Basic Concepts of Information Technology (IT)

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1 Basic Concepts of Information Technology (IT)

2 Objectives Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic Computing Functions Identify the Different Types of Computers Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses

3 Objectives Identify Types of Software and Their Uses Describe Networks and Define Network Terms Identify Safe Computing Practices

4 Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic Computing Functions Benefits of becoming computer fluent Attractive to potential employers Makes you a knowledgeable consumer Easier to select the right computer for your needs Puts you in a better position to understand and use the technology of tomorrow

5 Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic Computing Functions Computer is a programmable electronic device that can input, process, retrieve, and store data A computer takes data and converts it into information Data Represents a single fact or idea; can be word, number, sound, picture Information Data processed so it can be presented in a meaningful and organized way

6 Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic Computing Functions Information processing cycle of a computer Input Computer gathers data or allows a user to add data Processing Data is converted into information Output Data or information is retrieved from the computer Storage Data or information is stored for future use

7 Identify the Different Types of Computers Although computers come in a variety of sizes and shapes, the basic components required to complete the information processing cycle must be present in them all There are four basic types of computers: supercomputers, mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers

8 Identify the Different Types of Computers Supercomputers Large, powerful computers devoted to specialized tasks Fastest and most expensive of all computers Perform sophisticated mathematical calculations, track weather patterns, monitor satellites, and perform other complex, dedicated tasks

9 Identify the Different Types of Computers Mainframe computers Large computers often found in businesses and colleges, where thousands of people use the computer to process data They Multitask, as they can perform more than one task at the same time This capability is one of the primary ways mainframes differ from supercomputers

10 Identify the Different Types of Computers Mainframe computers Stores vast amounts of data using a variety of storage devices Early mainframe computers were very large and required separate rooms to house them Today s mainframe computers are significantly smaller

11 Identify the Different Types of Computers Minicomputers Used in medium-sized businesses that have smaller data storage requirements than businesses using mainframe computers Are less common now because of the increased capabilities of microcomputers Desktop computers that sit on your desktop, floor, table, or other flat surface and have a detachable keyboard, mouse, monitor and other pieces of equipment

12 Identify the Different Types of Computers Microcomputers Are the smallest of the four categories of computers and the one that most people typically use Range in size from servers that have a storage capability of minicomputers (and small mainframes) to handheld devices that fit in your pocket

13 Identify the Different Types of Computers Microcomputers smallest type of computers Desktop computers sit on your desktop, floor, table, or other flat surface and have a detachable keyboard, mouse, monitor and other pieces of equipment. Also called Personal Computers (PCs) Notebook computers, also called laptops, which are mobile Tablet computers, similar to notebooks but screen can be written on with a special pen called a stylus Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers contain calendars, contact information, and many can also play music, take photos, access the Internet, and make phone calls

14 Identify the Different Types of Computers

15 Understand the Terms Intelligent and Dumb Terminal An intelligent terminal, for example a PC: - Performs a lot of the processing locally You could use a PC, linked to a mainframe A dumb terminal: - Has very limited processing capabilities itself, but allows you to connect to a large powerful computer such as a mainframe. When you process your data from the dumb terminal, it is the mainframe at the other end of the network that is performing all the calculations.

16 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses Hardware is the computer and any equipment connected to it Hardware devices are the physical components of the computer Items such as the monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer are also known as peripherals because they attach to the computer

17 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses The computer itself is known as the system unit, and contains many of the critical hardware and electrical components The system unit is sometimes referred to as the tower, box, or console

18 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses

19 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses System Unit If you remove the cover from the system unit, you find several key components inside One of the most essential components is the microprocessor chip, also known as the central processing unit (CPU) The CPU is located on the motherboard, a large printed circuit board to which all the other circuit boards in the computer are connected

20 Describe Hardware Devices and System Unit Their Uses The CPU is the brain of the computer and is responsible for controlling all the commands and tasks the computer performs Two main parts the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) The control unit is responsible for obtaining instructions from the computer s memory, and then interprets and executes them

21 Describe Hardware Devices and System Unit Their Uses Arithmetic logic unit, or ALU, performs all the arithmetic and logic functions for the computer Handles addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and also makes logical and comparison decisions This allows the CPU to perform tasks such as sorting data alphabetically or numerically, and filtering data to locate specific criteria

22 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses The Motherboard

23 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses Motherboard/system board Main computer circuit board; connects all components CPU Gets data from memory and processes it Memory (RAM) chips Temporary holding area where data is stored RAM means Random Access Memory

24 Describe Hardware Devices and System Unit Their Uses The CPU s power is measured by the speed at which it can process data, known as the clock speed Clock speed is measured in either megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz), depending upon the age of the CPU

25 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses System Unit Memory is another critical computer component found within the system unit Two types of memory: ROM and RAM ROM, or Read Only Memory, is prerecorded on a chip Information on a ROM chip can t be changed, removed, or rewritten Nonvolatile memory -- it retains its contents even if the computer is turned off ROM is used to store critical information such as the program used to start up, or boo the computer (Like ROM- BIOS)

26 Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses System Unit The second type of memory is RAM RAM acts as the computer s short-term memory and stores data temporarily as it is being processed RAM is considered to be volatile because this memory is erased when the computer is turned off The more tasks your computer performs at the same time, the more memory is used

27 Describe Hardware Devices and System Unit Their Uses Installing new memory is one of the cheapest and easiest upgrades RAM is usually measured in gigabytes (GB) For newer systems, a minimum of 1 GB to 4 GB is recommended

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