardised Macrobend Test: Mandrel wrap method min Input signal Measured Received signal Measured loss due to bending is the Macrobend loss Signal levels falling below minimum receiver sensitivity cause link failures and down time! Mandrel of specified Radius or Diameter

29 Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre: BIMMF What is it? When Conventional multimode fibre is bent too tightly the transmitted light will refract out of the fibre core. Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre can withstand tight bends while being fully functional Why? Enables new possibilities for cable and patch panel design to further improve the benefits of using fibre Provides additional margin against signal loss

30 Bend Insensitive Technology performance B) Ma acrobend loss 850 nm, 2 turns (d Desired Bend Radii Bend Radius (mm) Existing multimode macrobend standards not tight enough Need new level of performance to accommodate bend radii commonly found in data centers and other enterprise network environments Lower bending loss performance Specified dto much htighter bend radii Maximum induced bend loss Multimode Std Multimode Std New Level of Bend performance at 850nm IEC ITU G Performance Bend Radius 37.5 mm 15 mm 7.5 mm Number of Turns Conventional multimode 0.5 db 1 db - Bend Insensitive ClearCurve Multimode 0.05 db 0.1 db 0.2 db

31 Advantages of Bend insensitive fibre Thinner, more flexible trunk cables Enables further improvement in airflow Increased ease of installation Connector Modules can be made smaller Increased density within racks Less racks required Reduced Data Centre footprint Address key issues faced by enterprise network managers Provide higher system reliability & reduced downtime (through increased margin) Introduce significant value into an enterprise network There are no trade-offs associated with ClearCurve multimode fibre Full backwards compatibility with existing 50 µm multimode fibres Fully compliant to the OM2, OM3 and OM4 standards Provide up to 10x better bend performance than conventional 50 µm products

32 Agenda Cabling considerations for DC s and Enterprise Overview Optical Fibre MMF vs. SMF: Why MMF is cost effective Fibre vs. Copper Bend Insensitive Multimode Fibre 100G

33 100GbE IEEE 802.3ba 100Gb Ethernet standards are in place Early end-user adoption is underway Industry adoption is anticipated in 2013 High-bandwidth applications such as video-on-demand and high-performance computing environments will drive the need for 100 Gb/s Ethernet interfaces Current devices are based on running 10x10Gb/s 10 Lanes running at 10 Gb/s each way 100 Gb/s 10 Lanes Tx 10 Lanes Rx

34 100GbE Development Considerable industry effort directed at 4x25Gb/s solution FiberChannel has roadmap for 28 Gb/s lanes for 32xFiberChannel Infiniband roadmap includes an enhanced data rate with 26 Gb/s lanes Several organizations have demonstrated VCSELs at > 25 Gb/s Advantages are possible link budget enhancements Higher operating BER Greater ISI tolerance 4 Lanes running at 25 Gb/s each way 100 Gb/s 4 Lanes Tx 4 Lanes Rx

35 Summary The efficient use of energy in communications is a growing concern 3% of all energy produced is consumed by DC s Will go up to 6% in near future The cabling infrastructure in the DC forms the foundation on which information can flow and be stored efficiently: Has an impact on power consumption and overall energy usage Speed and Latency i.e. cost per bit Bend insensitive multimode fibre can help with this: Going 100% BIMMF can dramatically increase the efficiency of your DC Reducing energy consumption of electronics Reducing cooling costs through improved air flow Increase system Up time and cabling life cycle

36 Optical Fiber Thank you Carl Roberts

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