108 A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA

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1 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:08 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Diyarbakır Grand Mosque

2 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:08 PM Page 109 DIYARBAKIR 109 Diyarbak r

3 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:08 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Diyarbak r at a Glance The province of Diyarbakır is located on a volcanic basin in the middle of Southeastern Anatolia, and is surrounded by branches of the Taurus Mountains. The black, volcanic soil was formed from basaltic lava flow. In addition to the Tigris, the region is covered with small rivers and streams fed by the mountain slopes. The city is referred to as Amidi in Assyrian sources, was called Amid following the Arab incursions, and became known as Kara or Black Amid with the arrival of the Turks. The current name is derived from the name Diyar-ı Bekr, meaning realm of the Bakr a reference to the Arab Bakr tribe who settled the region during the Arab incursions. In a speech in 1937, Atatürk called the city by its current appellation, after which it became officially known as Diyarbakır. The history of Diyarbakır dates back to around 7500 BC. Dozens of civilizations have passed through the city, leaving behind many historic monuments. The most important of these are the stunning city walls. The city s main sources of income are farming and livestock breeding. A kelek race on the Tigris Social Fabric Diyarbakır has been an important hub throughout history, serving as a natural bridge between Anatolia and Mesopotamia, Europe and Asia. Diyarbakır has been an important meeting point and melting pot for a wide range of cultures, and many civilizations have had a lasting impact on the city. Today, Diyarbakır s colorful social fabric is woven from Turkish, Syriac, Chaldean, Armenian, Kurdish and Arab threads. The Tigris The Tigris is the most important river in Diyarbakır, watering the region s farmland via a network of irrigation channels. Excavations at the ruins at Nineveh, Nemrut and Assyrian cities reveal that the Tigris was also once used for transportation. Since prehistoric times, rafts known as kelek have been used on the Tigris and the Euphrates for trade, travel and transporting wood. Traditionally made from wood, these rafts remain in use to this day.

4 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:08 PM Page 111 DIYARBAKIR AT A GLANCE 111 The walls of Diyarbakır seen from the On Gözlü Bridge Nature Diyarbakır is located in a basin with a central depression, and is surrounded by mountains. The region has a harsh continental climate with extremely hot summers. Nevertheless, its winters are comparatively milder than the rest of Eastern Anatolia as the Southeastern Taurus Mountains to the north shelter it from cold northern currents. The steppe vegetation blooms briefly during the spring, but dries up at the beginning of summer with the end of the rains. A smattering of oak forests can be found in the arid mountains. The Walls Diyarbakır s famous and historic city walls were restored in 349 under the Byzantine Emperor Constantius II. Considered the Changing lifestyles Diyarbakır has experienced large-scale immigration since the 1980s, resulting in a population explosion. Consequently, the city has grown dramatically, spilling over the city walls. The construction of dams and power oldest city walls in the world, they are also the second longest fortifications after the Great Wall of China. The shield-shaped walls are built from local black volcanic basalt. plants has supported the region s development, and irrigation farming has become increasingly widespread. The city s university, other educational institutions and airport have also attracted trade and tourism to the region in recent years. New festivals have also added to Diyarbakır s cultural scene. ID CARD Cotton Diyarbakır has recently begun to cultivate cotton using the irrigated farming system. The local Golda cotton is one of the finest cotton varieties produced in Turkey. Provincial Population: 1,517,672 according to the 2000 census City Center Population: 893,026 Altitude: 660 meters above sea level Area: 15,355 square kilometers Districts and Villages: 13 districts, 751 villages Neighboring Provinces: Siirt and Mufl to the east; fianl urfa, Ad yaman and Malatya to the west; Elaz and Bingöl to the north; Mardin to the south

5 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:09 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA The Colors of Old Diyarbak r At first glance, Diyarbakır is a dark city: its historic city walls, houses and even its soil verge on black. Diyarbakır derives its deep color from the basalt rocks used in the construction of almost all its buildings. The city is set at the edge of a plateau formed from lava that erupted from the Karacadağ volcano. This lava cooled to form volcanic basalt rock, which gives the city its characteristic gloomy hue. Plateaus The broken plateaus of Gaziantep and Şanlıurfa stretch to the west of the Karacadağ volcano, while the land to its east is hillier. A 14th-century Karakoyunlu headstone shaped like a ram Karacada The 1919-meter high Karacadağ is a typical shield volcano built up from layers of basalt lava flows. The volcano is in the southwest of the Diyarbakır Basin on the Urfa-Diyarbakır provincial border. The lava stretches as far as the Tigris Valley to the east. Because Karacadağ consists of volcanic rock, the waters that enter the mountain reemerge at its foothills or even further beyond. Basalt religious and military buildings Basalt is a common construction material in Diyarbakır. Almost every type of building you can think of is constructed from basalt, from the city walls to its mosques and madrasas. Yedi Kardeş Tower A dead end staircase near the Mardin Gate Mesudiye Madrasa

6 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:10 PM Page 113 DIYARBAKIR AT A GLANCE 113 Basalt houses Diyarbakır houses are built from basalt, a porous rock that keeps houses cool in the summer and warm in the winter. The interiors of these basalt houses are embellished with white ornamentation known as cıs that contrasts beautifully with the dark stone. The Esma Ocak House (top); Cıs ornamentation (left); Diyarbakır s dark houses are brightened by white ornamentation (above and below left); A narrow Diyarbakır street (right)

7 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:10 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Diyarbak r Houses Most Diyarbakır houses are built from basalt and feature elegantly decorated windows and gezemek railings. The layout of Diyarbakır houses is dictated by the local climate. The houses are divided into summer and winters areas: the summer sections are usually north facing, while the winter sections face south. The pools in the courtyards and iwans also help to keep the houses cool in the hot summer months.

8 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:10 PM Page 115 DIYARBAKIR AT A GLANCE 115 Every house in Diyarbakır has a central courtyard, most of which feature a pool and decorative plants. The kitchen is accessed directly from the courtyard. The rooms, halls and iwans are set at least 50 cm above the courtyard. The cusped arch windows are embellished with geometric designs, while elegant railings provide security and prevent children from falling. The walls of the rooms feature decorative niches for placing gas lamps or framed photographs.

9 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:11 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA A detail from the Grand Mosque

10 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:11 PM Page 117 THE HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR 117 The History of Diyarbak r Standing at the crossroads of Anatolia and Mesopotamia, Diyarbakır has been an important settlement throughout human history. Archeological excavations and research conducted in and around the city have revealed that it has been continuously settled since the Stone Age. Stone tools dating from the Paleolithic era have been found in the Hilar Caves. Çayönü is considered one of the earliest examples of the agricultural communities that developed in the Neolithic period, while the Girikihaciyan Tumulus shows traces of Copper Age culture. Almost every civilization that ruled Anatolia left its stamp on Diyarbakır, which served as a military and trade capital for the Mitanni, Assyrians, Arameans, Urartu, Meds, Persians, Seleucids, Parthians, Romans, Byzantines, Umayyads, Marwanids, and Seljuks. Nevertheless, the Romans, Akkoyunlu and Ottomans had the most profound impact on the city: Diyarbakır was one of the largest border cities in the eastern Roman Empire, served as the Akkoyunlu capital, and was an important state in the Ottoman Empire, boasting 20 districts.

11 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:11 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Prehistoric Diyarbak r Traces of human habitation dating from every prehistoric period have been uncovered in and around Diyarbakır. Over 100 archeological settlements have been identified in the region. Excavations at a number of these sites have revealed important information about the development of civilizations in Anatolia and the Near East. Bronze axes (above and below) Çayönü Located in the village of Sesverenpınar seven kilometers southeast of Ergani, Çayönü is an important Pre-Pottery Neolithic B settlement in Anatolia that offers tremendous insights into the era. Although the site has few visible remains, significant works uncovered during the excavations are on display at the Diyarbakır Museum. Çayönü is one of the oldest known village settlements in Anatolia and serves as a window onto the lives of the earliest agricultural communities dating back some 10,000 years. Diagram of a Çayönü house The excavations at Çayönü have revealed houses and other structures laid out on a grid plan (above). A pregnant female figure discovered at Çayönü (left). Girikihaciyan Tumulus A prehistoric village has been uncovered at the Girikihaciyan Tumulus located near the village of Ekinciler in Diyarbakır s Eğil district. Pieces of painted pottery and tools made from flint, obsidian and bone have been unearthed at the site, including this idol (left) and musical instrument made from bone (below).

12 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:12 PM Page 119 THE HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR 119 Caves The province of Diyarbakır is home to many natural and manmade caves that have been used as shelter and for other purposes since ancient times. The most important of these are the Birkleyn Cave in Lice, the Hilar Caves in Ergani and the Hassuni Cave in Silvan. The Kulp, Eğil Pir İbrahi, Süleyman Ağa, Şikefte and Çüngüş caves are other notable caves in the region. Birkleyn Caves On the rocky peaks to the east, 104 kilometers along the Diyarbak r-bingöl road Cuneiform inscriptions and reliefs belonging to the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser I and Shalmaneser III can be seen at the entrance to both caves, which are still being excavated. Hilar Caves The village of Sesveren in the Ergani district Reliefs and cell tombs have been discovered hidden among the rocks. The exteriors of the tombs are ornamented with inscriptions and reliefs of male and female figures as well as sun and moon motifs. Üçtepe Üçtepe is located around 40 kilometers southeast of Diyarbakır. The site is 300 meters from the village of Üçtepe, located 10 kilometers southwest of Bismil. 13 archeological levels dating from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman era have been uncovered. The site was an important settlement in the Assyrian Kingdom. Hassuni Caves On the hilltops to the left of the road, 7 km along the Silvan- Malabadi highway Some 300 manmade caves consisting of rooms interconnected by corridors are nestled together in this small area. The caves were mostly used in the Middle Ages, but show traces of Paleolithic habitation.

13 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:13 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA The Romans and the Walls of Diyarbak r The Romans are thought to have arrived in Diyarbakır in 53 AD, holding sway over the region until 226 AD. From 226 to 395, the Romans battled for supremacy with the Parthians. The Sassanids soon entered the fray. With the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the area came under Byzantine jurisdiction. Diyarbakır s stunning walls are the city s most important Roman structures. Thought to have been originally built by the Hurrians, the Inner Fortress (İçkale) was restored and its fortifications strengthened by the Romans under Constantius II. The Inner Fortress consists of the eastern section of the walls between Dağkapı, Yenikapı and Mardinkapı. The western section of this wall ran along what is now Gazi Caddesi. The western walls were demolished between 367 and 375, and replaced with the section now running from Dağkapı to Urfakapı and from there to Mardinkapı. All of Diyarbakır s later rulers restored or added towers to the walls, which remain beautifully preserved to this day. Diyarbak r s Walls and Towers The fortifying walls of Old Diyarbakır are among the longest, widest and strongest in the world. The citadel is located at the eastern end of the basalt plateau that stretches from Karacadağ to the Tigris, standing a hundred meters above ground level. The walls are shaped like a shield, or, according to some, a turbot, and are divided into two sections: the Outer Fortress (Dışkale) and Inner Fortress (İçkale). Hevsel Gardens Outer Fortress (D flkale) The Outer Fortress measures 5 km long, spanning 1700 meters from east to west and 1300 from north to south. The walls measure meters high, and are 3-5 meters thick, with a wide pathway connecting the towers. Of the 81 towers, the most famous are the Evli Beden (Ulu Beden), Yedi Kardeş and Keçi (Kiçi). The towers were used as dormitories, cellars, cisterns and depots. The Outer Fortress has four gates: the Dağ (Harput) Gate, Urfa (Rum) Gate, Mardin (Teli) Gate and Yeni (Su or Dicle) Gate. Urfa Gate The walls have four gates that are commonly known by the names of the neighboring cities that they face. This is the Urfa Gate (left).

14 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:13 PM Page 121 THE HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR 121 Harput Gate Inner Fortress ( çkale) The original walls of the Inner Fortress that incorporated the Artukid Arch were later demolished. New, wider walls were built between 1524 and 1526 under Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. The Inner Fortress has sixteen towers and four gates: the Fetih and Oğrun gates lead out of the city while the Saray and Küpeli gates lead to the area within the walls of the Outer Fortress. Two churches, the ruins of an Artukid Palace, the Viran Tower, a cistern and mosque are found in the Inner Fortress. The Tigris Yeni Gate Keçi Tower Ulu (Evli) Beden Tower Mardin Gate Yedi Kardefl Tower Hevsel Gardens

15 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:15 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Highlights of the Inner Fortress Hazreti Süleyman Mosque Artukid Arch Artukid Arch This 10-meter wide, pointed arch served as the entrance to the Inner Fortress in Artukid times. The large, prose inscription on the arch is dated 603 in the Islamic Hijri calendar ( AD), evidence that the arch dates from the same period as the palace. Limestone reliefs on either side of the arch depict a lion attacking a bull, and are identical to those on the eastern entrance to the Grand Mosque. set in the arched niche. Today, only one statue remains, but it is thought that there was originally a pair. The Church of Saint George (Kara Papaz) The church is set at the northeast end of the Inner Fortress on a steep cliff overlooking the Tigris Valley, and is an extension of the fortifying walls. Records show that it was built by pre-christian pagans and later converted into a church. It is thought that the Romans used it as a fire temple, and it once served as an arsenal. The church was incorporated into the city walls as they were being built by the Romans under Emperor Constantius II. The church consists of an entrance, a central section covered by an elliptical dome and a vaulted apse to the east. Hazreti Süleyman Mosque Also known as the Kale or Nasıriyye Mosque, the Hazreti Süleyman Mosque was built from by Nisanoğlu Ebul Kasım. The square plan minaret features a number of horizontal moldings. The interior of the mosque consists of three barrel vaulted sections, including the screened maksoorah. Most of the mosque is made from ashlar. Ottoman era tombs of Sulaiman, son of Khalid ibn al-walid, and a number of companions of Muhammed who died during the Arab occupation of Diyarbakır Lion Fountain Lion Fountain Located directly across from the arch, this fountain is made from cut basalt and has a three foil cusped arch. Water pours out of the mouth of a statue of a lion The Church of Saint George (Kara Papaz)

16 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:16 PM Page 123 THE HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR 123 Yahya bin Ibrahim Sufi for the Artukid leader al-malik al-salih Mahmud and is decorated with the Seljuk double-headed eagle, inscriptions and lion reliefs. Ulu Beden Tower can be seen next to the mosque. Ulu Beden Tower The black basalt, monumental Ulu Beden Tower was built in 1208 by the architect Ibrahim bin Jafar for the Artukid leader al- Malik al-salih Mahmud. Nur Tower Nur Tower Built in 1089 by the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, the Nur (Light) Tower is located next to the Yedi Kardeş Tower, and is decorated with Seljuk symbols, running horses, lions, deer and female figures. Yedi Kardeş Tower Yedi Kardefl Tower The cut basalt, cylindrical Yedi Kardeş (Seven Brothers) Tower was built in 1208 by the architect Keçi Tower Keçi Tower The oldest and largest of the towers on Diyarbakır s city walls stands on a carved outcrop of rock to the east of the Mardin Gate. The 60-meter long Keçi (Goat) Tower projects out from the southern section of the fortress. The tower was used as a temple by the Byzantines, and was later restored and added to the fortress by the Marwanids. The inscription on the tower dates from this period. The interior of the large tower features arches supported by 11 columns. A small, round room with three embrasures stands at the southern tip of the tower. Lion reliefs Lion reliefs feature prominently on Diyarbak r s historic structures, as they do in many Anatolian cities. In Anatolian mythology, lions represent courage and protection; reliefs or statues of lions stand at the entrances to cities, houses and temples. The Romans are thought to have appropriated the symbol of the lion from Anatolian civilizations, as they did the goddess Cybele. Some historians interpret the lion as a symbol of struggle, power and superiority. The lion figures on Diyarbak r s walls were thought to serve as protective symbols.

17 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:16 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Diyarbak r Under the Akkoyunlu The Akkoyunlu (White Sheep) Turkmen tribal federation ( ) ruled the lands from present-day Khorasan to the Euphrates, and from the Caucasus Mountains to the Gulf of Oman. Early on, the Akkoyunlu settled in Diyarbakır and soon annexed the entire region. After defeating the Karakoyunlu Turkmen tribal federation, they moved their center of power to Tabriz. The Akkoyunlu built many mosques, madrasas, caravanserai, hospitals, mausoleums and palaces in Anatolia and Iran, very few of which survive today. This is largely due to the deliberate destruction of Akkoyunlu structures by the Safavids. Sheikh Mutahhar (Dört Ayakl Minare) Mosque Yenikap Sokak, Bal kç larbafl Known officially as Sheikh Mutahhar Mosque, the mosque is more commonly referred to by the locals as Sheikh Matar Mosque. An inscription on the minaret tells us that it was built in 1500 by the Akkoyunlu Sultan Kasım. The minaret is one of the most striking structures in Diyarbakır: the trunk is made from black and white stones and is bare of inscriptions. While other minarets in the city have square trunks, the pedestal is completely unique. The pillars that support the minaret are said to represent the four schools (mazhab) of Islamic thought while the trunk stands for Islam itself. The mosque is constructed from alternating bands of black and white stone. An Akkoyunlu miniature depicting a man and his hawk. Gazi (Seman) Köflkü South of the city, overlooking the Tigris Valley This early 16th-century Akkoyunlu köşk or summer mansion was built for a bey, and was later used by the Semanoğulları. The building served as a quarantine during an outbreak of typhoid and cholera in the 17th and 18th century. When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established his post at Diyarbakır in 1917 and took command of the XVIth Corps of the 2nd Army, he lived in the building, which had been rented from the family, for 11 months. Today, it has been converted into a museum with a restaurant and rustic outdoor café nearby.

18 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:16 PM Page 125 THE HISTORY OF DIYARBAKIR 125 Ottoman coffeepots from the Diyarbakır Museum The Ottoman Period Diyâr-ı Bekr became a beylerbeylik or province of the Ottoman Empire in In the 17th century, the province covered 71,272 square kilometers, with its capital at Amid (Diyarbakır). The province was divided into 20 sancak or districts. In 1826, the province was divided into the two new regions of Diyarbekr and Elaziz. The 500 years of Ottoman dominion had a profound impact on the city s architecture, as many structures were built, restored or expanded during this time. During World War I, Diyarbakır was plagued by diseases, fires and intense poverty. Huge architectural, social, cultural and economic advances were made after the formation of the Republic. The new city was established, and roads, hospitals, schools and modern structures were built. The city grew and developed, and became a major hub connected to the rest of the country by new roads. Behram Pasha Mosque Ziya Gökalp Built between 1564 and 1572 by the provincial governor Behram Pasha, the domed, ashlar mosque is attributed to the famous architect Mimar Sinan. The narthex, together with the ablution fountain before it, has the look of a palatial entrance. Deliller (Hüsrev Pasha) Inn Near the Mardin Gate Built in 1527 by the provincial governor Hüsrev Pasha together with the mosque and madrasa behind it, the inn is known as the Deliller Hanı (Inn of the Guides) as guides who took pilgrims on the hajj stayed at the inn. The stables are located in the single-story section facing the street. A row of shops stands in front. The remainder of the inn is two stories tall. Surrounded by geometric designs and niches, the impressive entrance leads to an ablution fountain, past loggia enclosing the central courtyard, and finally to the inn rooms. The inn has been restored and currently functions as a hotel.

19 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:17 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Museums Diyarbak r Archeology Museum Cahit S tk Taranc Museum (Museum of Culture) Ziya Gökalp Museum Mosques (Camii) Diyarbak r Grand (Ulu) Mosque Safa (Parl /Palo) Mosque Nebi (Peygamber) Mosque skender Pasha Mosque Melik Ahmet Pasha Mosque Fatih Pasha (Kurflunlu) Mosque Lala Bey Mosque Silvan Grand (Ulu or Selahaddin-i Eyyüb-i Meyyafarikin) Mosque Mausoleums (Türbe) The Mausoleum of skender Pasha The Mausoleum of Özdemiro lu Hasan Pasha The Mausoleum of Sheikh Abdülcelil The Mausoleum of Sultan fiüca The Mausoleum of Sheikh Yusuf Hemedani Madrasas Muslihiddin Lari Madrasa Zinciriye Madrasa Mesudiye Madrasa Ali Pasha Madrasa Churches (Kilise) The Church of the Virgin Mary (Meryem Ana) Surp Giragos Armenian Church Mar Petyun Chaldean Catholic Church Mar Thoma Church Inns (Han) Hasan Pasha Inn Yeni Inn Çifte Inn Çeper Inn Bridges Tigris (On Gözlü) Bridge Devegeçidi Bridge Haburman Bridge Other Sights Süleyman A a Caves Assyrian Fortress Zülkifil Mountain Dakyanus Ruins Hevsel Gardens

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23 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:17 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA Roman bottles from the museum collection 1 Diyarbak r Archeology Museum Selahattin Yaz c o lu Caddesi, Central Diyarbak r Diyarbakır s first museum opened in 1934 in the Zinciriye Madrasa attached to the Grand Mosque, but moved to the current building in Ethnographic works and coins discovered in excavations in and around Diyarbakır are displayed chronologically at the museum. 2 Cahit S tk Taranc Museum Taranc Sokak, Cami-i Kebir This classic Diyarbakır house was built in The poet Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı was born here in 1910 and spent his childhood in this house. The museum s Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum collection consists of Tarancı s personal belongings, correspondence, library, family photographs and ethnographic works from the region. Ziya Gökalp Museum 3 Ziya Gökalp Museum Gökalp Sokak, Melik Ahmet Caddesi The sociologist and writer Ziya Gökalp was born in 1876 in this Cahit S tk Taranc ( ) Cahit S tk Taranc is considered one of Turkey s most important modern poets. He wrote poignant poems in syllabic meter, mainly on profound subjects such as death, loneliness, longing and love. Born in Diyarbak r, the poet lived in this house on Cami-i Kebir street until he finished middle school. After graduating from the Galatasaray Lycee in Istanbul, he went to Paris to study at the Science Politique. He returned to Turkey at the outbreak of the Second World War and worked as a translator. The house where he was born and lived in as a child was Built in 1733, the house is a classic example of traditional Diyarbakır residental architecture. converted into a museum in 1973.

24 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:18 PM Page 131 SIGTSEEING IN DIYARBAKIR Diyarbak r Grand Mosque Gazi Caddesi The mosque was built in 639 during the caliphate of Umar after the city was conquered by Muslim Arabs. Built over the remains of the Mar Thoma church, this is the oldest known mosque in Anatolia, and bears a striking similarity to the Umayyad Grand Mosque in Damascus. The mosque has been restored and added to at various times over the years. The complex consists of wings to be used by different Islamic sects (one for the Hanafi, one for the Shafii) plus the Mesudiye and Zinciriye madrasas. Although dating from different eras, the ornamentation, reliefs and inscriptions on the highly decorated walls of the courtyard are in perfect artistic harmony. two-story basalt house built in The museum opened in 1956 and displays a collection of Ziya Gökalp s personal possessions and documents. 5 Safa (Parl /Palo) Mosque Melik Ahmet Caddesi, west of the Grand Mosque With its unusual layout, decorative stonework and ceramic tiles, this is one of Diyarbakır s most important structures. The mosque is built entirely from black and white ashlar. The minaret stands to the right of the mosque and is covered from its base to its spire in Kufic inscriptions and a wide variety of decorative Safa (Parlı) Mosque stonework. One of the mosque s most striking features is its central dome. The Islamic scholar Muslihiddin Lari is buried in the mosque s cemetery. 6 Nebi (Peygamber) Mosque At the junction of Gazi Caddesi and nönü Caddesi, near Da kap This single-domed mosque built from black and white ashlar dates from the Akkoyunlu period. The dome stands on six feet, and the interior is covered with beautiful ceramic tiles. The Ottomans made various additions to the mosque, and the square minaret was built in 1530 by a butcher named Hacı Hüseyin.

25 Diyarbakiring 11/15/07 8:18 PM Page A GUIDE TO SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA İskender Pasha Mosque 7 Iskender Pasha Mosque skender Pafla This Ottoman mosque was built in 1551 by the provincial governor of Diyarbakır, İskender Pasha. Dating from the Sinan period, the building has the inverted-t plan frequently seen in early Ottoman mosques, and shows local architectural influences. 8 Melik Ahmet Pasha Mosque Melik Ahmet Caddesi Located near the Urfa Gate, this mosque was built from by Melik Ahmet Pasha. Some sources attribute it to the famous architect Mimar Sinan. The lower level features shops and storage areas. The noteworthy mosque boasts striking ceramic tiling and decorations on its minaret. 9 Fatih Pasha (Kurflunlu) Mosque In the east of the city The earliest Ottoman structure in Diyarbakır was built from by the city s first Ottoman governor, Bıyıklı Mehmet Pasha. The mosque is constructed from black and white ashlar. Highlights include the ceramic tiles on the interior walls and the beautifully ornamented mihrab and minbar. 10 Lala Bey Mosque Dörtler Sokak, Lala Bey The mosque is thought to have been built in the 15th century by Lala Kasım, the bey of Eğil. The ashlar, single-domed mosque has been poorly restored, but the narthex and minaret remain relatively well preserved. The façade is decorated with colored stones. The mausoleum of Lala Bey is located in the northeastern corner of the mosque. 11 Silvan Grand Mosque Cami, Silvan This Artukid mosque in Silvan was built in 1157 by the ruler of Mardin, Nadjm ed-din Alpi. When the city fell to the Ayyubid leader Salah al-din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (known as Saladin in the West) in 1185, it became associated with his name. The mosque is an example of the plan developed by the Great Seljuks in Iranian mosques. The dome of the mihrab is conical, and the mosque features column capitals from a Byzantine basilica. 12 The Mausoleum of Iskender Pasha East of skender Pasha Mosque The mausoleum is thought to have been built in 1551 by the governor of Diyarbakır, İskender Pasha, together with his children. The mausoleum has two sections: the northern end features an ornamented mihrab, cusped arch windows and a single-domed masjid while the mausoleum itself is to the south. The entire structure was constructed from bands of black and white stone, and is considered an important example of türbe architecture. 13 The Mausoleum of Özdemiro lu Hasan Pasha West of Fatih Pasha Mosque This classic 16th-century Ottoman mausoleum was built in 1585 in the name of Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, the governor of Diyarbakır from The Mausoleum of Sheikh Abdülcelil The courtyard of Sheikh Safa Mosque, Central Diyarbak r The undated mausoleum is located to the east of the mosque. Constructed from ashlar, the mausoleum has an octagonal central section and a pyramidal brick roof with a domed interior and channeled exterior. 15 The Mausoleum of Sultan fiüca Opposite the Deliller Inn, Mardin Gate Although the precise date of construction is not known, an inscription belonging to Sultan Şüca on the fountain immediately in front of the mausoleum helps us to date it to around The Mausoleum of Sultan Şüca

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