Copper for Beyond 10GBASE-T. David Zambrano

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1 Copper for Beyond 10GBASE-T David Zambrano

2 Agenda Market Drivers Standards Cabling and Ethernet Field Test Considerations

3 Agenda Market Drivers Standards Cabling and Ethernet Field Test Considerations

4 Market Drivers Cloud computing Resource scalability and flexibility from the internet Virtualization Storage, Applications, Operating systems Driven by optimization of processing resources, power, square footage and administrative staff Convergence and Consolidation File More bandwidth everywhere Applications Single Server

5 Network Virtualization Examples Virtualization requires a HUGE amount of data being transmitted thoughout the network!! Profile Virtualization Server Virtualization Presentation Virtualization Desktop Virtualization Application Virtualization

6 40/100G Growth in the Datacenter WAN SAN 40GbE FCoE 100GbE Gateway Link aggregation (40GbE) Nx10G -> 40G/100G FC 1G/10G -> 10G/40G 10GbE FCoE 1GbE LAN 1GbE LAN 1G, 10G -> more 10G, 40G 40GbE/100GbE mainly for aggregation

7 The Need for 40G Source: Robert Hays, Intel Howard Frasier, Broadcom 40G Ethernet Market Potential IEE HSSG

8 40G Over Copper in the Datacenter 80% of Client channels are less than 30m 93% of Client channels are less than 50m Cat-7A/Class FA Shielded cable has bandwidth to support 40GBASE-T Existing Cabling Some studies show Cat-6A may support 40G if tested for beyond 1000Mhz BW. Client-Access channel length distribution Alan Flatman Principal Consultant, LAN Technologies, UK Long Data Center Links vs. Length

9 Agenda Market Drivers Standards Cabling and Ethernet Field Test Considerations

10 Evolution of Cabling and Ethernet Soon (Cat-7A)/Class FA 2009 Cat-6A/Class EA 2007 Cat-5e Cat-6/Class E (Cat-7)/Class F Mhz 250Mhz 500Mhz 600Mhz 1000Mhz Level IIe Level III Level IIIe Level IV Tester Accuracy

11 Ethernet Speeds 40GBASE-T 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T 10GBASE-T POTENTIAL 40GBASE-T Rate 10 Mb/s 100 Mb/s 1 Gb/s 10 Gb/s 40 Gb/s Bandwidth 20 MHz MHz 62.5 MHz 413 MHz 1000(+) MHz Efficiency 1 b/s/hz 3.2 b/s/hz 16 b/s/hz 24.2 b/s/hz TBD Modulation Binary Manchester MLT3 PAM-5 DSQ-128 TBD BER <10-10 <10-10 <10-10 <10-12 <10-12 Pairs Reach 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m Class Class D Class D Class EA Class FA (?)

12 Current Cabling Standards TIA 568-C.2 (Components) TIA 568-C.2 (Cabling) ISO/IEC (Components) ISO/IEC (Cabling) Frequency Bandwidth Minimum Accuracy Level Cat-5e Cat-5e Cat-5e Class D 1-100Mhz Level IIe Cat-6 Cat-6 Cat-6 Class E 1-250Mhz Level III Cat-6A Cat-6A Cat-6A Class EA 1-500Mhz Level IIIe Cat-7 Class F 1-600Mhz Level IV Cat-7A Class FA Mhz Level IV-E*

13 Where is 40 Gigabit on RJ-45 Copper Cabling? Improved encoding schemes, usage of all 4 pairs could allow 40G data transmission on RJ-45 Systems up to a length of 100m Leading cabling system manufacturers support 40 Gigabit Bandwidth requirement for cable certifiers will increase to 1600MHz Data Category No. of Symbol Rate per pair encoding pairs Rate Bandwidth SNR 10 Mb/s Mb/s Manchester 20 Mbaud 16 MHz 15 db 100 Mb/s Mb/s MLT3 125 Mbaud 100 MHz 18 db 1000 Mb/s 5e Mb/s 4D-PAM Mbaud 100 MHz 21dB 10 Gb/s 6A Mb/s PAM 16/DSQ Mbaud 600 MHz 26 db 40 Gb/s? 4 10 Gb/s PAM 16/DSQ Mbaud 1600 MHz 26 db 40 Gb/s? 4 10 Gb/s PAM 32/DSQ Mbaud 1200 MHz 32 db * Source Belden

14 40G Copper Is it possible? Multiband FDM Encoding Screened Shielded Twisted Pair (S/STP or S/FTP) Penn State University Greater than 10G per second Copper Ethernet project with chip vendors and physical media players showed that 40GbE is possible. 50 gigabit per second over 100m Using screened STP cable Required Class FA cabling with at least 1000MHz

15 Why Copper vs. Fiber? Auto negotiation Allows devices of different rates to communicate Upgrading fiber requires HW change Cost of electronics and other components Copper electronics are much cheaper than fiber Power Power consumption has been a historical problem for copper but electronics have always evolved to lower power (in 1G and 10G), as will 40G in the future Copper supports Energy Efficient Ethernet Auto negotiation to lower rates to consume less power Allows other technologies Power Over Ethernet (PoE)

16 Are cable vendors prepared for it? Multiple cable vendors with CAT7-A / Class FA solutions and cables tested beyond 1000MHz Advanced shielding systems to avoid interference do not require AXT testing Advanced components Connectors TERA/GG45 Some suggest to start with short distances (i.e. 40m.) and then upgrade to 100m.

17 40G cables lifecycle Overall cable lifecycle must be considered before any installation At least to support 2 generations of standards / around 10 years lifespan CAT7-A / Class FA cabling installed today must survive next years A 40G capable cable installed today has the longest life

18 Future of Copper Ethernet Cabling Resolve the CAT7A Cabling standards Harmonize TIA 568C.2 Update test procedures to support current and future standards HSoTP Interest Group developing objectives Finalize Rate Selection - 40G? Finalize Reach -100m is possible? IEEE Call-for-interest

19 Agenda Market Drivers Standards Cabling and Ethernet Field Test Considerations

20 Field Tester Accuracy Defined in ISO/IEC /Ed. 2 Level IV and TIA 1152 Accuracy Defines baseline, link and channel accuracy of a field tester in comparison with a network analyzer for various parameters Residual Near End Crosstalk (RNEXT) Directivity (a measure for dynamic range of return loss) Common mode rejection (This is a differential measurement) Output Signal Balance ( a significant metric for alien x-talk) Ensures field testers are precise with minimal internal noise Level IV defines a measurement frequency to 600Mhz A new level of accuracy, with a higher frequency must be defined to support Class FA/Cat 7A channels and links that will be used for 40GBASE-T

21 Field Testing Beyond 600MHz Class FA cabling standards have moved already beyond 600MHz High speed (40G) Ethernet standards will require cabling beyond 600MHz High frequency applications such as broadband video and other applications over twisted pair is now possible Overall braid and foil have eliminated AXT Field testing beyond Level IV will be needed Is it possible??

22 Field Tester Limitations Electronic components have been prohibitively expensive, large, and complex Used limited number of channels Complicated magnetics have had RF paths raised the noise floor limited frequency of measurements (RNEXT) Had poor temperature performance Required regular referencing

23 Components of a Next Generation Measurement System Test Interface Rx1 Rx2 Rx5 DSP Measurement engine RF Signal Source

24 Multi Channel Transceivers

25 Fully Differential Design

26 Tester Baseline RNEXT vs Level IV limit Limit extrapolated beyond standard

27 Tester Baseline Directivity against Level IV limit Limit extrapolated beyond standard

28 Conclusions Future applications will require Datacenters / Server Clusters to upgrade to 40G Despite fiber growth, copper is very likely to be still predominant Class FA cable is the most firm candidate to support the 40G infrastructure. Is it different? Challenges: Standardization, accurate measurement methods 40G: The future is right here!

29 Any questions? Thank you!

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