1 Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B9 (2020) doi: / / D DAVID PUBLISHING Geodynamic Development of Eurasian Active Margin during Closing of Thetys Ocean, Depending on the Scale of Mantle-Crustal Sources Influence at Pre- and Post-collision Settings, Controlled by Geological and Geochemical Indicators Vladimir I. Gugushvili Department of Metallogeny, Al. Janelidze Institute of Geology, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Jikia 16, Tbilisi 0186, Georgia Abstract: Phanerozoic geodynamic evolution development of Tethys Ocean, its collision and closing, revealed at the Eurasian active margin in pre- and post-collision stages during convergence of Afro-Arabian and Eurasian continents. Subduction of oceanic slab under continental margin revealed in steady state subduction and steepening of subducting slab provoked the incursion of mantle diapir. The steady state subduction is related with island arc setting whereas steepening provoked incursion of mantle diaper interarc-backarc and minor ocean settings. They are controlled by geological indicators volcagenic, petrochemical, geochemical, tectonic and metallogenic. Each of them is determined by scale of mantle-crustal influence, controlled by intensity and level of mantle diapir incursion in the crust rising from interarc-backarc to minor oceanic setting. The island arc setting is characterized by blocking, which as others by extension of rifting (interarc-backarc) caused spreading out from zone of volcanic activity and mineralization sialic crusts, whereas minor ocean setting caused by spreading out from zone of volcanic activity and mineralization sialic and basaltic crusts. So mantle crustal influence rising from island arc to minor ocean settings controlled type of volcanism and mineralization in pre-collision development. At the closing of ocean occurred the precollision setting which is transferred in post-collision revealed in orogenesis. It is divided in two stages. The first initial stage occurred in penetration hot fluids from the mantle in sialic crust smelted from in granitoid melt and leached the gold and trace melts Sb, W, Mg and Hg from sialic crust. The latter are geochemical indicators of post-collision setting. The second final stage revealed in shoshonite-basalt volcanism activity occurred with penetrated mantle material into deep volcanic chambers and characterized with increasing of mantle influence than initial stage of post-collision activity. Key words: Pre- and post-collision settings, crustal-mantle sources, geological indicators. 1. Introduction At the Precambrian after cratonization the Earth crust is divided by sialic, basaltic and rigid upper mantle and Au and base metals Pb, Zn and Cu which were redistributed within them. Au and Pb contained in sialic, Zn in basaltic, whereas Cu is rested in mantle . In Phanerozoic the plume tectonic is alternated by Corresponding author: Vladimir I. Gugushvili, Ph.D., professor, research fields: volcanology, matallogeny, geodynamic. modern plate tectonic with subduction and spreading of oceanic crust and forming ocean and continents. The collision and closing ocean revealed in forming of continental active margin, as evolution of Tethys ocean at Eurasian margin at pre- and post-collision stages. Our studied region occurred in the Western segment of Eurasian active margin, within Iran, Caucasus, Turkey and Balcan-Carpaths (Fig. 1). We tried to show in geodynamic development exemplified of this (Fig. 1) region based of plate-tectonic data.
2 249 Fig. 1 Map of the Western Tethysides (Stampfli, et al. ). minor ocean, backarc, marginal Volcanic Massive Sulfide mineralization; subduction related with porphyry, epithermal and kuroko type mineralization; postcollision orogenic and intrusive related lode and porphyry mineralization. 2. Material 2.1 Pre-collision Development In the Caucasus the plate-tectonic study was beginning in 1974 . Now the region is studied in detail. The precollision stage of geodynamic development was revealed by steady state subduction and steepening of subducting slab. The initial activity of steady state subduction began by regional metamorphism and granitization at fluid temperature C. The arising temperature up to 1,100-1,200 C smelting from subducting slab andesitic magma challenged calc-alkaline volcanic activity of island arc setting. The Bolnisi Ore District (Fig. 2) is a good example of island arc setting, where at the Madneuli and Tsiteli Sopeli gold-base metals porphyry deposits occurred in dacite-rhyolite volcanic activity, where Au-Pb-Zn-Cu porphyry and Kuroko type stratiform mineralization are related to calc-alkaline volcanic activity . The ore forming process here is controlled by blocking related to granodiorite intrusive stocks tumiscenced sea bottom and elevated the islands (Uplifted blocks). On the islands ignibrite volcanic activity was terminated by cauldron-subsidence (subside blocking). The blocking at Madneuli, so at Tsiteli-Sopeli deposits both are synvolcanic. The mineralization as porphyry, so in Kuroko type deposits is related to granodiorite stocks and volcanic chambers and sources of ignimbrite explosion terminated by cauldron subsidence . So, volcanogenic indicator here is calc-alkaline volcanics related to steady state subduction, metallogenic Au, Pb, Zn, Cu mineralization leaching from sialic, basaltic crust and mantle (the slab was
3 250 Fig. 2 Geological map of Bolnisi ore district. I Madneuli cluster, II Bectaqari cluster. deepening inmantle). The tectonic indicator is blocking the geochemical cryteria are ratias of St and Pb isotopes in the ore bearing rock 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = , 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 39 . The similar geological indicators were determined in the Pontides (Turkey) (Fig. 3), Panaguirishte ore district (Bulgaria) and Timock region (Serbia), related to island calc-alkaline volcanism, porphyry and Kuroko type mineralization and synvolcanic tectonics  (Fig. 4). In the Bolnisi ore district neighboring to Turonian-Santonian clusters of Madneuli occurred Campanian Beqtakari cluster. Madneuli and Beqtakari clusters are divided by regional postvocanic foult (Fig. 2). The Beqtakari belongs to backarc setting and is represented by its two stages. The initial-lower Campanian stage consists of trachyodacitic volcanic suite intensively alternated by gold-bearing k-fieldspar metasomatites and is not subjected by rifting. The subalkal volcanism and alkali alteration must be related to initial stage of alkali alteration and must be related with initial stage of back arc setting, where rifting and spreading out sialic crust from zone of volcanic activity was not determined. It is the reason of low sulfidation gold mineralization and participation of Pb in porphyry ores. Ascending succession of the goldbearing Lower Campanian rocks was alternated by Upper Campanian Shorsholety suite of shoshonites alkali olivine basalts and tholeiites [4, 6] (Fig. 5).
4 251 Fig. 3 Geotectonic scheme of Turkey with metallogeny of sulfide deposits after Engin (Engin, . Deposits: 1: Murgul, 2: Madenkoy, 3: Lahanos, 4: Guzelayla, 5: Derekoy (Kircaleli), 6: Cutlalar, 7: Akdagmeni, 8: Bakibaba (Küre), 9: Ashikoy (Küre), 10: Arapchan, 11: Balya, 12: Demirbocu, 13: Altinoluk, 14: Kulakchitligi, 15: Bozkur, 16: Aladag, 17: Hyuilu, 18: Derekoy (Kaizery), 19: Keban (Elazig), 20: Maden (Elazig), 21: Madenkoy (Siirt). The diabase apophyses of its volcanic chamber that consist porphyry mineralization coincided with epidote-tcoizite propylitization . Therefore, Shorsholety suite belongs to second stage of backarc setting. The similar situation (Fig. 4) is known in the Panaguirishte ore district, where high sulfidation Au-Pb-Zn-Cu Chelpech goldbearing deposit is divided by blocking from Zn-Cu Tsar Asen and Vlaikov Vruh porphyry deposits . The better example of back arc rifting and olivine basalt-tholeiite volcanism and stratiform Volcanic Massive Sulfide Cu-Zn mineralization is Hudes group of deposits (Hudes, Urup, Daud) of for Range of North Caucasus [7, 8]. Its genesis may be explained by spreading out sialic crust by rifting from zone of volcanism and mineralization and represents the second stage of backarc setting. The metallogenic indicator here Cu Zn mineralization, lack of Au and Pb, tectonic indicator here extension and rifting. The source of Zn here is basaltic crust, the source of Cu is the mantle, diapir caused the rifting. The first stage of rifting is related to shoshonite-trachyandesite volcanism. It is in Achara-Thrialetyi zone at ascending sucsetion overlined the tholeiite-olivine basalt series and belongs to transitional stage of interarc-backarc settings . Its initial stage similarly as island arc setting is characterized by booking tectonics ignimbrite activity, cauldron subsidence and subalkali trachyodacite volcanic activity without rifting. The minor ocean setting in the studied region is the Paleozoic Küre complex (Fig. 3) which consists of ophiolites type volcanics and dunite-peridotite intrusions. The complex contains serpentinized peridotites cumulate gabbro, pillow lavas intercalated with massive lava flows with lava breccias cut by diabase dikes. Their oceanic nature is confirmed by geochemistry of immobile elements, copper-pyrite mineralization and lack of Zn and Pb mineralization in deposits Ashiky and Bakibaba . The intensive spreading spread out from zone of volcanism as sialic so basaltic crusts sourced of Au, Pb, Zn and mineralization consisting
5 252 Fig. 4 Schematic geological map of the Srednegorie, Timok, Banat and Apuseni region with porphyry and epithermal mineralization, after von Quadt, et al. .
6 253 Fig. 5 Lithostratigraphic column of the Bolnisi ore district. 1: Paleozoic crystalline substratum; 2: Intraformation conglomerates; 3: Cenomanian-Turonian Opreti and Didgverdi suites alternation of rhyo-dacite, andesite tuffs and limestones; 4, 5. Turonian-Lower Santonian Mashavera suite rhyodacite tuffs, hyaloclastites tephroids, lava flows (4) and ignimbrites (5); 6: Upper Santonian-Campanian Tandzia suite andesite-basalts and their tuffs; 7, 8. Campanian Gasandami suite alternation of rhyolitic and rhyodacitic tuffs, volcano-sedimentary rocks and marls (7) ignimbrites (8); 9: Campanian Shorsholeti suite alkali-olivine basalts and andesite-basalts; 10: Maastrichian Tetritskaro suite-limestones.
7 254 of only Cu whose source is the mantle, volcanogenic and petrogenic indicators here are ephiolites, dunite-peridotite and serpentinization. The rectonic indicator is extension and spreading, metallogenic is only Cu, sialic and basaltic crusts here spread from zone of mineralization and volcanism. In the Bolnisi ore district at the island arc Turonian-Santonian (Tandzia and Mashavera suites) and in Campanian backarc (Gasandami and Shorsholeti suites) settings the scale of mantle material participation revealed by Nd and Sr ratios of isotopes. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd in calc alkaline volcanic of Mashavera and Tandzia that suites it is and in Gasandami and Shorsholeti suites At the same time Sr isotopes ratio decreased from calc-alkaline to bacarc setting vocanics from to The increasing content of K 2 O from calc-alkaline volcanic to subalkaly and alkiles is related to mantle diapir incursion [4, 7]. Therefore, the precollision geodynamic development was controlled by steady state subduction and steepening of subducting slab revealed in various geodynamic settings, controlled by geological indicators and depending on intensity of mantle diapir incursion into Earth crust and scale of crustal-mantle participation in the various geodynamic settings. It is noteworthy that geodynamic development during collision of Tethys ocean slab at European active margin temporally and spatially was alternated depending on weakening and strengthening of steepening of subducting slab and incursion of mantle diapir differently along the Eurasion active margin [4, 10-12]. In the studied region along the deepening of subducted slab in the Caucasus region and Turkey within Paleozoic Jurassic-Cretaceous and Eocene occurs the temporal alternation steady state subduction and steepening of subducted slab, expressed in island arc setting temporally and spacially alternate in interarc or backarc (Fig. 6). Fig. 6 Schematic map reflects the E-W lateral geodynamic transformation of subducted slab above IAES suture, indicate the character of the Eocene volcanic series in the East Pontides and Lesser Cauacasus. 1: Ophyolites; 2: Alkaline olivine basalts and tholeiites of bakarc settings; 3: Eocene calcalkaline volcanic series of island arc; 4: Shoshonite series; 5: Cretaceous calc-alkaline series of island arc. BS: Black Sea, CS: Caspean Sea, GC: Great Caucasus, SSC: Southern Slope of Caucasus, TC: Transcaucasus, AT: Achara-Thrialety, LS: Lesser Caucasus, EP: East Pontides, BSMO: Black Sea Minor Ocean, T: Talysh.
8 255 Fig. 7 Idealized scheme of interrelation of volcanism and mineralization at various stages of subduction of the Tethys ocean slab. I Steady state subduction and island arc setting, II Incipient stage of steepening of subducting slab, III Reinforcement steepening and backarc-interarc setting, IV Intensive spreading and minor ocean setting. 1: granodiorite stocks, 2: calc-alkaline rhyodacite volcanics, 3: trachy-rhyodacite and alkali olivine basalt and trachybasalt volcanics, 4: olivine basalt and tholeiite volcanics, 5: ophiolite volcanics and dunite-peridotite intrusive bodies, 6: sialic crust, 7: basaltic crust, 8: mantle diapir, 9: Au-Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization, 10: Au-Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization with high grade of gold, 11: Zn-Cu Volcanic Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide ores, 12: Cu-pyrite Cyprus type ores. Laterally along deepening occurred specially synchronal alternation minor ocean setting with interarc backarc and farther to island arc setting. It is exemplified on eastern transmission of Eocene Black Sea minor ocean in Achara Thrialety interarc tholeeiites, shosholites and trachyandesite and farther to calc-alkaline island arcal andesite as well as Black Sea Cretaceous minor western transmission in Bulgar tholeiite-olivine basalt backarc rifting . The Eocene Caspean minor ocean alternates with Talysh olivine-basalt backarc  (Fig. 6). In opposite the Talysh sandstores, was cut by dunite peridotite stocks and sandstones cut by dunite peridotite stocks and sandstones evidence of upstarts transmission interarc in minor ocean setting . It is noteworthy, that alternation ascending succession is temporally related at one space. The precollision temporally alternation of geodynamic setting of studied region is presented on the idealized scheme (Fig. 7). 2.2 Post-collision Development The pre-collision development of Eurasian active margin was altered by post-collision. The post-collision revealed in orogenesis is related to closure of Tethys ocean, convergence and stress Afro Arabian on the Eurasian continent. After the ocean closing the subduction was terminated, however the steepening of subducted slab and continental crust
9 256 were continuing. Along fault and thrust hot protracted flows from mantle streaming in the thick orogenous crust smelted granodioritic magma and leached trace metals Sb, W, Mo, Hg and base metals, forming ganodiorite stocks and low sulfidation and porphyry mineralization at the initial stage of post-collision development. The granodioritic stocks that controlled faults and thrusts. Mineralization is associated with Sb, W, Mo and Hg (Fig. 8). In Turkey, West Anatolides are known postcollision Au deposits, Cungurlar, Halikoy, Emerly , controlled by Cenozoic foulting and associates with trace metals. So, as in Balcan-Carpathian region of Europe, in Rodopean Adatepe porphyry goldbearing porphyry and gold trace metals deposits are deposit  and Slovakian Carpaths gold-cooper-base distributed everywhere within studied region in Iran, Caucasus, Turkey and Balkan-Carpathians and their metal deposit, the mineralization associates with Sb, W and Hg . ages everywhere within studied region The gold mineralization with similar geochemical Oligocene-Miocene. So, the first stage of orogenesis is background is known in the various regions of the post-collision development dated as world. The giant gold deposits associated with Oligocene-Miocene, as a granodioritic ctock. In the Caucasus the granodioritic stocks and gold trace metal deposits occurred. Main Range and Southern Slope of Caucasus deposites are Zopkhito, Lukhumi the gold trace metals mineralization as well mentioned trace metals occur in Tethys Eurasian metallogenic belt. Here in Altaids (Tianshan) region to the late stage of Paleozoic relate giant gold deposits of Muruntau group associated with Sb, W, Mo and Hg represented Muruntau, Cumtor, Cholboy . The as in Avadhara, Akhey, Notsarula, Akhahchu similar association of the trace metals in the deposits. The low sulfidation gold mineralization coincides with antimonite, realgar, sheete, oripiment. The mineralization is controlled as by Oligocene-Miocene dacite extrusions and granodiorite intrusive stocks, so as by Cenozoic fold thrust zone. In the Caucasian mountain range is the known Hocrila-Achapara gold trace metal prospect . Here the gold is associated with Sb and W. Here occur as well trace metal deposit Akhey and Achapara Mercury prospect. In the Lesser Caucasus occur Kajaran and Agarak Mo and Zn deposits and Merhadror gold deposits associated with trace metals and controlled by Cenozoic granodiorites, so fault-thrust structures . The post-collision gold mineralization spread wide in the Iran (Fig. 8). Here are known Harvana groups deposits: Miverhud, Astargan, Anderiak, Ganareh and Halphian, in the Sinanjan-Sirgan zone Muteh, Zarsheran, Dashkesan and Ahdarek deposits . Here postcollision gold deposits occurs in Tombstone gold belt (Canada) gold mineralization controlled by synorgeneous granodioritic stocks and associated with Bi, Mg and Mo, W, Sb As well as in the Western Lachlan Orogeny South-East Australia [22, 23]. So, postcollision gold deposits are related to orogenesis and consist with above mentioned trace metals. Therefore geochemical background of post-collision settings is represented by trace metals Sb, W, Mo and Hg, metallogenic and geochemical indicators of postcollision settings. The final stage of post-collisuin development was revealed in Pleistocene-Quartenary volcanic activity. It is widespread in our studied region and consists of calc-alkaline andesite and subalkali shoshonite, alkali olivine basalts and tholeiites [24, 25]. Those are similar to pre-collision island arc, interarc and backarc setting volcanics and characterized by geochemical cryteria of precollision rocks. The postcollision setting is not characterized by rifting, prevented by thick the gold mineralization is controlled by orogenous crust and lack of mineralization. They are Oligocene-Miocene granodiorite stocks and Cenozoic explosed from deep volcanic chambers which penetrate
10 Geodynamiic Developme ent of Eurasia an Active Ma argin during Closing C of Th hetys Ocean, Depen nding on the Scale of Man ntle-crustal Sources S Influe ence at Pre- and a Post-colllision Setting gs, Controlled d by Geologic cal and Geoc chemical Indicators 2577 Fig. 8 Main n tectonic elem ments and Mesoozoic-Cenozoicc magmatic beelts of Iran (affter Stöcklin, and Alav vi, et al., 1997)) and location of o gold occurreences, prospeccts and mines in n Iran. 1: Kharvana, 2: 2 Mianeh, 3: Zarshuran-Agh Z h Darreh, 4: Keervian, 5: Dashk kasan-baharlu, 6: Ahangaran,, 7: Astaneh, 8: Zartorosht, 9:: Gandy-Abolhaassani, 10: Kuhh-e Zar, 11: Cheelpow, 12: Qal eh Zari, 13: Shalir (after Morittz, et al. ).
11 258 the mantle material. The volcanic did not consist of trace metals association characterized for the initial stage of postcollision development. The mantle influence of initial stage is in proctracted hot fluids penetrated from mantle in sialiccrust, whereas at final stage scale of participation of mantle material penetrated in deep chambers was significant. So at initial stage occurs mainly crustle influence and at final stage prevails mantle influence. The tectonic indicator of pre-collision development is blocking at island arcs, extension and rifting at interarc-backarc and spreading at minor oceans. The tectonic indicator of postcollision stage is orogenesis and fold-thust zones. 3. Discussion and Conclusions Geodynamic development of Eurasian active margin depended on subduction beneath continent into mantle. Tethys Ocean slab during collision and closing the ocean at convergence of Afro-Arabian and Eurasian continents, occurs in two stages: pre- and post-collision. The pre-collision stage developed during steady stage subduction and steepening of subducting slab coinside and incursion of mantle diapir, determined crustal-mantle influence of forming settings of pre-collision development. The steady state subduction determined the island arc setting. At steepening of subducting slab and incursion of mantle diapir is related with interarc-backarc and minor ocean settings of Eurasian active margin. The settings are distinguished by influence of crustal-mantle sources determined by geological indicators-volcanogenic, sourced by sialic, basaltic crusts and mantle occurred of calc-alkaline volcanism, synvolcanic blocking Au, Pb, Zn, Cu metallogeny. The geochemical indicators here are Sr and Pb isotopes ratio: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = , 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 39. Volcanism and metallogeny were here determined mainly by crustal influence sourced of Au, Pb and Zn, the source of Cu is the mantle. The backarc-interarc settings are sourced by basaltic crust and mantle, the sialic crust spread from zone of volcanism by rifting. Extension and rifting is tectonic indicator, the volcanogenic indicator is alkali olivine basalt and tholeiite, metallogenic are Zn and Cu, lack of Au and Pb. The volcanogenic indicators of initial and transitional stages of interarc-backarc settings are subalkaly trackyrhyodacite, shoshonite and trachyndesite volcanic activity, the metallogenic indicators are Au, Pb, Zn and Cu. At this stage sialic crust has not yet spread out from zone of volcanic activity. The geochemical indicator is 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = The minor ocean setting is characterized by intensive steepening and incursion of mantle diapir at highest level and spreading is mostly intensive so from zone of volcanic activity, sialic spread out, so basaltic crust and sources of volcanism and mineralization here is only mantle. The volcanogenic and petrogenic indicator here is ophiolite volcanism, dunite peridotite intrusion and serpentinization. Geochemical indicator is 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = The metallogenic indicator is only Cu in Cu-pyrite VMS ores. So, from island arc setting to interarc-backarc and minor ocean setting the mantle influence is arisen and crustal is diminished. In the studied regions of Eurasian active margin along deepening of subducting slab temporally and spatially the island arc setting alternates with interarc-backarc in Paleozoic lower Jurassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene intervals, so laterally to deepening alternation of setting are spatially synchronal from minor ocean of Caspean and Black Sea to interarc-backarc and island arc settings. As well, alternation occurs in ascending succession in spatial units. In Eurasian margin spatial and temporal alternation is not known everywhere. In some occasions only island arc setting occur in others only interarc-backarc without transferring. In one case in Turkish Pontides occurs Paleozoic minor ocean setting Küre complex with VMS Cu-pyrite mineralization, in spite of minor ocean settings in studied regions are Cretaceous and Eocene.
12 259 So, steepening of subduction crust was alternated spatially and temporally at precollision stage of development. So, in island arc setting occurs uplifted blocking, related with tumescent sea bottom and island uplifting alternates with ignimbrite explosion and cauldron subsidence (subsided blocking). The steepening of subducted slab and mantle diapir incursion occurred on higher level the tectonic indication in rifting. When strengthening of diapir incursion provoked the intensive speeding and sialic and basaltic crusts were spread out, minor ocean setting occurred. The tectonic indicator of postcollision setting expressed in orogenesis and regional post-collision metallogenic, hydrothermal activity indicators. The forming of giant gold deposits associated with above mentioned trace metals, which widespread in ore bearing rocks, evidenced the geochemical and metallogenic criteria of postcollision setting and orogenesis in the world at the post-collision geodynamic development. Therefore, the metallogenic indicators of pre-collision development are Au, Pb, Zn and Cu, whereas metallogenic indicators of the post-collision development are Au and trace metals Sb, W, Mo and Hg. At the pre-collision stage scale of the mantle influence as determined by ratio of 143 Nd/ 144 Nd which is increasing from island arc till interarc-backarc faulting. It also depends on mantle-crustal settings in the Bolnisi ore district from till interrelation provoked by stressing Afro-Arabian and Eurasian continents. The subducted slab under Eurasian margin was steepening and intensive hydrothermal and granodiorite magmatic activity provoked at the first stage and olivine basalt and tholeiitic volcanism at the second. At the first stage, the protracted hot mantle fluids melted the sialic crust with granodiorite magmatic activity and extracted trace metals Sb, W, Mo and Hg from thickened sialic crust with gold and trace metals. Noteworthy, the gold was extracted in tremendous amount and forming the richest gold deposits of Eurasian active margin. The mentioned trace metals are geochemical indication of postcollision setting. In the second stages, basaltic and tholeiitic volcanic activity was the result of mantle , coincides with the Bolnisi ore district from till , coincides with increasing content of K 2 O in the same direction. Acknowledgments The author is very grateful to Prof. Robert Moritz and Prof. Richard Goldfarb for collaboration of investigating the European active margin within studied region boarders (Iran, Caucasus, Turkey and Balkan-Carpaths) and fulfill advising during working, as well as colleagues of Geological Institute of Georgia and Rich Metals Group and Caucasus Mining Group Companies. References material incursion in deep volcanic chambers. The  Goldfarb, R. G., Groves, D. I., and Gardol, S Orogenic Gold and Geologic Time: A Global Synthesis. rocks are characterized by geochemical criteria of the Ore Geology Reviews 18: same rocks of precollision setting. Therefore, the  Stampfli, G. M., Borel, G., Cavazza, W., Mozar, J., precollision and postcollision stages of geodynamic development are estimated by scales of crustal-mantle Ziegler, P. A., Paleotectonic Atlas of the Perite-Thyan Domain. Windows and Macintosh Compact Disk, p. 89. activity and participation in various settings. For the  Adamia, S., Gamkrelidze, I., and Zakariadze, M subduction and steepening of subducted slab at the Achara-Trialeti Trough and Problem of Origin of the geodynamic development, the closure of Tethys Deep Marine Trough Bleck Sea. Geotectonics 1: Ocean depended on crustal-mantle source and scale of  Gugushvili, V Precollision and Postcollision Geodynamic Evolution of the Tethys Ocean and Its their participation at pre- and post-collision settings Relation with Regional Metamorphism Hydrothermal and was determined by volcanogenic, petrogenic, Activity and Metallogeny along the Eurasian Continental
13 260 Margin, edited by Goldfarb, R., Moritz, R., and Zakariadze, G. Tbilisi, New Series, vol. 129, p  Von Quadt, A., Moritz, R., Peycheva, J., and Heinrich, C. A Geochronology and Geodynamics of Late Cretaceous Magmatism and Cu-Au Mineralization in the Panaguirishte Region of Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednegorie Belt. Bulgaria Ore Geology Review VXX:  Engin, J Metallic Minerals. Geology and mineral resonances of Turkey. Mineral research and Exploration Department Ankara,  Moritz, R., Popkhadze, N., Hasig, M., Golay, T., Lavoief, J., Gugushvili, V., Ulianov, A., Ostrachova, M., Chiaradia, M., and Dumitraca, P Magmatic and Geodynamic Evolution at the Crossroads of the Lessir Caucasus and Silisic Magmatic Flare up to Eocene Postcollision in the Bolnisi District, Georgia. Lithos. (in press)  Shavishvili, I Variscun Volcanism in the Caucasus. IGCP Project N5, Newsletter, pp  Ustaömer, T., and Robertson, A Tectonic-Sedimentary Evolution in the North-Tethyan Margin in the Central Pontides of Northern Turkey. In Regional and Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea Region. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologist, p  Gugushvili, V The Regional Metamorphysm. Volcanism and Metallogeny Controlled by Geodynamic Regime of Phanerozoic Subduction and Collision of Thetys. In Norderstedt. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Germany p. 65.  Gugushvili, I. V Crustal and Mantle Sources at Various Settings of Phanerozoic Geodynamic Development Expressed in Volcanism and Metallogeny of Eurasian Active Margin. Journal of Environmental Science and Engeneering A 7:  Gugushvili, V Relation of Thetys Ocean Subduction and Closure with Regional Metamorphysm, Volcanism and Nineralization Examplified on the Eurasian Active Margin. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A 8 (5):  Stanisheva-Vasileva, G Cretacceous Magmatic Formations in the Burgas Synclinorium. Acad. Sci., Bulagaria. Compte Rendue 24.  Mamedov, M Petrology of Late Cretaceous and Eocene Magmatic Formations. PhD thesis, Tbilisi.  Okrostsvaridze, A., and Bluashvili, D The Results of Detail Investigation of the Horkila-Achapara Gold Oremineralization of Great Caucasus. In Proceedings of Institute of Geology, New Series, Vol. 124, pp  Melikian, L. S Geology and Structure of the Mineralization of Zod Deposit. PhD thesis, Armenian Academy of Science, p. 45.  Moritz, R., Chazban, F., and Singer, B. S Eocene Gold Ore Formation a Muteh, Sunandaj-Sirgian Tectonic Zone, Western Iran: A Result of Late Stage Extension and Exhumation of Metamorphic Basement Rocks within the Zagros Orogeny. Societe of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology 101:  Yigit, O Mineral Deposits of Turkey in Relation of Tethyan Metallogeny Implication for Future Mineral Exploration. Economic Geology 104:  Marchev, P., Singer, B. S. M., Jelev, D., Hasson, S., Moritz, R., and Bonev, N The Ada Tepe Deposit: A Sediment Hosted, Detachment Fault-Controlled, Low-Sulfidation Gold Deposit in the Eastern Rhodopes, SE Bulgaria. Schweizerischte Mineralogische and Petrographische Mitteilungen 84:  Lordkipanidze, M., Gugushvili, V., Lexa, J., and Stohl, J The Geodynamic Condition of Cenozoic Volcanism and Mineralization of Caucasus and Carpaths. In Proceeding of Slovakian Institute of Geology, Bratislava,  Yakubchuk, A., Cole, A., Seltman, R., and Shatov Tectonic Setting, Characteristics and Regional Exploration. Criteria for Gold Mineralization in the Altaid orogenic Collage: The Tian-Shan Province as a Key Example. Society of Economic Geologist Special Publication 9:  Mair, J., Goldfarb, R. Jonson, C. Hart, C. J. R., and Mash, E Geochemical Constraint of the Genesis Sheelite Dome Intrusion-Related Gold Deposit, Tombstone Gold Belt, Yukon, Canada. Economic Geology 101:  Bierlein, F. and Mcknight, S Possible Intrusion-Related Gold Systems in the Western Lachlan Orogeny, South-East Australia. Society of Economic Geologists Inc. Economic Geology 100:  Dilek, I., Imamverdiev, N., and Altunkaynak, S Geochemistry and Tectonics of Cenozoic Volcanism in the Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) and the Peri-Arabian Region: Collision Induced Mantle Dynamic and Its Magmatic Fingerprint. Journal of International Geology Review 52 (4-6):  Sadradze, N Geodynamic of the Continental Collision Zone on the Example of Post-collision Volcanism in the Southern Georgia (Javakheti and Adjacent Area). Ph.D. theses, Tbilisi, Georgia, p. 38.
298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations
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