physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves

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1 Chapter 20 Lecture physics FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS a strategic approach THIRD EDITION randall d. knight Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter Goal: To learn the basic properties of traveling waves. Slide 20-2 Chapter 20 Preview Slide

2 Chapter 20 Preview Slide 20-4 Chapter 20 Preview Slide 20-5 Chapter 20 Preview Slide

3 Chapter 20 Preview Slide 20-7 Chapter 20 Preview Slide 20-8 Chapter 20 Reading Quiz Slide

4 Reading Question 20.1 A graph showing wave displacement versus position at a specific instant of time is called a A. Snapshot graph. B. History graph. C. Bar graph. D. Line graph. E. Composite graph. Slide Reading Question 20.1 A graph showing wave displacement versus position at a specific instant of time is called a A. Snapshot graph. B. History graph. C. Bar graph. D. Line graph. E. Composite graph. Slide Reading Question 20.2 A graph showing wave displacement versus time at a specific point in space is called a A. Snapshot graph. B. History graph. C. Bar graph. D. Line graph. E. Composite graph. Slide

5 Reading Question 20.2 A graph showing wave displacement versus time at a specific point in space is called a A. Snapshot graph. B. History graph. C. Bar graph. D. Line graph. E. Composite graph. Slide Reading Question 20.3 A wave front diagram shows A. The wavelengths of a wave. B. The crests of a wave. C. How the wave looks as it moves toward you. D. The forces acting on a string that s under tension. E. Wave front diagrams were not discussed in this chapter. Slide Reading Question 20.3 A wave front diagram shows A. The wavelengths of a wave. B. The crests of a wave. C. How the wave looks as it moves toward you. D. The forces acting on a string that s under tension. E. Wave front diagrams were not discussed in this chapter. Slide

6 Reading Question 20.4 The constant, k, introduced in Section 20.3 on Sinusoidal Waves is A. The Boltzman s constant, with units: J/K. B. The Coulomb constant, with units: N m 2 /c 2. C. The force constant, with units: n/m. D. The wave number, with units: rad/m. E. The wavelength, with units: m. Slide Reading Question 20.4 The constant, k, introduced in Section 20.3 on Sinusoidal Waves is A. The Boltzman s constant, with units: J/K. B. The Coulomb constant, with units: N m 2 /c 2. C. The force constant, with units: n/m. D. The wave number, with units: rad/m. E. The wavelength, with units: m. Slide Reading Question 20.5 The waves analyzed in this chapter are A. String waves. B. Sound and light waves. C. Sound and water waves. D. String, sound, and light waves. E. String, water, sound, and light waves. Slide

7 Reading Question 20.5 The waves analyzed in this chapter are A. String waves. B. Sound and light waves. C. Sound and water waves. D. String, sound, and light waves. E. String, water, sound, and light waves. Slide Chapter 20 Content, Examples, and QuickCheck Questions Slide The Wave Model The wave model is built around the idea of a traveling wave, which is an organized disturbance traveling with a well-defined wave speed. The medium of a mechanical wave is the substance through or along which the wave moves. Slide

8 A Transverse Wave A transverse wave is a wave in which the displacement is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. For example, a wave travels along a string in a horizontal direction while the particles that make up the string oscillate vertically. Slide A Longitudinal Wave In a longitudinal wave, the particles in the medium move parallel to the direction in which the wave travels. Here we see a chain of masses connected by springs. If you give the first mass in the chain a sharp push, a disturbance travels down the chain by compressing and expanding the springs. Slide Wave Speed The speed of transverse waves on a string stretched with tension T s is: Where µ is the string s mass-to-length ratio, also called the linear density: Slide

9 QuickCheck 20.1 These two wave pulses travel along the same stretched string, one after the other. Which is true? A. v A > v B B. v B > v A C. v A = v B D. Not enough information to tell. Slide QuickCheck 20.1 These two wave pulses travel along the same stretched string, one after the other. Which is true? A. v A > v B B. v B > v A Wave speed depends on the properties of the medium, C. v A = v B not on the amplitude of the wave. D. Not enough information to tell. Slide QuickCheck 20.2 For a wave pulse on a string to travel twice as fast, the string tension must be A. Increased by a factor of 4. B. Increased by a factor of 2. C. Decreased to one half its initial value. D. Decreased to one fourth its initial value. E. Not possible. The pulse speed is always the same. Slide

10 QuickCheck 20.2 For a wave pulse on a string to travel twice as fast, the string tension must be A. Increased by a factor of 4. B. Increased by a factor of 2. C. Decreased to one half its initial value. D. Decreased to one fourth its initial value. E. Not possible. The pulse speed is always the same. Slide Snapshot Graph A graph that shows the wave s displacement as a function of position at a single instant of time is called a snapshot graph. For a wave on a string, a snapshot graph is literally a picture of the wave at this instant. Slide One-Dimensional Waves The figure shows a sequence of snapshot graphs as a wave pulse moves. These are like successive frames from a movie. Notice that the wave pulse moves forward distance x = v t during the time interval t. That is, the wave moves with constant speed. Slide

11 History Graph A graph that shows the wave s displacement as a function of time at a single position in space is called a history graph. This graph tells the history of that particular point in the medium. Note that for a wave moving from left to right, the shape of the history graph is reversed compared to the snapshot graph. Slide An Alternative Look at a Traveling Wave Slide Visualizing a Longitudinal Wave Slide

12 The Displacement In the wave at a sporting event, the wave moves around the stadium, but the particles (people) undergo small displacements from their equilibrium positions. When describing a wave mathematically, we ll use the generic symbol D to stand for the displacement of a wave of any type. D(x, t) = the displacement at time t of a particle at position x. Slide Sinusoidal Waves A wave source at x = 0 that oscillates with simple harmonic motion (SHM) generates a sinusoidal wave. Slide Sinusoidal Waves Above is a history graph for a sinusoidal wave, showing the displacement of the medium at one point in space. Each particle in the medium undergoes simple harmonic motion with frequency f, where f = 1/T. The amplitude A of the wave is the maximum value of the displacement. Slide

13 Sinusoidal Waves Above is a snapshot graph for a sinusoidal wave, showing the wave stretched out in space, moving to the right with speed v. The distance spanned by one cycle of the motion is called the wavelength λ of the wave. Slide Sinusoidal Waves The distance spanned by one cycle of the motion is called the wavelength λ of the wave. Wavelength is measured in units of meters. During a time interval of exactly one period T, each crest of a sinusoidal wave travels forward a distance of exactly one wavelength λ. Because speed is distance divided by time, the wave speed must be: or, in terms of frequency: Slide QuickCheck 20.6 The period of this wave is A. 1 s. B. 2 s. C. 4 s. D. Not enough information to tell. Slide

14 QuickCheck 20.6 The period of this wave is A. 1 s. B. 2 s. C. 4 s. A sinusoidal wave moves forward one wavelength (2 m) in one period. D. Not enough information to tell. Slide The Mathematics of Sinusoidal Waves Define the angular frequency of a wave: Define the wave number of a wave: The displacement caused by a traveling sinusoidal wave is: This wave travels at a speed v = ω/k. Slide Equation of a Sinusoidal Traveling Wave Slide

15 Wave Motion on a String Shown is a snapshot graph of a wave on a string with vectors showing the velocity of the string at various points. As the wave moves along x, the velocity of a particle on the string is in the y-direction. Slide QuickCheck 20.7 A sinusoidal wave travels along a lightweight string with wavelength λ 1 and frequency f 1. It reaches a heavier string, with a slower wave speed, and continues on with wavelength λ 2 and frequency f 2. Which is true? A. λ 2 = λ 1 and f 2 < f 1. B. λ 2 = λ 1 and f 2 > f 1. C. λ 2 > λ 1 and f 2 = f 1. D. λ 2 < λ 1 and f 2 = f 1. Ε. λ 2 < λ 1 and f 2 < f 1. Slide QuickCheck 20.7 A sinusoidal wave travels along a lightweight string with wavelength λ 1 and frequency f 1. It reaches a heavier string, with a slower wave speed, and continues on with wavelength λ 2 and frequency f 2. Which is true? A. λ 2 = λ 1 and f 2 < f 1. B. λ 2 = λ 1 and f 2 > f 1. C. λ 2 > λ 1 and f 2 = f 1. D. λ 2 < λ 1 and f 2 = f 1. Ε. λ 2 < λ 1 and f 2 < f 1. Slide

16 Example 20.4 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Slide Example 20.4 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Slide Example 20.4 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Slide

17 Example 20.4 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Slide Waves in Two and Three Dimensions Consider circular ripples spreading on a pond. The lines that locate the crests are called wave fronts. If you observe circular wave fronts very, very far from the source, they appear to be straight lines. Slide Waves in Two and Three Dimensions Loudspeakers and lightbulbs emit spherical waves. That is, the crests of the wave form a series of concentric spherical shells. Far from the source this is a plane wave. Slide

19 Example 20.5 The Phase Difference Between Two Points on a Sound Wave Slide Example 20.5 The Phase Difference Between Two Points on a Sound Wave Slide Sound Waves A sound wave in a fluid is a sequence of compressions and rarefactions. The variation in density and the amount of motion have been greatly exaggerated in this figure. Slide

20 Sound Waves For air at room temperature (20 C), the speed of sound is v sound = 343 m/s. Your ears are able to detect sinusoidal sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 khz. Low frequencies are perceived as low pitch bass notes, while high frequencies are heard as high pitch treble notes. Sound waves with frequencies above 20 khz are called ultrasonic frequencies. Oscillators vibrating at frequencies of many MHz generate the ultrasonic waves used in ultrasound medical imaging. Slide Example 20.6 Sound Wavelengths Slide Example 20.6 Sound Wavelengths Slide

21 Electromagnetic Waves A light wave is an electromagnetic wave, an oscillation of the electromagnetic field. Other electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, microwaves, and ultraviolet light, have the same physical characteristics as light waves, even though we cannot sense them with our eyes. All electromagnetic waves travel through vacuum with the same speed, called the speed of light. The value of the speed of light is c = 299,792,458 m/s. At this speed, light could circle the earth 7.5 times in a mere second if there were a way to make it go in circles! Slide The Electromagnetic Spectrum Slide Example 20.7 Traveling at the Speed of Light Slide

22 The Index of Refraction Light waves travel with speed c in a vacuum, but they slow down as they pass through transparent materials such as water or glass or even, to a very slight extent, air. The speed of light in a material is characterized by the material s index of refraction n, defined as Slide The Index of Refraction As a light wave travels through vacuum it has wavelength vac and frequency f vac. When it enters a transparent material, the frequency does not change, so the wavelength must: Slide QuickCheck 20.9 A light wave travels, as a plane wave, from air (n = 1.0) into glass (n = 1.5). Which diagram shows the correct wave fronts? Slide

23 QuickCheck 20.9 A light wave travels, as a plane wave, from air (n = 1.0) into glass (n = 1.5). Which diagram shows the correct wave fronts? Slide Example 20.8 Light Traveling Through Glass Slide Power and Intensity The power of a wave is the rate, in joules per second, at which the wave transfers energy. When plane waves of power P impinge on area a, we define the intensity I to be: Slide

24 Example 20.9 The Intensity of a Laser Beam Slide Example 20.9 The Intensity of a Laser Beam Slide Intensity of Spherical Waves If a source of spherical waves radiates uniformly in all directions, then the power at distance r is spread uniformly over the surface of a sphere of radius r. The intensity of a uniform spherical wave is: Slide

25 Intensity and Decibels Human hearing spans an extremely wide range of intensities, from the threshold of hearing at W/m 2 (at midrange frequencies) to the threshold of pain at 10 W/m 2. If we want to make a scale of loudness, it s convenient and logical to place the zero of our scale at the threshold of hearing. To do so, we define the sound intensity level, expressed in decibels (db), as: where I 0 = W/m 2. Slide Intensity and Decibels Slide QuickCheck The sound intensity level from one solo flute is 70 db. If 10 flutists standing close together play in unison, the sound intensity level will be A. 700 db. B. 80 db. C. 79 db. D. 71 db. E. 70 db. Slide

26 QuickCheck The sound intensity level from one solo flute is 70 db. If 10 flutists standing close together play in unison, the sound intensity level will be A. 700 db. B. 80 db. C. 79 db. D. 71 db. E. 70 db. Slide Example Blender Noise Slide The Doppler Effect A source of sound waves moving away from Pablo and toward Nancy at a steady speed v s. After a wave crest leaves the source, its motion is governed by the properties of the medium. Slide

27 The Doppler Effect Slide The Doppler Effect As the wave source approaches Nancy, she detects a frequency f + which is slightly higher than f 0, the natural frequency of the source. If the source moves at a steady speed directly toward Nancy, this frequency f + does not change with time. As the wave source recedes away from Pablo, he detects a frequency f which is slightly lower than f 0, the natural frequency of the source. Again, as long as the speed of the source is constant, f is constant in time. Slide The Doppler Effect The frequencies heard by a stationary observer when the sound source is moving at speed v 0 are: The frequencies heard by an observer moving at speed v 0 relative to a stationary sound source emitting frequency f 0 are: Slide

28 The Doppler Effect Doppler weather radar uses the Doppler shift of reflected radar signals to measure wind speeds and thus better gauge the severity of a storm. Slide QuickCheck A siren emits a sound wave with frequency f 0. The graph shows the frequency you hear as you stand at rest at x = 0 on the x-axis. Which is the correct description of the siren s motion? A. It moves from left to right and passes you at t = 2 s. B. It moves from right to left and passes you at t = 2 s. C. It moves toward you for 2 s but doesn t reach you, then reverses direction at t = 2 s and moves away. D. It moves away from you for 2 s, then reverses direction at t = 2 s and moves toward you but doesn t reach you. Slide QuickCheck A siren emits a sound wave with frequency f 0. The graph shows the frequency you hear as you stand at rest at x = 0 on the x-axis. Which is the correct description of the siren s motion? Doppler shift to lower frequency means it s moving away. A. It moves from left to right and passes you at t = 2 s. B. It moves from right to left and passes you at t = 2 s. C. It moves toward you for 2 s but doesn t reach you, then reverses direction at t = 2 s and moves away. D. It moves away from you for 2 s, then reverses direction at t = 2 s and moves toward you but doesn t reach you. Slide

29 Example How Fast Are the Police Traveling? Slide Example How Fast Are the Police Traveling? Slide The Doppler Effect for Light Waves Shown is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of a quasar. Quasars are extraordinarily powerful and distant sources of light and radio waves. This quasar is receding away from us at more than 90% of the speed of light. Any receding source of light is red shifted. Any approaching source of light is blue shifted. Slide

30 Example Measuring the Velocity of a Galaxy Slide Example Measuring the Velocity of a Galaxy Slide Chapter 20 Summary Slides Slide

31 General Principles Slide General Principles Slide Important Concepts Slide

32 Important Concepts Slide

Chapter 20. Traveling Waves You may not realize it, but you are surrounded by waves. The waviness of a water wave is readily apparent, from the ripples on a pond to ocean waves large enough to surf. It

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