# Physics PH1FP. (Jun15PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL

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2 2 Answer all questions in the spaces provided. 1 Different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are useful for different methods of communication. 1 (a) Figure 1 shows a transmitter emitting two electromagnetic waves, J and K. Figure 1 Transmitter J K The Earth Receiver Ionosphere Wave J is reflected by a layer in the atmosphere called the ionosphere. 1 (a) (i) Wave K will also be reflected by the ionosphere. On Figure 1, draw the path of wave K to show that it does not reach the receiver. [2 marks] 1 (a) (ii) What is the name given to the dashed line in Figure 1? (02)

3 3 1 (b) Figure 2 shows a transmitter sending a signal to a satellite orbiting the Earth. Figure 2 Satellite L Ionosphere Transmitter The Earth 1 (b) (i) Which type of electromagnetic wave is used to send a signal to a satellite? Draw a ring around the correct answer. gamma microwave ultraviolet 1 (b) (ii) What name is given to the process that occurs as wave L passes into the ionosphere? Draw a ring around the correct answer. diffraction reflection refraction Question 1 continues on the next page Turn over (03)

4 4 1 (c) Waves J, K and L are electromagnetic waves. What are two properties of all electromagnetic waves? Tick ( ) two es. [2 marks] Property Tick ( ) All electromagnetic waves are longitudinal. All electromagnetic waves are transverse. All electromagnetic waves are mechanical. All electromagnetic waves have the same speed in a vacuum. All electromagnetic waves have the same frequency. 7 (04)

5 5 2 Figure 3 shows a man using a leaf blower to move some leaves. Figure 3 The leaf blower is powered by an electric motor connected to a battery. 2 (a) Energy transfers take place when the leaf blower is being used. Use the correct answer from the to complete each sentence. [3 marks] chemical electrical kinetic nuclear sound The battery stores... energy which is transferred into electrical energy. The electric motor transfers electrical energy usefully into... energy. The motor wastes energy as... energy and as energy that heats the surroundings. Question 2 continues on the next page Turn over (05)

6 6 2 (b) The total power input to the leaf blower is 750 W. The useful power output of the leaf blower is 360 W. Calculate the efficiency of the leaf blower. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. [2 marks] Efficiency =... 5 (06)

7 7 3 Figure 4 shows a black metal casserole dish that is put inside a hot oven. Food is cooked inside the casserole dish. Figure 4 3 (a) Energy is transferred quickly from the inside of the hot oven, through the metal casserole dish to the food. 3 (a) (i) Why are metals good conductors of energy? Tick ( ) one. Tick ( ) because they contain free atoms because they contain free electrons because they contain free ions Question 3 continues on the next page Turn over (07)

8 8 3 (a) (ii) Why do black surfaces become hot quickly? Tick ( ) one. Tick ( ) Because they are good absorbers of infrared radiation. Because they are good absorbers of ultraviolet radiation. Because they are good absorbers of visible light. 3 (b) Figure 5 shows a person removing a hot casserole dish from an oven, using oven gloves. Figure 5 3 (b) (i) Use the correct answer from the to complete the sentence. conductors insulators radiators The oven gloves are good.... (08)

9 9 3 (b) (ii) How would wearing oven gloves affect the rate of energy transfer to a person s hands compared with not wearing oven gloves? Tick ( ) one. Tick ( ) The rate of energy transfer would be higher. The rate of energy transfer would be lower. The rate of energy transfer would stay the same. 3 (c) What two factors determine the amount of energy transferred by an electric oven? [2 marks] (d) A company has invented an app that allows householders to control the electric oven in their home using their mobile phone. The mobile phone can be used to switch the electric oven on and off. Suggest one benefit of using a mobile phone to switch an electric oven on and off. 7 Turn over for the next question Turn over (09)

10 10 4 A can-chiller is used to make a can of drink colder. Figure 6 shows a can-chiller. Figure 6 Can of drink 4 (a) The can-chiller decreases the temperature of the liquid in the can by 15 C. The mass of liquid is 0.33 kg. The specific heat capacity of the liquid is 4200 J/kg C. Calculate the energy transferred from the liquid as it cools. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. [2 marks] Energy =... J 4 (b) Complete the following sentence. The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy required to change the... of one kilogram of the substance by one degree Celsius. (10)

11 11 4 (c) To calculate the specific heat capacity of a material, the mass of the material needs to be measured. State the name of a measuring instrument used to measure mass. 4 (d) The back of the can-chiller has cooling fins, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 Cooling fin The cooling fins increase the rate of energy transfer from the can-chiller to the surroundings. Complete the following sentences. [2 marks] The cooling fins are a... colour because that makes them good emitters of infrared radiation. The large surface area of the cooling fins allows the air around the can-chiller to gain energy quickly and rise, transferring energy by.... Question 4 continues on the next page Turn over (11)

12 12 4 (e) (i) The energy input to the can-chiller is the same as the energy output. This shows that energy is conserved. Complete the following sentence. Energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated, but cannot be... or destroyed. 4 (e) (ii) The temperature of the can of drink decreases while it is in the can-chiller. What happens to the temperature of the air around the cooling fins? 8 (12)

13 13 5 Figure 8 shows a solar thermal power station. Figure 8 Solar receiver Mirrors Energy from the Sun is directed at the solar receiver by many mirrors. 5 (a) (i) Suggest one reason why a solar thermal power station is built in a hot desert. 5 (a) (ii) Complete the following sentence to describe how the mirrors direct energy from the Sun towards the solar receiver. Energy from the Sun is... by the mirrors towards the solar receiver. Question 5 continues on the next page Turn over (13)

14 14 5 (a) (iii) Heated water is used to generate electricity in the solar thermal power station. Choose the correct answer from the to complete each sentence. [3 marks] boiler motor transformer turbine At the solar receiver, water is heated in a... which turns the water into steam. The steam turns a... which is connected to a generator. The generator produces electricity. A... is used to change the voltage for transmission along power lines. 5 (b) A solar storage power station is a new type of solar power station. It is able to store energy from the Sun to generate electricity at night. The solar storage power station can supply a town with a maximum electrical power of kw for 15 hours. Calculate the maximum energy, in kwh, stored by the solar storage power station. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. [2 marks] Energy =... kwh (14)

15 15 5 (c) A different method of generating electricity uses wind turbines. A student researching a wind farm wrote the following. Top Hill Wind Farm has 25 wind turbines. Last week, one of the wind turbines generated electricity for only 42 hours out of a possible 168 hours. My conclusion is that all wind turbines operate for only 25% of the time. 5 (c) (i) Give two reasons why the student is not correct in reaching his conclusion. [2 marks] (c) (ii) Give one reason why wind turbines do not generate electricity all the time. 5 (c) (iii) Give one advantage of using wind turbines to generate electricity compared with using fossil fuel power stations. 11 Turn over for the next question Turn over (15)

16 16 6 Scientists can use the visible light spectrum from distant stars to determine whether the stars are moving. The visible light spectrum from stars includes dark lines at specific wavelengths. 6 (a) Figure 9 shows the visible light spectrum from the Sun and from four other stars, A, B, C and D. Figure 9 The Sun Blue Increasing wavelength Red A B C D 6 (a) (i) Which star, A, B, C or D, is moving away from the Earth? (16)

17 17 6 (a) (ii) How does the speed of star B compare with the speed of star D? Tick ( ) one. Tick ( ) The speed of star B is greater than the speed of star D. The speed of star B is less than the speed of star D. The speed of star B is the same as the speed of star D. 6 (b) A radio wave is emitted by a star. The radio wave has a wavelength of 1500 m and a frequency of Hz. Calculate the speed of this radio wave. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. [3 marks] Choose the correct unit from the list below. m m/s m/s 2 Speed =... unit... 5 Turn over for the next question Turn over (17)

18 18 7 (a) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. A householder wants to reduce her energy bills. She collected information about a number of ways of reducing energy used. The information is shown in Table 1. Table 1 Ways of reducing energy used Install an energy-efficient boiler Cost to buy and install in Money saved per year in Insulate the loft Install double-glazed windows Install cavity wall insulation Use the information in Table 1 to compare the different ways of reducing the energy used. Your answer should include some calculations. [6 marks] (18)

19 19 Extra space... 7 (b) Increasing the amount of insulation in a house affects the total U-value of the house. 7 (b) (i) What is meant by the term U-value? 7 (b) (ii) How is the U-value affected by increasing the amount of insulation? 8 Turn over for the next question Turn over (19)

20 20 8 A householder monitored how the air temperature inside his house changed over a 2-hour period. The householder measured the temperature every 15 minutes. Figure 10 shows how the temperature changed with time. 23 Figure 10 Air temperature in C :00 08:00 09:00 Time in hours 8 (a) (i) The householder used a digital thermometer to measure the temperature. What would be an appropriate resolution for the digital thermometer? Draw a ring around your answer. 0.5 C 1 C 5 C 8 (a) (ii) The householder s results are shown on a line graph in Figure 10. Why would it not be appropriate to use the results to plot a bar chart? (20)

21 21 8 (b) The householder s heating is controlled by a thermostat. The thermostat switches the heating on when the temperature decreases below a certain temperature. 8 (b) (i) At what temperature does the thermostat switch the heating on?... C 8 (b) (ii) Use Figure 10 to determine the number of minutes that the householder s heating was switched on between 07:00 and 09:00. Time =... minutes Question 8 continues on the next page Turn over (21)

22 22 8 (c) The householder read the following extract from a newspaper article about reducing energy use in the home.... decreasing the temperature setting on your thermostat by 1 C will reduce your heating bill by 10%... On Monday, the householder set his thermostat at 20.0 C and recorded the energy, in kwh, used to heat his house. On Tuesday, the householder set his thermostat at 19.0 C and recorded the energy, in kwh, used to heat his house. Table 2 shows the results of the householder s investigation. Table 2 Thermostat setting in C Energy in kwh (c) (i) The outside temperature was the same on both days. Give one reason why this was important. 8 (c) (ii) Explain how the results shown in Table 2 support the extract from the newspaper article. Justify your answer with a calculation. [2 marks] (22)

23 23 8 (c) (iii) The statement in the extract is not valid for all situations. Suggest why. [2 marks] 9 END OF QUESTIONS (23)

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