THE OTTOMAN RENAISSANCE: SINAN

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1 THE OTTOMAN RENAISSANCE: SINAN

2

3 SINGLE-DOME MOSQUES FIRST CAPITAL: Iznik ( )

4 Green Mosque, Iznik, Single domed-square unit, Cut stone and brick, Brick minaret glazed with tiles

5 Green Mosque, İznik,

6 Green Mosque, İznik, rear facade and door details

7 Green Mosque, İznik, mihrab and minbar

8 MULTI-DOMED MOSQUES (also known as ULUCAMİ )

9 İsa Bey Mosque, Selçuk, 1374

10 İsa Bey Mosque, Selçuk, 1374 NOTE: Corinthian capitals

11 İsa Bey Mosque, Selçuk, 1374 detail of upper window

12 Ulucami, Bursa,

13 Ulucami, Bursa,

14 Ulucami, Bursa, entrance

15 Ulucami, Bursa, central courtyard and dome

16 Ulucami, Bursa, mihrab and minbar

17 INVERTED T MOSQUES Prayer Halls and Zaviye (lodging for dervishes)

18 Orhan Bey Mosque, Bursa, 1339 side rooms for teaching and guests of the dervishes to stay

19 Orhan Bey Mosque, Bursa, 1339 mosque and han courtyard

20 Orhan Bey Mosque, Bursa, 1339 main entrance

21 Orhan Bey Mosque, Bursa,

22 Ishak Paşa Mosque, İnegöl, 1482

23 Bayezid Pasha Mosque, Amasya, 1414 Architect: Abu Bekir bin Mehmed Museymes of Aleppo

24 BURSA (OTTOMAN CAPITAL )

25 Imaret system as the basis of architectural patronage. Created as endowments accommodating two types of institutions: 1. Those founded with pious or charitable motives such as mosque, madrasah, hospital, roads and bridges 2. Those that provided revenue tor their upkeep such as han, market, caravanserai, bath house, mill, soup kitchen

26 Beyazıd I Complex, Bursa, (1) gate, (2) mausoleum, (3) madrasa, (4) site of royal garden palace, (5) mosque, (6) hospice, (7) bathhouse, (8) gate, (9) wall, (10) aqueduct

27 Beyazıd I Mosque, Bursa, combination of a royal chapel with a hostel for pilgrims

28 Beyazıd I Complex, Bursa, madrasah exterior

29 Beyazıd I Complex, Bursa, madrasa courtyard

30 Beyazıd I Complex, Bursa, mausoleum

31 Beyazıd I Complex, Bursa, mausoleum interior

32 Koza Han, Bursa,

33 Koza Han, Bursa, entrance portal

34 Koza Han, Bursa,

35 Koza Han, Bursa, raised masjid in the middle of the courtyard

36 E D İ R N E (OTTOMAN CAPITAL )

37 Üç Şerefeli (three balconied) Mosque, Edirne, Complex of mosque, madrasah and imaret. Students and dervishes can use the side entrance without disturbing the prayers. Note the hierarchy of domes.

38 Üç Şerefeli Mosque, Edirne, courtyard entrance and minaret detail

39 Üç Şerefeli Mosque, Edirne, mihrab and minbar

40 Beyazıd II Complex, Edirne, 1488 (1) mosque, (2) hospice, (3) caravanserai, (4) hospital, (5) madrasa, (6) site of bathhouse

41 Beyazıd II Complex, Edirne, 1488 mosque (right) and hospital (left)

42 İSTANBUL (OTTOMAN CAPITAL )

43 Fatih Complex, İstanbul, (1) Mosque of Mehmed II, (2) mausoleums of Mehmed II and his wife Gülbahar Sultan, (3) formal garden, (4) madrasas, (5) preparatory madrasas, (6) hospital, (7) guesthouse, (8) caravanserai, (9) hospice, (10) elementary school, (11) library

44 Mosque of Mehmet II ın the Fatih Complex, İstanbul,

45 Mosque of Mehmet II ın the Fatih Complex, İstanbul,

46 Mausoleum of Mehmed II ın the Fatih Complex, İstanbul,

47 Covered Bazaar, İstanbul, 15th century onwards

48 Mustafa Ağa and Simon Kalfa, Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul,

49 Mustafa Ağa and Simon Kalfa, Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul,

50 Mustafa Ağa and Simon Kalfa, Nuruosmaniye mosque, Istanbul,

51 Mustafa Ağa and Simon Kalfa, Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Baroque forms

52 Krikor Balyan, Nusretiye Mosque, Istanbul,

53 Krikor Balyan, Nusretiye mosque, Istanbul, (Sultan s entry to a royal lodge above)

54

55 SINAN: THE CLASSICIST/ANTI- CLASSICIST AND EXPERIMENTALIST

56 Joseph Paxton, The Crystal Palace, for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UK interior views

57 SINAN: ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

58 SINAN: ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

59 Mimar Sinan (c. 1489/1490 July 17, 1588) built mosques, bridges, aqueducts, madrasas, caravanserais, palaces, kiosks and fountains. Most common account of the steps in Mimar Sinan s career: The early years (till the mid-1550s) : apprenticeship period. Mid-1550s to 1570: qualification stage. The period from 1570 to his death: master stage. According to Jale Erzen: Sinan's mosques can, for purposes of study, be divided into three quite distinct phases, which here will be labeled pre-classical ( ), classical ( ), and anticlassical (experimentalist) ( ). Pre-Classical Period: these mosques present a clear definition of Sinan's intentions in structure and form-making which find their fully developed expression in the Süleymaniye mosque. Those intentions can be defined as (1) balancing all the parts, (2) making those parts subservient to the hierarchic order, and (3) making that hierarchic order in turn fully dependent on the arrangement of the cover system.

60 SINAN: PRE-CLASSICAL BUILDINGS

61

62

63

64

65 Classical Period: Although the relationships between the two- dimensional shapes are complex, the organization is based on the interplay of volumes. The same variety is seen inside, without, however, destroying the peace and balance provided by the expanse and homogeneity of the space. In Sinan's mosques of the classical period, although visual variety can exist at the lower levels, the meaning of space is not rendered through visual movement, but as one direct total encounter. With the Süleymaniye, Ottoman architecture attained a sophistication and maturity that represent the culmination of an effort to achieve a balanced composition of structure and form.

66 SINAN: THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

67 Mimar Sinan Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul, (1) mosque, (2) mausoleum of Süleyman, (3) mausoleum of Hürrem, (4) Koran recitation school, (5) public fountain, (6) elementary school, (7) (8) madrasa, (9) remains of medical school, (10) hospital, (11) hospice, (12) guesthouse, (13) Mimar Sinan's tomb with domed sabil and empty plot of his endowed school and residence, (14) the janissary agha's residence, (15) & (16) madrasa, (17) bathhouse, (18) hadith college, (19) madrasa

68 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul,

69 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul,

70 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul, courtyard portal

71 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Mosqsue, İstanbul, courtyard and interior

72 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul, guest housing

73 Mimar Sinan, Süleymaniye Complex, İstanbul, medical school

74 Hagia Sophia ( ) and Süleymaniye ( ) Architects in Christian countries may rank themselves above Muslims in technical skill, owing to the failure of the latter to achieve anything approaching the dome of Hagia Sophia. This assertion of insurmountable difficulty has wounded the author of these writings. However, with God s help and the Sultan s mercy, I have succeeded in building a dome for Sultan Selim s mosque which is four ells greater in diameter and six ells higher than that of Hagia Sophia.

75 Anti-Classical (Experimentalist) Period: In these mosques, the auxiliary space extensions compete with the central space. They attract the eye with their variety of vertical support elements and the light that makes them as bright as the central area. The continuity of space is also reduced by the contrast in height between the side extension and the central space under the dome. The smooth transition from cover to body that created the pyramidal silhouette and the continuous shell-like boundaries of the classical organizations have here begun to disappear... In the hexagonal structures, the outside walls become planar surfaces and grow taller. The great contrast of height between the east and west portions and the space under the dome is distinctive. The visual variety offered by the unequal distribution of light, the lavish tile decoration, and the support elements is new... Vaulting is used for ther first time.

76 SINAN: THE PERIOD OF EXPERIMENTATION

77

78

79 SINAN: POST-CLASSICAL BUILDINGS

80 Mimar Sinan Selimiye Complex, Edirne, (1) mosque, (2) madrasa (hadith college), (3) madrasa (Koran recitation school), (4) elementary school, (5) bazaar (arasta)

81 Mimar Sinan, Selimiye Complex, Edirne,

82 Mimar Sinan, Selimiye Complex, Edirne,

83

84 Mimar Sinan, Selimiye Complex, Edirne, mosque interior

85

86 Mimar Sinan, Selimiye Complex, Edirne, muqarnas niche of mihrab

87

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