Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells

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1 Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. Cell Basics 2. Prokaryotic Cells 3. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Cell Basics Limits to Cell Size There are 2 main reasons why cells are so small: If cells get too large: 1) there s not enough membrane surface area to facilitate the transfer of nutrients & wastes 30 μm 10 μm 30 μm 10 μm 2) it would take too long for materials to diffuse within the the cell Surface area of one large cube = 5,400 μm 2 Total surface area of 27 small cubes = 16,200 μm 2 1

2 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells (i.e, bacteria) are quite small and don t have internal organelle structures. Prokaryotic cell Nucleus Eukaryotic cells tend to be much larger and contain organelles such as a nucleus. Eukaryotic cell Organelles 2. Prokaryotic Cells General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells Lack membrane-enclosed compartments do not have a nucleus prokaryotic means before nucleus do not have any other organelles All prokaryotes are small, single-celled organisms bacteria and archaea Have a single, circular chromosome 2

3 Outside: cell wall (protects cell) Typical Prokaryotic Cell capsule (outermost layer) flagella (propels cell) Inside: cytoplasm (liquid inside) nucleoid (chromosome) ribosomes (protein synthesis) Ribosomes Capsule Cell wall Plasma membrane Prokaryotic flagella Nucleoid region (DNA) 3. Eukaryotic Cells General Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells Have a nucleus and internal organelles eukaryotic means true nucleus Eukaryotes can be single-celled, or multi-cellular organisms Protists, Fungi, Plants & Animals Much larger than prokaryotic cells ~ μm (vs ~1-10 μm for prokaryotes) Have multiple, linear chromosomes 3

4 A typical Animal Cell Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Flagellum Not in most plant cells Cytoskeleton Lysosome Centriole Peroxisome Microtubule Intermediate filament Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Microfilament Not in animal cells Nucleus Golgi apparatus Central vacuole Chloroplast Cell wall A typical Plant Cell Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament Cytoskeleton Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane The Nucleus enclosed by nuclear envelope (double membrane) contains chromosomes (DNA + proteins) nucleolus ribosome production nuclear pores allow transport 4

5 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Convoluted membrane continuous with the nuclear env. smooth ER (new lipid production) rough ER (protein synthesis by ribosomes) Synthesis and packaging of a protein by the rough ER transport vesicle buds off 4 ribosome secretory protein inside transport vesicle 1 polypeptide 2 glycoprotein 3 sugar chain rough ER Proteins made in the RER are transported within membrane-enclosed vesicles to the Golgi apparatus The Golgi Apparatus Discontinuous membrane stacks distal to the ER: receive proteins, lipids from ER via vesicles site of modification, packaging, sorting and distribution 5

6 Lysosome formation & function plasma membrane rough ER 1 transport vesicle (containing inactive hydrolytic enzymes) Golgi apparatus Lysosomes are membrane bound compartments derived from the Golgi apparatus food engulfment of particle 3 food vacuole 2 4 lysosomes digestion lysosome engulfing damaged organelle 5 They are acidic and break down materials from inside & outside of the cell. The Endomembrane System Newly made lipids & proteins in the ER travel to the Golgi apparatus and then to various destinations: Rough ER transport vesicle from ER to Golgi transport vesicle from Golgi to plasma membrane plasma membrane Plasma membrane cell exterior Nucleus lysosomes Vacuole Lysosome other organelles Smooth ER Nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Main site of energy production (i.e., ATP, heat): break down of food molecules (sugars and fatty acids) the process of respiration (requires O 2 ) 6

7 Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis in plant cells: production of glucose from CO 2 and H 2 O using sunlight the basis of essentially all ecosystems Central Vacuole in Plants Storage of water, waste, & nutrients Source of turgor pressure that maintains rigidity of plant cells swells when water is plentiful due to osmosis cell wall provides support, prevents lysis The Cytoskeleton Internal network of protein fibers important for: cell structure & shape cell, organelle movement cell division 7

8 Flagella & Cilia Cellular projections involved in movement. Found only on certain cell types e.g., respiratory tract (cilia), sperm (flagellum) move the cell itself, or material across its surface Key Terms for Chapter 4 prokaryotic, eukaryotic cell wall, capsule, flagella, nucleoid, cytoplasm nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome Golgi apparatus, lysosome endomembrane system, central vacuole mitochondria, chloroplasts cytoskeleton, cilia Relevant Review Questions 1-3, 5-11,

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