Computer System. -Hardware. -Software. System software. Application software. -Network. Communication. Internet. -Database.

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1 Computer System -Hardware -Software System software Application software -Network Communication Internet -Database -People ware Computer Operations -Input -Output -Storage -Communication Types of computer -Personal computer, micro computer -Personal computer Thin client -Network computer -Utilize a network server -Low cost -No local storage -Net work is require Notebook (Laptop)

2 Subnotebook, net book -low cost -small size than notebook Tablet -One part Handheld, palm, pocket, computer smart phone Wearable computer Workstation -Powerful Personal computer -Use for complex tasks such as scientific calculator -Microcomputer Minicomputer, midrate server -medium sized use to host programs and data for a small network Rack server (Google) -Reduce size and save space -Put into rack Blade server -Reduce size and cabling problem Mainframe -High capability computer system for large organizations -Use access by terminal Supercomputer -Most powerful computer -For speed critical tasks such as weather fore cast, missile guidance system Ex. Cray-1 Supercomputer K computer (Japan) Tianhe-1A (China)

3 IBM Blue Gean/ L supercomputer Input -Refer to data entered into a computer for processing Input hardware -Consist of devices that translate data into from the computer can process Output -Refer to the result of processing Output hardware -into a form that human can understand Input devices Keyboard -Advice that converts letter Portable, foldable keyboard -Handheld PC Point of scale (DOS) keyboard -Such as keyboard featuring pictures of food for use in fast-food restaurant Dumb terminal > work with mainframe computer -It has a display screen and keyboard can input and output can t process Special keyboard -One hand keyboard Virtual keyboard Pointing devices Mouse -Control the position of the curser or pointer Trackball

4 palm -a mouse ball, mounted on a top of a stationary device that can be rotated using finger or Pointing stick Touchpad Digitizer or graphic tablets screen -Electronic plastic board on which each specific location corresponds to a location on the Touch screen Electronic pen, stylus Gesture-based input devices -Input devices that are controlled by gestures wearable gesture interface Six senses -Tradition input device -Source data entry device Scanner -Device that use light 3D scanner -can capture a real whole Body scanner -Intellifit -Can measure your body shape Barcode system -Vertical zebra -Stripped marks you see on most manufactured Gun style, fixed scanner 2D barcode

5 Check price point No price on barcode Radio-frequency identification (RF-ID) -it is a technology that can store, read and transmit data located in RF-ID work Electronic toll collection -easy pass in express way -baggage Mark and character readers -OMR > optical mark recognition (Exam) -MICR > magnetic, ink character recognition (Check) -OCR > optical mark recognition use OCR software -Digital camera -Web cam Audio input device -speech recognition system Using microphone as an input device to convert human speech into digital code and computer to the prerecorded patterns Sensor -Collect data directly from the environment and transmit it to a computer -Smoke detector -People counter How many people pass? Human biology input device Biometric -The science of measuring individual body characteristics Ex. Finger point Brain computer interface Brain machine interface (BMI)

6 Brain computer interface (BCI) Ex. Asimo Out put -Soft copy > show on a display -Hard copy > printed Display -CTR (Cathode ray tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer or video display terminal -Flat panel -LCD (Liquid crystal display) -Molecules of liquid crystal line up in a way that alters their optical properties -OLED (Organic light emitting diode) -more energy efficient -thinner -wider viewing angle -brighter and shorter -FLOED (Flexible OLED) -it built on flexible surfaces that can roll up when not in use -TOLED (Transparent OLED) -eyeglass -Plasma display -e paper -A portable, it light weight -e ink -use a sun light -e reader

7 -3D display Display size Five common aspect ratios -the aspect ratios of an image are it Pixel (Picture element) Resolution (Horizontal x vertical) Common pixel pitches are -0.31mm -0.28mm -0.27mm -0.26mm -0.25mm Viewing angle -a measure of viewing angle in degrees -in general look for between 120 and 170 degrees -a higher number is better Brightness or luminance -nits (cd/m 2 ) -1 nits = 1 cd/m 2 -amount of light the LED monitor produces Contrast ratio -bright white and dark, 600:1, 450:1 Active, passive matrix Refresh rate -Normally times/sec. (Hz)

8 Response rate -common is 5 ms Input signal Hard copy -printer -Impact printer -Non- impact printer -plotter -high quality -large picture -3D printer Processing -binary 0, 1 -human language a-z -voice -picture -Computer language -0, 1 -Digital data representation -computer can understand -on, off -0, 1 -bit

9 -small unit of data -8bits = byte Coding system -number -text -graphics -audio -video Data representation -decimal system -10 symbols 0-9 Text -EBCDIC = 256 characters Ex = A -ASCII = 256 characters Unicode -32 bits for a character -combination of 2 32 Audio data -21 MB for 2 minute stereo song -samples sampled at a rate of 44100times/sec. Ex. Sample sample rate 2 minute stereo 2bytes x x 2x60 x 2 Graphics data -graphics data is in the form of a bitmap -the color of pixel bitmap

10 How much storage space require for Resolution Horizon x vertical x grayscale = 8bits = 1byte 800 x 600 x 1 = 480,000 bytes True color = 24bits = 3bytes 800 x 600 x 3 = 1,440,000bytes Video data 256 color = 8bits = 1byte x 640 x 480 x frame (30) x time(hour) = 60 x 120 = storage Error checking -parity bit Data extra bit > sum of bit is odd or even System unit -power supply -it is a device that converts AC to DC to run the computer -surge protector -voltage regulator -UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) Bay -it is a shelf or an opening Mother board -soldered (non moveable) component -socket and slots Microprocessor -brand of computer

11 Vacuum tube (ENIAC) -occupy 1800 feet 2 -weigh 30 tons -use 18,000tubes -fail every 7minute -15 minute to find and replace -slow 5,000 calculation /sec. -transistor -electrical circuit board Integrated circuit (IC) LGA -land grid array -LGA 775 mean it has 775pin in microprocessor Chipset CPU Northbridge Southbridge -memory -other devices BUS -front side bus (FSB) CPU family -Intel -AMD Multi core processor -2cores in one piece Word size -the more bits in a word the faster the computer Micro code

12 Machine cycle -fetch -decode -execute -store Speed up processing -the computer dose mot wait for one instruction to complete the machine cycle before fetching the next Hyper threading -using SW and OS treat as there are 2 System clock -by Hz -1Hz = 1machine cycle /sec. Other factor of performance -amount of RAM -cache memory -speed of storage device -bus width -bus speed Storage -primary storage -main memory (RAM) -secondary storage -hard disk Types of memory -RAM -cache memory

13 -ROM chip (Read only memory) -flash memory chip (Flash drive) -CMOS chip Volatility -storage media are non volatility -Storage media -Removable media -Internal -storage device -fixed media -external Storage technology 3types -magnetic -with magnetic media -Read/ Write Read (data>ram) Write (RAM>flash drive) Hard disk -it is hard Platter -disk in hard disk -cylinder = 1track One cylinder the same track on the top and bottom HD Capacity -how much data could a HD store -common HD capacity -500GB

14 -1000GB -1500GB -16,383 Cylinder 16 HDS (Hard disk surface) 63 seat -512bytes/ sector -63 sectors -16,383 tracks -16 surfaces -8.4GB Rotational speed -RMP (Revolution per minute) -5,400-7,200-10,000-15,000 Disk access time -total time that it takes for HD read and write Speed up access time -store the file on the same cylinder HD interface -IDE (Integrated drive electronics) -SATA -SCSI -they are found in servers and work station -SAS -fiber channel -use with high-end servers NAS & SAN

15 -Network attached storage (NAS) -Storage area network (SAN) IBM N7900 -maximum number of HD capacity PB RAID -redundant array of independent (or inexpensive) disk -use to increase performance, protect critical data -Level 0-5 Floppy disk -3.5inch FD (1.44MB) -zip disk ( MB) -super disks (120MB) -Hi FD disks (200MB) Magnetic tape Tape library Optical disc system -light system -single grooved spiral track Written -changing the reflectivity -burned -CD standard 150KB/ sec. -DVD standard 1,350KB/ sec. -CD-ROM -CD-R

16 -CD-RW -DVD DVDs -pits are smaller than CDs Blu-ray disc (BD) HD-DVD -solid state drive -use chips -no noise -flash memory -remote storage = online storage Software (Program) -Booting -cold boot -power up the computer -warm boot -Computer already turns on then your reset it Hibernate -shutdown after saving every in memory to hard disk Sleep -close the computer, RAM minimum power state Operation system -basic operation of the computer -allow you to concentrate Karnel

17 -super visor Function -file management -user -task -memory -security Software -copy right -buying software Type of license -single user license -install one computer -concurrent user license -the number of simultaneous users assessing the program -site license -allow software to be used on all computers at a specific location -Demo or trial version -shareware -freeware -no cost Open source software -permit users to study, change and improve the software Public domain software -without any restriction

18 Abandon ware -developed several year ago Pirate software -illegal software Off-shelf software Custom software Bundled software -come from computer together Rental ware Application store -online application Version Release -is a minor upgrade Patches -a small fix GUI element -allow to uses mouse and keyboard Software suite -cost lower -common interface Office suite Graphics suite -Adobe Utility software -stop virus -block spyware

19 Database -store a data -software, Microsoft access, oracle Key field -can be use as a common identifier Querying -locating Graphics and multimedia software DTP (Desktop publishing)

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