Overview of MIS Professor Merrill Warkentin

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1 Management Systems (MIS) Mississippi State University Data raw numbers - not processed facts, lists, numbers, tables of value to an organization 1 2 Data Processing (DP) the restructuring of data to improve their utility (value) to the organization operations include: - sorting, sequencing, selection - merging, collating, graphing meaningful data data which have been organized or processed to increase their value to the organization textual, tabular, or graphical 3 4 Computer Systems Data / Info / Knowledge Data Input D P Processing Output operations & transactions create data MIS select, sort, and summarize data to generate information Communications humans use knowledge to analyze information to make decisions Data Storage 5 6 Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 1

2 7 Three Requirements for Decision Making relevant information knowledge of how to analyze information and make decisions time to apply knowledge Source: Ed Mahler of DuPont(from Level V video) 8 Managing each package is given unique code at pickup, then tracked 13 times along the way! why does FedEx track packages? Three Views of Business process flow (manufacturing view) dollar flows (accounting view) information flows (MIS view) - series of interlocking decisions with connecting information MIS should collect data and generate the right information to the right people at the right timein the right form and format 9 10 Management Functions Determinants of s Quality and Value plan organize staff direct control Strategic Management Operational Management relevancy accuracy precision completeness timeliness availability impact on decision making Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 2

3 Resources hardware software people procedures data & information Managerial Hierarchy and MIS Increasing: Long Term Decision Focus AMBIGUITY UNCERTAINTY COMPLEXITY Short Term Decision Focus Programmed Decision Making (algorithmic) Non -programmed Decision Making (heuristic) Strategic Tactical Operational Strategic Planning Transaction Processing Corporate Data Base Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Systems (EIS) Managerial Control Operations Control accounting, financial, market, HRM data, etc. effectiveness Dynamic Decision Environment Management Systems (MIS) Stable Decision Environment efficiency Electronic Data Processing (EDP) (Transactions Processing Systems) Data Processing Modes Types of Computers 15 batch mode ( run a job, check printout ) - computer activities are grouped and processed at one time (periodically) transaction mode (on-line, not on paper) - interactive user-machine dialogue real-time (transaction) mode - capture and process data as transaction occurs mainframes minicomputers microcomputers / personal computers PC, Mac, workstations PDAs, palmtops supercomputers 16 Computer Systems Microcomputer Components keyboard, mouse 17 Input CPU + RAM Processing Data Storage long-term, permanent (magnetic disks & tapes, optical disks) printers, speakers Output Communications modems, routers, etc. 18 Disks CPU Keyboard Monitor Disk Drives Mouse Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 3

4 Major Computer Input Devices Other Computer Input Devices standard (QWERTY) keyboard custom keyboards (POS) mouse, trackball, joystick DWORAK keyboard POS terminal optical scanners OCR, barcode touch screen light pen magnetic strip readers MICR digitizing tablet voice recognition system robotic vision systems eyeball trackers biometric sensor systems voiceprint iris ID, retinal scanners hand geometry fingerprint ID Source Data Automation automated data entry (e.g. scanners) take humans out of loop reduces mistakes (human error) eliminates data entry forms less expensive more accurate data recording real-time process monitoring * collect more data to mine for info!! * Printers and Plotters ( hard copy output ) laser printers inkjet printers thermal transfer printers dot-matrix printers pen plotters Monitor ( soft copy output ) Computer Memory screen, display, VDT, CRT, tube resolution (VGA = 640x480, 800x600, ) flat panels displays LCD or TFT active matrix dual-scan passive matrix primary memory (RAM) - direct temporary, volatile, fast secondary storage - usually sequential magnetic media (disks & tapes) also optical (CD-ROM) long term, permanent, slower Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 4

5 Secondary Storage Characteristics how much - total bytes and density how fast - average access time - data transfer rate costs - fixed cost (for drive) - cost per megabyte (for media) Magnetic Disks and Tapes Secondary Storage Media disks - direct access - fast average access time - uses = real-time applications tapes - sequential access - fast transfer rate (slow access time) - uses = backup, archives Floppy Disks vs. Hard Disks Optical Laser Discs floppy diskettes (floppies) - cheaper and slower - lower capacity, fragile low intensity lasers read discs CD-ROM = compact disc /read only memory - portable media CD-R, CD-RW, magneto-optical hard disks (fixed disks) read-writable discs - more expensive and faster WORM = write once-read many disks - higher capacity, durable - usually not portable DVD R and DVD +R Storage Capacity Central Processing Unit (CPU) bit = binary digit (0 or 1) byte = 8 bits (keystroke or character) ( = Z) kilobyte = 1024 bytes (K) megabyte = 1024 K (about a million) (gigabyte = 1024 megs) (terrabyte = 1024 gig) works with RAM (random access memory) control unit (CU) read & interpret program instructions direct operation of internal processors control the flow of programs and data arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) performs computations and comparisons including alphabetical math (smith before smyth) Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 5

6 Software Software Applications operating system software and utilities 2. applications software -- ready to use 3. applications development tools --programming languages (compilers), software packages (4GL s), and rapid prototyping tools 32 accounting, financial, tax word processing, desktop publishing database management graphics, multimedia, games communications, , web browsers educational, tutorials decision support software, expert systems specialized applications System Software (Operating System) coordinates computer circuitry makes software development easier eliminates human intervention allows programs to share resources keeps accounting of resource usage schedules jobs on a priority basis Operating Systems DOS (MS-DOS, PC-DOS) Windows 3.1, 95, 98, NT, 2000, XP Macintosh OS (System 8, OSX) UNIX, Linux, Sun Solaris mainframes - VMS (VAX), CMS, etc. NOS Network OS (NT4, Novell) Strengths of Computers Weaknesses of Computers speed machine, program, or operating failure reliability/dependability control procedures versatility rigidity - must be exact ability to perform complex calculations complexity large data storage capacity output form accuracy/repeatability not user friendly hard to understand Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 6

7 Copyright Notice This document may not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, transmitted, or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form without explicit permission and written authorization from Dr. Merrill Warkentin. MISProfessor.com Copyright 2004, Merrill Warkentin page 7

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