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1 Lone Star College Tomball Tomball College and Community Library Tomball Parkway Tomball TX APA Citation Style Introduction This guide is designed to give you examples of the most common APA citations. For complete information, consult both the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 th edition, (2001) and the APA Style Guide to Electronic Publications (2007). Copies of both publications are available at the Tomball College and Community Library, 2 nd floor Reference Desk. In an APA style paper, you insert in-text citations (notes that appear in parentheses) throughout your paper. At the end of your paper, you include a References list with the detailed information on the sources that you have used. In-text Citations (Publication Manual, 2001, pp ) RULE EXAMPLE At the end of the sentence, insert, within parentheses, the last names of the authors, followed by a comma, and then the date. If the name of the author is included as a signal phrase in the text, place the date in parentheses immediately after the author s name. Communication is conveyed through unspoken behaviors -- including gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and proximity (Nelson & Golant, 2004). As Westendorf (2007) points out, the high turnover of nurses has high cost implications for hospitals. For direct quotations, the page numbers are also included. Ageing is a process not an event (Bigby, 2004, p. 17). For a direct quotation with no page numbers, the paragraph, section, or other identifiable point is included. If no author, editor, producer, or director is listed, move the title to the author location. Place quotes around the first few words of an article or chapter titles and italicize periodical, book, brochure, or report titles. A family history of depression appears to exist in 80 percent to 90 percent of cases of bipolar disorder (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2006, Risk Factors section, 1). Texas currently has a shortage of 29,000 nurses ( Bedside/ Improving, 2001, Table 1). If no date is given, use n.d. The state regulates the duties that can be performed by pharmacy technicians (Texas State Board of Pharmacy, n.d.). Articles from magazines or journals Articles from newspapers p. B3 (pp )

2 References List (Publication Manual, 2001, pp ) In APA style, the detailed list of sources is called References (not Bibliography or Works Cited) and is included at the end of the paper. The formatting rules for APA references are complex and require close attention. LAYOUT The word References is typed in the top center of a new page. Spacing Double-space the lines of each entry. Double-space between entries. Place a period after each element in the entry and one space after each period. Use a hanging indent (1/2 inch) for entries longer than one line. Arrange the entries alphabetically by the author s last names. If there is no author, editor, producer, or director for a work, alphabetize the by the first significant word in the title. ENTRIES The general reference entry order is: author, date of publication, title, publishing information, and retrieval information. Authors Include the last names and first and middle initials for the first six authors. If there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use et al. Date The date of publication follows immediately after the names of the authors (or first element) and is enclosed in parentheses. Books and Journals (2005) Magazines (2006, May) Newspapers (2007, April 12)

3 Titles Capitalize only the 1 st word of the title and the 1 st word of the subtitle of books, films, articles, web sites, and reports. Capitalize all significant words in the names of journals, magazines and newspapers. Capitalize all proper nouns. The entire title and subtitle of major sources (books, journals, newspapers, magazines, videos, etc.) are italicized. Any descriptive information that helps identify the item is placed immediately after the title in brackets: [DVD], [Brochure], [Software], [Podcast], or [Electronic version]. Publication Information The volume number for a journal is italicized but not the issue number. Issue numbers are now included for all journals, even those with continuous pagination. If the city of publication is well known, you do not need to include the state. If you do include the state, use the two letter abbreviation. Note the different ways page numbers are included in reference entries. RULE EXAMPLE At the end of the sentence, insert, within parentheses, the last names of the authors, followed by a comma, and then the date. If the name of the author is included as a signal phrase in the text, place the date in parentheses immediately after the author s name. Communication is conveyed through unspoken behaviors -- including gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and proximity (Nelson & Golant, 2004). As Westendorf (2007) points out, the high turnover of nurses has high cost implications for hospitals. For direct New quotations, citation rules the for page electronic numbers are sources Ageing were published a process by not the an American event (Bigby, Psychological 2004, p. 17). also included. Association in If you are using online resources from the web, a library database, or For a directly quotation from a publisher s with no page site, refer to the A family APA Style history Guide of depression to Electronic appears Source to exist (2007). in 80 numbers, the paragraph, section, or other percent to 90 percent of cases of bipolar disorder (Mayo identifiable Do not point follow is included. the examples in the 5 th edition Clinic of Staff, the Publication 2006, Risk Factors Manual. section, 1). If no author, editor, producer, or director is listed, move the title to the author location. Place quotes around the first few words of an article or chapter titles and italicize periodical, book, brochure, or report titles. Texas currently has a shortage of 29,000 nurses ( Bedside/ Improving, 2001, Table 1). If no date is given, use n.d. The state regulates the duties that can be performed by pharmacy technicians (Texas State Board of Pharmacy, n.d.).

4 Highlights of the Rule Changes for Electronic Sources: Retrieval dates are not needed if the electronic material cited is the final published version or is found in a subscription database. Retrieval dates are still included if the material is likely to be changed or updated (e.g., draft, in press, or pre-publication versions, materials from personal web sites, or wikis). You now cite an electronic book the same way as a print title. Database names or URLs are only included if the title is hard to find or is in limited circulation. If the database name is included in an entry, the retrieval date and the URL are not needed. If a DOI (digital object identifier) is assigned to an online article, include it at the end of the reference entry. If there is a DOI, do not include the URL, retrieval date, or database name. There are now rules for new informational formats: wikis, blogs, and podcasts. Locating the DOI for electronic sources Until the publishers establish a standard format, there are several places you will need to check for a DOI. The first place to look is the PDF version of the article. The DOI is often included in the header or footer on the first page as shown in this example. Risk factors for preschool depression: the mediating role of early stressful life events Joan L. Luby,1 Andy C. Belden,1,2 and Edward Spitznagel1 1Washington University, St. Louis, USA; 2St. Louis University, St. Louis, USA Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47:12 (2006), pp doi: /j x If the DOI is not included in the full-text view of the article, check the view for the citation/abstract. Here is a citation example from the ProQuest Research Library database: Author(s): Annika Dahlgren Sandberg, Marie Liliedahl Document types: Feature Publication title: Child Language Teaching and Therapy. London: Feb Vol. 24, Iss. 1; pg. 9, 22 pgs Source type: Periodical ISSN: ProQuest document ID: DOI: /

5 For electronic publications that do not show the DOIs in the text or citation, the APA recommends the CrossRef website CrossRef is the official DOI link registration agency for scholarly and professional publications. To find the DOI, copy and paste your complete citation in the text box. Closely follow the citation example at the top of the CrossRef page and edit out periods and parentheses and then submit. Here is the result of a successful DOI search from CrossRef: doi: /jecp Examples of Common APA Style Reference Entries Book - Single author Coste, J. K. (2003). Learning to speak Alzheimer s: A groundbreaking approach for everyone dealing with the disease. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Book Edition other than 1st Copeland, J. R. M., Abou-Saleh, M. T., & Blazer, D. G. (Eds.). (2002). Principles and practice of geriatric psychiatry (2 nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Book Organization is the Author & Publisher American Occupational Therapy Association. Standards and Ethics Commission. (1996). Occupational therapy code of ethics: Reference guide. Bethesda: Author. Book Unknown Author A woman's guide to coping with disability. (1994). Lexington, MA: Resources for Rehabilitation. Book Multiple Editors Cushman, L. A., & Scherer, M. J. (Eds.). (1995). Psychological assessment in medical rehabilitation. Washington: American Psychological Association. Electronic Book from netlibrary Database (database name not needed) Roemmelt, A.F. (1998). Haunted children rethinking medication of common psychological disorders. Albany: State University of New York Press. Chapter in a Book Phillips, K.A., Hirschfeld, R.M., Shea, M.T., & Gunderson, J.G. (1995). Depressive personality disorder. In W. J. Levesley (Ed.), The DSM-IV personality disorders (pp ). New York: Guilford.

6 Video/Television Program ABC News. FridayNight Special. (2001). Autism and applied behavioral analysis. [videorecording]. Princeton: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. Video with Producers Names Conture, E. G., Guitar, B. E., & Fraser, J. (Producers). (1997). Therapy in action: The school-age child who stutters [videorecording]. Memphis: Stuttering Foundation of America. Journal Article - Found in an Online Database (No DOI available). Rhodes, K., Cox, M., Orme, J., & Coakley, T. (2006, December). Foster parents' reasons for fostering and foster family utilization. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 33(4), Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database. Online Journal Article with an Assigned DOI Ginzel, K., Maritz, G., Marks, D., Neuberger, M., Pauly, J., Polito, J., et al. (2007, March). Nicotine for the fetus, the infant and the adolescent? Journal of Health Psychology, 12(2), doi: / Online Journal Article with 6 authors Veenstra M.Y., Lemmens, P.H., Friesema, I.H., Garretsen H.F., Knottnerus, J.A., & Zwietering, P.J. (2006). A literature overview of the relationship between life-events and alcohol use in the general population. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41(4), doi: /alcalc/agl023 Online Article with More than 6 Authors Rescorla, L., Achenbach, T., Ivanova, M., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., et al. (2007, Fall). Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 15(3), Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Web site American Psychological Association. (2008). Students: Considering a career in psychology? Retrieved from

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