Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

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1 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization Magma mixing Trace-element variations Compatible vs. incompatible trace elements Partition coefficients Partial melting Crystallization Relationship between rock texture and the kinetics of nucleation & growth What is magma? - partly or completely molten rock typically silicate-based (except for carbonities) - variable properties include composition, temperature, density, viscosity - contains: - silicate liquid (variable composition felsic, intermediate, mafic) - volatiles (mainly H 2 O, CO 2 in variable amounts) - crystals (variable amount, absent if temperature above liquidus) - gas bubbles (presence depends mostly on pressure and gas content) 2 Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas Composition: Ultramafic Mafic Intermediate Felsic Volc. rock name: Komatiite (rare) Basalt Andesite Rhyolite SiO TiO Al 2 2O FeO MgO CaO Na 2 O K 2 O Temp ( C) ~1600 ~1200 ~1000 ~900 Eruption temperatures generally are a little lower than liquidus temperatures. 3 Variation in viscosity with temperature and magma composition At higher temperatures, magmas have lower viscosities (i.e. they can flow more easily) because higher temperatures reduce the degree of polymerization (linkage of SiO 4 tetrahedra) Felsic magmas also are more viscous than mafic magmas because they contain more silica and therefore are more polymerized. Composition plays a greater role than temperature in controlling viscosity. Higher viscosity, thicker/stiffer Lower viscosity, flows more easily Fig 5.4 from Francis, What is polymerization? 5 Variation in viscosity with water content 6 Single tetrahedron Adding water reduces the degree of polymerization and thereby reduces the viscosity. Fig 2.16 Understanding Earth Three polymerized tetrahedra The illustration shows the relationship for a felsic melt. In magmas, silicon-oxygen tetrahedra link together by sharing oxygen atoms to form 3-dimensional networks. The more the tetrahedra link together, the more polymerized is a magma and the greater its viscosity or resistance to flow. Fig 5.5 from Francis, 1993

2 2 Major processes that control the composition of igneous rocks 7 Making magma How to make rocks melt - Increase temperature - generally, temperature increases with depth within the earth - intrusion of hot, mafic magma can heat the surrounding rocks and produce melting - least important way of making magmas 8 - Decrease pressure - bring rocks closer to the surface - extension of the lithosphere - Change composition by adding fluids, especially water 9 10 Effect of water content on melting a rock of granitic composition eeper De Note that water content varies along the curved line i.e. the water content increases with pressure along the curve. So, this is not a simple P-T melting diagram along the curved line. For constant H 2 O (the straight lines), the melting temperature is be greater at higher pressure as expected. Brownlow s Geochemistry By adding water, the rock can be made to melt at a lower temperature. Or, the rock can be made to melt to a greater extent at the same temperature. 11 Igneous rocks and magmas are not pure substances, but rather are complex mixtures of various components. They do not change from liquid to solid or from solid to liquid all at one temperature. When a rock melts, minerals which have the lowest melting temperature melt first. Phase diagram for a simple two-component system 12 Deeper partial melt

3 3 Melting of dry basalt 13 Pure substance Where and how are magmas formed? 14 Dry means that no volatiles like water or carbon dioxide are present. If water is added, the boundaries change, g, and melting happens at lower temperatures than illustrated. Mixed substance: (Basalt) all solid Mid-ocean ridges decompression melting mafic (basaltic) magma (primary mantle melt) Continental rifts and other areas of extension decompression melting mostly mafic (basaltic) magma (primary mantle melt) some intermediate and felsic magmas (crustal melts, derivative magmas) Subduction zones melting largely due to addition of fluids mafic, intermediate, and felsic magmas - often water-rich Felsic rocks also melt at lower temperatures than mafic rocks like basalt. all liquid Mantle plumes (hot spots) decompression melting ocean basins: mafic magma (primary mantle melt) continents: mostly mafic magma, (primary mantle melt) Fig 5.1 from Francis, 1993 some intermediate and felsic magmas (crustal melts, derivative magmas) Locations of magma formation 15 Magma formation at subduction zones 16 The addition of water to the mantle overlying the subducting plate causes partial melting. When enough melting has occurred, the liquid separates from the residual solid and rises buoyantly because it is less dense than the solid. Winter s Prin. Ig. Met. Petrol. Fig 4.8 Understanding Earth Fig 4.19 Understanding Earth General Controls on Magma Compositions During Melting The composition of the resulting melt depends upon: (a) temperature (b) pressure: greater pressure produces more alkaline melts with lower silica content (c) volatile content (e.g. amount of water present) (d) mineral composition of the source rock (e.g. peridotite in the mantle melts to produce mafic magma like basalt; melting of mafic rock in the crust can produce a felsic melt) (e) amount or degree of melting: with more melting, the magma composition becomes more like the source material composition

4 Use the X-Y values for creating this chart in Excel 24

5 25 26 Fe oxides 27 Igneous Classification control points for chart Columbia River basalts Mount Rainier 12 + K2O Na2O Rhyolite Alkalis Na2O + K2O MgO 4 2 Basalt Basaltic Andesite Andesite Dacite Winter s Prin. Ig. Met. Petrol SiO Primary vs. derivative magmas A magma which has not been changed after leaving its source region is considered to be primary. If it has been modified after leaving the source area, it is a derivative or secondary magma. Processes which change magma compositions Fractional crystallization removal of crystals from the magma More FC = more evolved or more differentiated Mixing with another magma (magma mixing) with fragments of wall rock (assimilation) with a partial melt from the wall rock 5

6 Potential complexities of magma differentiation and mixing Fractional crystallization - part 1 Fig 4.9 Understanding Earth Fig 4.12 Understanding Earth 33 Bowen s reaction series When a magma crystallizes, those minerals with the highest melting temperatures form first. The starting point depends on the composition of the magma. For example, rhyolite doesn t crystallize olivine. When melting a rock, the sequence takes place in reverse. Minerals like quartz and mica melt before pyroxene, for example. 34 Crystallization Fig 4.11 Understanding Earth 35 Analyses of glass in volcanic ash and pumice (tephra) by electron microprobe 36 Crystallization Winter s Prin. Ig. Met. Petrol. Kuehn-Negrini, in press

7 Kuehn-Negrini, in press Kuehn-Negrini, in press Trace Elements Show a range of behaviors so can be sensitive indicators of igneous processes e.g. amount of fractional crystallization & minerals involved % partial melting of source rocks type of source rock (minerals present) tectonic setting (e.g. subduction-related or not) Kuehn-Negrini, in press Classification of the trace-elements 41 Rare-earth element abundances are often presented as normalized values to simplify interpretation. 42

8 8 Rare-earth element abundances of mafic rocks by type 43 Mean trace element abundances by rock type 44 Classification of the trace-elements Compatible prefer the solid phases during melting/crystallization Incompatible prefer the liquid phase during melting/crystallization Whether an element is compatible or incompatible depends upon which solid phase(s) are present. During partial melting, the first liquid is enriched in incompatible elements relative to the source rock. During crystallization, the liquid becomes progressively enriched in incompatible elements and progressively depleted in compatible as crystallization proceeds. 45 Distribution coefficients (a.k.a. partition coefficients) A type of equilibrium constant. Used to describe the distribution of trace elements between two phases. Most typically used for distribution between solid & liquid phases, but sometimes also used for distribution between two solids. concentration of the trace element c in a specific solid phase solid K D = c concentration of the same trace liquid element in the liquid phase Like other equilibrium constants, this relationship is affected by both pressure and temperature. It is also affected by the composition of the liquid and often by oxygen fugacity. 46 Distribution coefficients If multiple solid phases are present, a bulk distribution coefficient may be calculated for each trace element of interest D = x 1 Kd 1 + x 2 Kd 2 + x 3 Kd 3 etc. x 1, x 2, and x 3 represent the relative proportions of the individual phases (e.g. 0.2, 0.2, and 0.6)

9 Variation in distribution coefficients with melt composition Variation in K D with melt composition All of these but Eu have a 3+ charge, so the observed pattern largely reflects ionic size Variation in distribution coefficients ionic radius and charge Effect of pressure on K D Effect of oxygen fugacity on K D 53 Enrichment/ depletion with partial melting 54

10 10 Enrichment with fractional crystallization 55 Trace elements during fractional crystallization 56 5% liquid Crystallization 90% liquid Plagioclase fractional crystallization vs. accumulation 57 Trace elements during fractional crystallization Extra Stuff 60

11 11 Extra Stuff 61 Extra Stuff 62 Extra Stuff 63 Winter s Prin. Ig. Met. Petrol.

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