# XX. Introductory Physics, High School

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1 XX. Introductory Physics, High School

2 High School Introductory Physics Test The spring 2013 high school Introductory Physics test was based on learning standards in the Physics content strand of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework (2006). These learning standards appear on pages of the Framework. The Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework is available on the Department website at Introductory Physics test results are reported under the following four MCAS reporting categories: Motion and Forces Heat and Heat Transfer Waves and Radiation Electromagnetism Test Sessions The high school Introductory Physics test included two separate test sessions, which were administered on consecutive days. Each session included multiple-choice and open-response questions. Reference Materials and Tools Each student taking the high school Introductory Physics test was provided with an Introductory Physics Formula Sheet. A copy of this formula sheet follows the final question in this chapter. Each student also had sole access to a calculator with at least four functions and a square-root key. The use of bilingual word-to-word dictionaries was allowed for current and former English language learner students only, during both Introductory Physics test sessions. No other reference tools or materials were allowed. Cross-Reference Information The table at the conclusion of this chapter indicates each item s reporting category and the framework learning standard it assesses. The correct answers for multiple-choice questions are also displayed in the table. 370

3 Introductory Physics Session 1 DIRECTIONS This session contains twenty-one multiple-choice questions and two open-response questions. Mark your answers to these questions in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. You may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: A Common EQ 1 A rope is attached to a block that has a weight of 120 N. When the rope exerts an upward force of 250 N on the block, what is the net force on the block? A. 130 N up B. 370 N up C. 130 N down D. 370 N down ID: GONWIL022_diagram.eps D Common EQ 2 A student is shaking one end of a small rug with a ball on top of it. The wave that is produced travels through the rug and moves the ball upward, as shown in the diagram below. Which type of wave is produced in the rug? A. compression B. electromagnetic C. longitudinal D. transverse 371

4 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: GA_missing_component.eps B Common EQ 3 A student has a circuit that is missing a component at location X, as shown in the diagram below. X The student wants component Y to warm up after the switch is closed. Which of the following components should the student add to the circuit at location X? Y ID: D Common EQ 4 A satellite in a circular orbit around Earth has a constant speed but not a constant velocity. Which of the following statements best explains why the satellite s velocity is not constant? A. The radius of the satellite s orbit is too large. B. The force on the satellite s mass is constantly decreasing. C. The magnitude of the satellite s momentum is too large. D. The direction of the satellite s motion is constantly changing. A. A B. C. D. V 372

5 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: MAALE178_speed.eps C Common EQ 5 An object is traveling in a straight line. The graph below shows the object s velocity over time. Velocity W Motion of an Object X Y Time Which line segment shows the object traveling with a constant, positive acceleration? A. segment W B. segment X C. segment Y D. segment Z Z ID: B Common EQ 6 A person is driving north in a car at a constant speed. A police officer is driving south toward him at a constant speed. The police officer uses a radar unit to measure the speed of the person s car. The radar unit sends out waves of a certain frequency toward the person s car. The waves reflect off the person s car and travel back to the radar unit in the police car. What happens to the frequency of the waves detected by the radar unit? A. The frequency is lower as the person s car approaches. B. The frequency is higher as the person s car approaches. C. The frequency remains the same but with increased energy as the person s car approaches. D. The frequency remains the same but with decreased energy as the person s car approaches. 373

6 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: isopropanol_heating_graph C Common EQ 7 Temperature ( C) A student slowly heats a beaker of a liquid on a hot plate. The liquid has a boiling point of 78 C. The student makes the graph shown below from the data she records as the liquid is heating Heating a Liquid Time (min) Which of the following statements best describes what happens to the molecules of liquid between 5 and 10 minutes of heating? A. The mass of the molecules increases. B. The molecules undergo a chemical change. C. The molecules absorb energy to change phase. D. The average kinetic energy of the molecules decreases. ID: A Common EQ 8 Which of the following statements describes an electric generator? ID: D Common EQ 9 A. A magnet is rotated through a coil of wire to produce an electric current. B. Electric potential in a rotating coil of wire creates a permanent magnet. C. An electrical current causes a coil of wire to rotate in a magnetic field. D. Forces from a permanent magnet allow a coil of wire to rotate. A neutral balloon is rubbed with a piece of wool cloth. As a result, the balloon has a negative static charge. Which of the following statements best explains why the balloon has a negative charge? A. The balloon is a conductor. B. The balloon is an insulator. C. The balloon transfers charges to the cloth. D. The balloon receives charges from the cloth. 374

7 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: B Common EQ 10 What is the magnitude of the momentum of a 0.50 kg ball moving in a straight line at 5.0 m/s? A. 0.1 kg m/s B. 2.5 kg m/s C. 6.3 kg m/s D. 10 kg m/s ID: B Common EQ 11 The human ear is most sensitive to sound that has a frequency of about 4000 Hz. Assume that the speed of sound in air is 340 m/s. What is the wavelength of a sound heard in the air with this frequency? A m B m C. 12 m D. 340 m 375

9 Introductory Physics Session 1 Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 13 through 22 in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: D Common EQ 13 A light bulb with a potential difference of 120 V across it carries a current of 1.5 A. Which of the following is the power consumption of the light bulb? ID: GONWIL003_diagram.eps C Common EQ 16 The diagram below represents a block sliding across a table at a constant speed. All forces are shown except the frictional force. A W B. 80 W C. 120 W D. 180 W 2.5 N 1.7 N ID: C Common EQ 14 Electromagnetic waves with low frequencies have been used for longdistance underwater communication. These waves most likely belong to which of the following parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma rays B. infrared waves C. radio waves D. x-rays 2.5 N What is the magnitude of the frictional force on the block? A. 0.8 N B. 1.6 N C. 1.7 N D. 2.5 N ID: D Common EQ 15 An electric fan has a power output of 60 W. How much work is done if the fan operates for 120 s? A. 0.5 J B. 60 J C. 120 J D J ID: C Common EQ 17 During a thunderstorm, which of the following travels at a speed closest to m/s? A. wind from the storm B. sound from the thunder C. light from the lightning D. rain from the storm clouds 377

10 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: C Common EQ 18 An athlete is training for a race by performing timed trials of sprints up a staircase. Which set of variables most directly affects the athlete s power? A. body weight, height climbed, width of steps B. body weight, time spent climbing, width of steps C. height climbed, time spent climbing, body weight D. height climbed, time spent climbing, width of steps ID: C Common EQ 20 Which of the following statements best explains how heat flows by conduction? A. A large mass of air begins to move faster. B. Energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves. C. Energy is transferred from molecule to molecule. D. A large mass of warm air rises, replacing the cooler air above. ID: B Common EQ 19 An appliance draws 4 A of current when connected to 120 V. What is the resistance of the appliance? A V B. 30 V C. 124 V D. 480 V 378

11 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: GONWIL030_graph.eps [opt_ B Common EQ 21 Which of the following graphs best represents how the force between two identical electric charges varies as the charges move away from each other? A. B. Force (N) Force (N) Distance (m) ID: D Common EQ 22 Which of the following properties makes a light wave different from all mechanical waves? A. A light wave slows down in a vacuum. B. A light wave is able to transmit energy. C. A light wave exists as a transverse wave. D. A light wave can travel without a medium. Distance (m) C. Force (N) Distance (m) D. Force (N) Distance (m) 379

13 Introductory Physics Session 2 DIRECTIONS This session contains nineteen multiple-choice questions and three open-response questions. Mark your answers to these questions in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. You may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: METEDW002_motion_graph.ep A Common EQ 24 The graph below represents the motion of an object over four time intervals, W, X, Y, and Z. Motion of an Object W X Y Z ID: D Common EQ 26 A person starts driving and travels 3 km east to a store. The person then turns around and travels 1 km west to another store. Finally, the person travels 2 km west, back to the starting point. What distance has this person traveled? Position A. 0 km B. 3 km C. 5 km D. 6 km Time Over which time interval is the object moving the fastest? A. interval W B. interval X C. interval Y D. interval Z ID: B Common EQ 27 A 2 m long pendulum swings back and forth 6 times in 17 seconds. What is the period of the pendulum? A. 0.4 s B. 2.8 s C. 12 s D. 34 s ID: C Common EQ 25 Which of the following observed properties of a wave is changed by the Doppler effect? A. amplitude B. direction C. frequency D. speed 381

14 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: nash_coiled_spring_table. C Common EQ 28 The diagram below shows two students making a wave with a coiled spring. ID: C Common EQ 29 A student researches Jupiter and Saturn and records the following information: Jupiter is about half the distance to the Sun that Saturn is. Jupiter is about three times more massive than Saturn. Based on this information, which of the following can be concluded about the gravitational forces between these planets and the Sun? Which of the following waves move most like the wave in the coiled spring? A. infrared waves B. microwaves C. sound waves D. ultraviolet waves A. There are no gravitational forces between Jupiter and the Sun or between Saturn and the Sun. B. There are equal gravitational forces between Saturn and the Sun and between Jupiter and the Sun. C. There is a greater gravitational force between Jupiter and the Sun than between Saturn and the Sun. D. There is a greater gravitational force between Saturn and the Sun than between Jupiter and the Sun. 382

15 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: D Common EQ 30 Which of the following substances has the lowest average molecular kinetic energy? ID: MAALE180_circular_motion_ B Common EQ 31 The diagram below shows a ball tied to a string. A student is swinging the ball in a horizontal circle. A. nitrogen at 75 C B. quartz at 25 C C. steel at 50 C D. water at 10 C W X Y Z Ball String Direction of ball s motion If the student releases the string, in which direction will the ball travel? A. direction W B. direction X C. direction Y D. direction Z 383

17 Introductory Physics Session 2 Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 33 through 43 in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: D Common EQ 33 Which of the following always occurs when a light ray reflects off a mirror? A. The speed of the light ray increases. B. The direction of the light ray stays the same. C. The frequency of the light ray decreases as it reflects and loses energy to the mirror. D. The angle at which the light ray strikes the mirror equals the angle at which it reflects. ID: B Common EQ 34 Two positively charged objects are separated by a large distance. One of the positively charged objects is replaced by a negatively charged object, and the two objects are moved closer to each other. Which of the following occurs in this situation? A. The attractive force becomes a repulsive force, which increases as the objects move closer to each other. B. The repulsive force becomes an attractive force, which increases as the objects move closer to each other. C. The attractive force becomes a repulsive force, which decreases as the objects move closer to each other. D. The repulsive force becomes an attractive force, which decreases as the objects move closer to each other. 385

18 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: GA_Calorimeter.eps C Common EQ 35 Calorimeters are instruments used to measure heat. The diagrams below show a calorimeter before a metal sample is added and after the sample is added. Calorimeter Before Calorimeter After Stirrer Thermometer Stirrer Thermometer 58 C 61 C Water Water Insulation Insulation Metal sample Which of the following statements describes the flow of heat energy after the metal sample is added? A. Heat energy flows from the stirrer to the thermometer. B. Heat energy flows from the water to the metal sample. C. Heat energy flows from the metal sample to the water. D. Heat energy flows from the insulation to the thermometer. 386

19 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: C Common EQ 36 The potential energy of a 77 kg diver standing on a 20 m high diving tower is 15,400 J. Two-thirds of the way down during the dive into the pool, his potential energy is 5,100 J. Neglecting air resistance, what is the diver s kinetic energy at this point? A. 2,550 J B. 7,650 J C. 10,300 J D. 12,850 J ID: C Common EQ 37 Which of the following has the greatest momentum? A. 0.2 kg ball moving at 40 m/s B. 500 kg car traveling at 16 m/s C kg truck traveling at 9 m/s D. 50 kg child skateboarding at 4 m/s ID: D Common EQ 39 A current of 2 A passes through an 8 V load. What is the potential difference across the load? A V B. 4.0 V C. 10 V D. 16 V ID: A Common EQ 40 Sound travels through air, steel, and water at different speeds. Which list is ordered from the substance that sound will travel through the slowest to the substance that sound will travel through the fastest? A. air, water, steel B. steel, air, water C. water, air, steel D. water, steel, air ID: D Common EQ 38 What method of heat transfer allows the Sun s heat energy to reach Earth through the vacuum of space? A. condensation B. conduction C. convection D. radiation 387

20 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: GONWIL005_graph.eps D Common EQ 41 The graph below illustrates the motion of a toy car during time intervals X, Y, and Z. The toy car is initially at rest. It is then pushed and released. Motion of Toy Car ID: Belrob085_wooden_boxes.ep D Common EQ 43 A worker in a warehouse pushes two wooden boxes across a floor at a constant speed, as shown in the diagram below. Box 2 Box 1 Speed 0 X Y Z Time Kinetic friction is acting on the toy car during which of the following time intervals? A. interval X only B. interval Y only C. intervals X and Z D. intervals Y and Z The arrow in the diagram represents the force box 1 exerts on box 2. Which arrow represents the reaction force? A. B. C. ID: C Common EQ 42 Work is performed on an object by raising it 2 m above the floor. Which of the following types of energy must change in this situation? D. A. chemical energy B. magnetic energy C. mechanical energy D. thermal energy 388

22 Introductory Physics Session 2 Write your answer to question 45 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: _slr_camera.eps [st Common EQ 45 The diagram below is a simplified representation of the inside of a certain type of camera. Dotted box Eye Light ray 1 Light ray 2 Light ray 3 Viewfinder Film Glass lens Movable mirror a. Identify and describe the wave behavior as the light rays pass through the glass lens. b. Identify and describe the wave behavior as the light rays strike the mirror. c. Copy the dotted box from the camera diagram into your Student Answer Booklet. Draw what must happen inside the box for light ray 2 to strike the viewfinder. Be sure to include the following: either a lens or a mirror that is labeled the path of light ray 2 a line normal to the surface where light ray 2 strikes 390

23 Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Introductory Physics Formula Sheet Formulas Average Speed 5 d t F ma p mv Average Acceleration 5 v t Average Velocity 5 x t F G m 1 m 2 2 V IR d F k q q 1 2 d 2 P IV v v a t f i KE 1 2 mv 2 Q mc T x v t a t i PE mg h v f v 2 2 v 2a x W Fd f i c f Average Velocity 5 v i Variables a 5 acceleration c 5 specific heat d 5 distance f 5 frequency F 5 force Dh 5 change in height I 5 current KE 5 kinetic energy l 5 wavelength m 5 mass p 5 momentum P 5 power PE 5 gravitational potential energy 2 v f P W t q 5 charge of particle Q 5 heat R 5 resistance Dt 5 change in time DT 5 change in temperature T 5 period v 5 velocity v i 5 initial velocity v f 5 final velocity Dv 5 change in velocity V 5 voltage W 5 work Dx 5 displacement T 1 f Definitions c 5 speed of electromagnetic waves m/s G 5 Universal gravitational constant N m k 5 Coulomb constant N m C 2 2 kg 2 2 g 10 m/s 2 kg m 1 N 1 s 2 J 1 J 1 N m 1 W (watt) 1 s 391

25 Item No. Page No. Reporting Category Standard Correct Answer (MC)* Waves and Radiation 4.5 A Motion and Forces 1.6 D Motion and Forces 2.3 C Motion and Forces 1.4 D Heat and Heat Transfer Waves and Radiation 4.4 * Answers are provided here for multiple-choice items only. Sample responses and scoring guidelines for open-response items, which are indicated by shaded cells, will be posted to the Department s website later this year. 393

### XX. Introductory Physics, High School

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