CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

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1 CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure and function in an organism is the. 3. The statement that cells arise only from existing cells is part of the. 4. Eukaryotic cells contain specialized structures called. 5. A cell with a nucleus is a(n) cell. 6. Scientists think that cells evolved about 1.5 billion years ago. 7. All substances that enter or leave a cell must cross the cell. 8. The houses a cell s DNA, which contains genetic material. 9. The organelles where protein synthesis occurs in a cell are called. 10. cells have a system of internal membranes that divides the cytoplasm into compartments. 11. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has attached to its surface. 12. endoplasmic reticulum has no attached ribosomes. 13. Lysosomes work by fusing with other. 14. Photosynthesis takes place in the of plant cells. 15. Both plant cells and animal cells have cell membranes. In addition, plant cells are surrounded by a(n). Short Answer (5 points each) Complete sentences where necessary please 1. What are the three parts of the cell theory? A. B. C. 2. What is the difference in the location of DNA in a prokaryotic cell and in a eukaryotic cell? 3. What is the function of organelles in eukaryotic cells? 4. How does the appearance of the two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum differ? What causes the difference? 5. What is the difference between the energy source of chloroplasts and mitochondria? What do the two organelles have in common? 6. What are three structures present in plant cells but not in animal cells? A. B. C.

2 Essay (10 points each) Complete sentences please 1. Compare the functions of chloroplasts and mitochondria. 2. Explain in detail, what might happen and why it will, to plant cells that have had their chloroplasts removed. 3. You are a very famous scientist and have discovered a new cell, explain to the world how and why you classified the cell. Choices are prokaryotic, eukaryotic plant, or eukaryotic animal now tell which one it fits into and why. 4. You have to explain to a 5 th grader about cells, how and what would you say to them? 5. Design an experiment to show a class about ONE of the following: osmosis, diffusion, active transport, animal cells, plant cells, prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells. 6. You have to use an analogy to explain the workings of a cell and its organelles. Animal & Plant Cell Coloring (25 points each) Directions: Draw an animal and plant cell. Color and label the organelles and give their functions. Organelles and other things that need to be colored and labeled: cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, central vacuole, lysosome, Golgi apparatus, bodies, complex, chloroplasts, nucleolus, centrioles Short Answer (3 points each) 1. What is ATP synthase? 2. Define an autotroph and give 3-5 examples: 3. Define a heterotroph and give 3-5 examples: 4. ATP is an acronym for. 5. How does ATP store and release energy? 6. Define anabolic: 7. Define catabolic: 8. What is the photosynthesis equation? 9. What gas do plants take in? What gas do plants give off? 10. Where in the chloroplast is the chlorophyll found? 11. Draw and label the structure of the chloroplast (stroma, thylakoid, grana). 12. What are grana/granum? 13. The stroma is the space that surrounds Plants gather the sun s energy form light-absorbing molecules called? 15. How does the Calvin cycle differ from the light-dependent reactions? 16. Where does the oxygen come from in photosynthesis? 17. What is another name for the Calvin cycle? 18. What is the electron transport chain, and what does it do in photosynthesis? 19. Where does the Light reaction take place? 20. Where does the Calvin Cycle take place? 21. What is the first phase of photosynthesis? 22. What are the products of the Calvin Cycle? 23. What are the products of the light reaction? 24. What is the role of NADH? 25. What is the net gain of ATP from glycolysis? 26. Where does glycolysis occur? 27. What is another name for the Kreb s cycle? 28. What is the equation for cellular respiration? 29. How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite reactions? 30. Define anaerobic:

3 31. Define aerobic: 32. Why is cellular respiration considered aerobic? 33. What would prevent the Krebs cycle from occurring? 34. How do plants release energy from glucose? 35. How many net ATP are made during cellular respiration? 36. What are the 3 phases of cellular respiration from start to finish? 37. What acts as an electron carrier in cellular respiration? 38. What molecule is made during the Electron Transport Chain (ETC)? 39. Where in the cell is the ETC located? 40. What role does oxygen play in cellular respiration? 41. Where does cellular respiration take place? 42. What is the starting molecule for the Kreb s cycle? 43. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of? 44. What compounds does the Kreb s cycle yield? 45. What is the cause of muscle soreness? 46. What process is used in making beer and wine? 47. What is the starting molecule for glycolysis? 48. Where does lactic acid fermentation occur? 49. Define Eukaryote: 50. Define Prokaryote: 51. What do prokaryotes lack? 52. Which organelles/structures would expect to find only in plants? 53. Which organelle manufactures proteins? Fill in the blank-write the correct word on the blank provided (1 POINT EACH) 1. An organism that makes its own food is a/an. 2. The second step of respiration takes place mainly in the. 3. An energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen is. 4. During photosynthesis, plants produce sugars and. 5. The pigment in green plants that captures the energy in sunlight is called. 6. An organism that relies on other organisms for energy is a. 7. The first step of respiration takes place in the. 8. The raw materials of photosynthesis are water and. 9. The main difference between respiration and fermentation is that fermentation does not use. 10. The products of respiration are Carbon Dioxide and Word Box Autotroph, Carbon Dioxide, Chlorophyll, Heterotroph, Cytoplasm, Oxygen, Fermentation, Mitochondria, Oxygen, Water Multiple Choice (each worth 1 point) 1. Photosynthesis and glucose metabolism are related because. a. the products of photosynthesis are the raw materials for glucose metabolism b. the products of glucose metabolism are the raw materials for photosynthesis c. the products of photosynthesis are the same as the products of glucose metabolism d. the raw materials of photosynthesis are the same as the raw materials of glucose metabolism e. Both the first and second answers are correct.

4 2. Glycolysis is. a. the breakdown of starch to form glucose b. the synthesis of glucose from two molecules of pyruvate c. the breakdown of glucose to form two molecules of pyruvate d. the synthesis of pyruvate in mitochondria e. the lysis of glucose in chloroplasts 3. Which of the following statements concerning fermentation is (are) true? a. Fermentation occurs in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. b. Fermentation, like glycolysis, occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. c. Fermentation produces additional ATP. d. The end product of fermentation in human cells is ethanol. e. all of the above 4. Respiration is the process of gas exchange (breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide); cellular respiration is the process of. a. cellular gas exchange b. cellular cooling c. production of ATP via the electron transport system d. cellular reproduction 5. How is the oxygen that is breathed in during respiration used in cellular respiration? a. Oxygen is converted into CO 2 and breathed out. b. Oxygen is converted into ATP. c. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport system. d. Oxygen is used to produce glucose. 6. In eukaryotic cells, glycolysis occurs in the, and cellular respiration occurs in the. a. mitochondria, cytoplasm b. cytoplasm, mitochondria c. cytoplasm, chloroplasts d. chloroplasts, mitochondria 7. In eukaryotic cells, the enzymes for the Krebs cycle are located in the, and those for the electron transport system are located in the. a. cytoplasm, cell wall b. cytoplasm, mitochondrial matrix c. plasma membrane, cytoplasm d. mitochondrial matrix, inner mitochondrial membrane e. inner mitochondrial membrane, matrix

5 8. As high-energy electrons are passed from carrier to carrier along the electron transport system in cellular respiration, the electrons lose energy. Some of that energy is directly used to. a. synthesize glucose b. break down glucose c. pump hydrogen ions across a membrane d. synthesize ATP. 9. Why does death result from any situation that prevents a person from breathing? a. Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration, so lack of oxygen prevents cells from making sufficient ATP for essential cellular functions. Cells die as a result, eventually leading to death of the individual. b. Glycolysis requires oxygen in order to produce ATP, so lack of oxygen prevents cells from making sufficient ATP. c. Oxygen is necessary for both fermentation reactions and cellular respiration. so lack of oxygen prevents cells from making sufficient ATP. d. Lactic acid builds up in the muscles and they die from the pain 10. The overall equation for glucose metabolism is C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 --> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP and heat. The carbon atoms in the CO 2 molecules in this equation come from during reactions of. a. O 2, glycolysis b. O 2, the electron transport system c. O 2, the Krebs cycle d. C 6 H 12 O 6, glycolysis e. C 6 H 12 O 6, the Krebs cycle 11. Where is the majority of ATP produced? a. in the aqueous fluid surrounding all cells b. in the cytoplasm of a cell c. in the mitochondria of a cell d. on the rough endoplasmic reticulum 12. The production of what molecule marks the end of glycolysis and the beginning of cellular respiration? a. Coenzyme A (CoA) b. acetyl CoA c. citrate d. pyruvate

6 13. What role is played by the electron transport chain during cellular respiration? a. The electron transport system takes energy from the high-energy electrons brought by electron carriers (e.g., NADH) and uses it to pump hydrogen ions against their concentration gradient from the matrix into the intermembrane compartment. b. The electron transport system allows hydrogen ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient from the intermembrane compartment to the matrix. c. The electron transport system produces ATP. d. all of the above 14. Why should anyone care about the importance of ATP production? a. Even though the production of ATP occurs within individual cells, a multicellular organism requires the energy produced to carry out vital functions essential for survival. Any organism would quickly die without constant production of ATP. b. The memorization of foreign-sounding biochemical terms was required by the instructor. c. Understanding glycolysis and cellular respiration permits insights into how different organisms manage their energy needs in different environments. d. Both the first and third answers are correct 15. You are comparing two cultures of cells, one that is undergoing cellular respiration and one that is fermenting. Both cultures are producing ATP at the same rate. If this is true, what else would you observe about the fermenting culture? a. It would require more glucose per minute than the respiring culture. b. It would have a higher rate of glycolysis than the respiring culture. c. It would produce pyruvate at a faster rate than the respiring culture. d. It would require more oxygen than the respiring culture. e. The first three answers are correct. 16. Suppose that the reactions of mitochondria of a green plant were completely inhibited. What process would immediately stop? a. glycolysis b. fermentation c. photosynthesis d. ATP production e. lactate production 17. Which pathway produces the most ATP per glucose molecule? a. fermentation b. glycolysis c. Krebs cycle d. cellular respiration e. electron transport and chemiosmosis

7 18. The initial reactions that break down glucose without the use of oxygen are called. a. Krebs Cycle b. Fermentation c. Respiration d. Glycolysis 19. is a series of reactions, occurring under aerobic conditions, in which large amounts of ATP are produced. a. fermentation b. Krebs Cycle c. cellular respiration d. hydrolysis 20. If oxygen is present after glycolysis, pyruvate is transported to the mitochondria and broken down further during the process called. a. photophorylation b. electron transport chain c. ATP dependent oxidation d. Krebs cycle 21. Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are deposited in the. a. cytoplasm b. electron transport system c. matrix d. outer membrane of the mitochondria 22. Which of the following are products of the light reactions utilized in the Calvin cycle? a. CO 2 and glucose b. H 2 O and O 2 c. ADP, P i, and NADP + d. electrons and H+ e. ATP and NADPH

8 23. Where does the Calvin cycle take place? a. stroma of the chloroplast b. thylakoid membrane c. cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast d. chlorophyll molecule e. outer membrane of the chloroplast 24. A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment? a. red and yellow b. blue and violet c. green and yellow d. blue, green, and red e. green, blue, and violet Use the following information to answer the questions (25-27) below. Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light. 25. What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas? a. Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas. b. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light. c. Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released. d. Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths. e. Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis. 26. An outcome of this experiment was to help determine a. the relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms. b. the relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration. c. the relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released. d. the relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis. e. the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis. 27. If you ran the same experiment without passing light through a prism, what would you predict? a. There would be no difference in results. b. The bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments. c. The number of bacteria present would decrease due to an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration. d. The number of bacteria present would increase due to an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration. e. The number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of the water.

9 28. Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes? a. the splitting of water b. the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll c. the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I d. the synthesis of ATP e. the reduction of NADP+ 29. In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located? a. thylakoid membrane b. plasma membrane c. inner mitochondrial membrane d. A and C e. A, B, and C 30 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration? a. Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis. b. Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals. c. ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration. d. Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic. 31. Of the following, what do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common? a. thylakoid membranes b. chemiosmosis c. ATP synthase d. B and C only e. A, B, and C 32. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle? a. The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, P i, and NADP + to the light reactions. b. The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions. c. The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO 2 to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP. d. The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split. e. There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle. 33. Which of the following is (are) required in the Calvin cycle? a. CO2 b. ATP c. RuBP d. A and B only e. A, B, and C

10 For the following questions (34-41), compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants. Use the following key: A. light reactions alone B. the Calvin cycle alone C. both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle D. neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle E. occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis 34) produces molecular oxygen (O 2 ) 35) requires ATP 36) produces NADH 37) produces NADPH 38) produces three-carbon sugars 39) inactive in the dark 40) requires CO 2 41) requires glucose 42. Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis? a. NADPH O 2 CO 2 b. H 2 O NADPH Calvin cycle c. NADPH chlorophyll Calvin cycle d. H 2 O photosystem I photosystem II e. NADPH electron transport chain O 2

11 Essays (each worth 10 points) 5-7 sentences are required to receive full credit for your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Why does all life on Earth rely on the Sun? (Need to be specific and use photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the essay) 2. What would you expect to be the differences in the training and muscles in a sprinter versus a long distance runner? Be specific as to what you might see under a microscope and why. 3. If you were looking under a microscope and saw 10 chloroplasts in one cell and then only 1 in another and they were from the same plant what might your inference be about this plant and why? 4. Compare and contrast the functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts and explain how each one relies on each other (Balanced chemical equations might help). 5. How and why do scientists think that mitochondria and chloroplasts were prokaryotic cells that are living in a symbiotic relationship with eukaryotic cells. (This one is worth 20 points) 6. Speculate as to how things might change and adapt if the sun s rays changed to be only green. What might we see? 7. Design an experiment that might lend itself to proving that plants give off oxygen and animals use oxygen and give off carbon dioxide and water. 8. What might we look like if chloroplasts and mitochondria were in our cells? What cells would benefit greatly from this and would we be more efficient or less efficient in doing respiration and why? 9. Do you think that there is a carrying capacity on the number of chloroplasts and mitochondria a cell can hold? If so why and if not why? 10. A good friend of yours tells you that they have found a great way to grow plants without any sunlight present. You don t believe them so you go and see them and find out that they are under ultra-violet, infrared lamps and only in nutrient rich water not soil. Why are they growing so well?

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