Cells. Structure, Function and Homeostasis

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cells. Structure, Function and Homeostasis"

Transcription

1 Cells Structure, Function and Homeostasis

2 Characteristics of Cells Basic unit of life anything alive is made of cells Plasma membrane (skin) that separates them from the environment. Skeletonsfor protection & support (proteins) Move (via proteins) Communicate (via hormones) Harness & use Energy (produce enzymes, heat) Reproduce (maintain & copy blueprint for life)

3 Cells are small µm Small to minimize energy needs But large enough to house specialized organelles and to minimize heat loss

4 Size determines rate of life Large enough to house organelles needed to eat, grow, reproduce Small enough that verylittle energy & time is needed for transport of nutrients & waste Soviet Russia

5 Simple, Prokaryotic cells Lack nuclei (have nucleoid region), few organelles Circular DNA (with just 1 copy of each gene)

6 Bacteria & Archaea - Prokaryotes Wildly diverse ~ 500 species in your mouth alone Abundant (numerous) on your skin; in G. I. tract; 1 teaspoon of soil contains billions Ubiquitous O 2 -free mud; salt flats; boiling hot springs; bedrock 1500 m deep; 10 km beneath ocean s surface; C

7 2/3 major evolutionary lineages

8 Types of Eukaryotic cells

9 Eukaryotic Animal cell Endomembrane System Nucleus Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes ** Plasma membrane Ribosomes Peroxisomes Mitochondria Centrioles ** Flagellum ** Cytoskeleton

10 Eukaryotic Plant cell Vacuole Cloroplasts (& other plastids: amyloplasts) Cell wall

11 Nucleus: Control center (brain) Cytoplasm - organelles, free proteins, ions (guts) Cell (plasma) membrane - barrier between inside and outside (skin)

12 Questions for the cell What structure controls which proteins, lipids & RNA are produced & when? Where do cells get Energy? Which structures harness it? What structures move stuff around the cell? Where are proteins and lipids built? How do cells move molecules in and out? How do cells eat, drink & defend themselves?

13 Nucleus: Control center Holds DNA, and machinery for replicating DNA and transcribing it into proteins Surrounded by nuclear envelope (phospholipid bilayer) Nuclear pores Chromatin Chromosomes

14 Genetic code = DNA, coiled into chromosomes Chromosomes? Hypercoiled chromatin Chromatin? DNA coiled around protein

15 Where and what is the cytoplasm? Between cell membrane & nuclear membrane Consists of: Cytosol: intracellular fluid (mostly H 2 0, ions & buffering proteins) Organelles: structures with specific functions; suspended in cytosol Inclusions: Insoluble material (e.g. lipids)

16 Ribosomes Organ of protein synthesis Made of 2 subunits; each made of rrna + protein Two varieties Free ribosomes: produce proteins that travel to nucleus Fixed ribosomes: produce proteins for export to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

17 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Network of membranes connected to nuclear envelope 4 major functions 1. Synthesis (pro, carbs, lipids) 2. Storage 3. Transport 4. Detoxification Two types 1. Smooth 2. Rough

18 Smooth ER (SER) Why is it called smooth? Responsible for the synthesis and storage of: Phospholipids and cholesterol for maintenance & growth of cellular membranes (ER, nucleus, Golgi apparatus (GA)) What type of molecules? Steroid hormones: estrogens and androgens Triglycerides in liver and fat cells Glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells What type of molecules?

19 Workshop Site ofprotein synthesis (it has fixed ribosomes!!) Some chemical modification. Polypeptide chains migrate into cisternae, assume tertiary structure + additional modification Ships proteins to GA via transport vesicles Rough ER (RER)

20 Golgi Apparatus Packing & shipping depot Consists of 5-6 flattened membranous disks (cisternae) Functions Modifies (adds parts) & packages secretions Renews cell membrane Packages special enzymes

21 Functions of GA Produces 3 type of vesicles: 1. Secretory - exocytosis 2. Membrane renewal replacement & remodeling 3. Lysosomes - Primary contain inactive digestive enzymes

22 Lysosomes digest!

23 Show Lysosomes

24 Abnormal lysosomes Lack, or have malfunctioning enzymes Normal cell products accumulate & stifle (suffocate) cells Tay-Sachs disease Lysosomes lack enzymes that break down lipids in nerve cells Pompe s disease Lysosomes lack hydrolytic enzyme that splits glycogen

25 The endomembrane system allows membrane flow Phospholipid bilayer is maintained! Nuclear envelope continuous network of SER & RER transport vesicles Golgi Apparatus secretory vesicles cell membrane

26 Peroxisomes metabolize dangerous material Functions: Absorb and breakdown fatty acids and nucleic acids - produces H 2 O 2 (danger!) Convert free radicals to H 2 O 2 Coverts H 2 O 2 to harmless H 2 O and O 2, using catalase Produced by division of existing peroxisomes Contain digestive enzymes; free ribosomes

27 Concept Check The cell is sometimes described as a protein factory. Using the cell-asfactory analogy, which of the following accurately describes the functions of the endomembrane system? a) The ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are analogous to a production line in a factory. b) The golgi apparatus is analogous to the packaging and shipping department. c) The nucleus is analogous to management offices. d) All of the above.

28 Mitochondria = Powerhouse

29 Mitochondria harness energy! powerhouse of the cell makes ATP Double membrane Number per cell varies with metabolic activity (0% volume of RBC, 20% volume of liver cell) Aerobic respiration Anaerobic resp.

30 Chloroplasts make food! Photosynthetic organisms (Autotrophs) Sunlight + CO 2 + H 2 0 = sugars Stroma: tubules & membranous disks Grana: stacks of disks; membranes chock full of chlorophyll, which traps solar energy

31 Cell Membrane = Fluid Mosaic

32 Structure of cell membrane Contains lipids, proteins and carbohydrates Lipids Phospholipids; Cholesterol; Glycolipids Proteins Integral; Peripheral Carbohydrates Form glycocalyx (identity)

33 Cell Membrane Functions Physical isolation - separates inner and outer environments Sensory receptor - receptor proteins sense changes in external environment (encrusted with peripheral nerves) Regulates exchange with the environment - membrane channel proteins + carrier proteins Structural support - intercellular protein attachment

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell. 1. Cell Basics. Limits to Cell Size. 1. Cell Basics. 2. Prokaryotic Cells. 3. Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell 1. Cell Basics 2. Prokaryotic Cells 3. Eukaryotic Cells 1. Cell Basics Limits to Cell Size There are 2 main reasons why cells are so small: If cells get too large: 1) there

More information

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 UNIT 1: Biochemistry Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 Organelles are internal structures that carry out specialized functions, interacting and complementing each other. Animal and plant

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.

7.2 Cell Structure. Lesson Objectives. Lesson Summary. Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures. 7.2 Cell Structure Lesson Objectives Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Organelles and Their Functions

Organelles and Their Functions Organelles and Their Functions The study of cell organelles and their functions is a fascinating part of biology. The current article provides a brief description of the structure of organelles and their

More information

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles

Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Lecture 4 Cell Membranes & Organelles Structure of Animal Cells The Phospholipid Structure Phospholipid structure Encases all living cells Its basic structure is represented by the fluidmosaic model Phospholipid

More information

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells.

Cytology. Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. CYTOLOGY Cytology Living organisms are made up of cells. Either PROKARYOTIC or EUKARYOTIC cells. A. two major cell types B. distinguished by structural organization See table on handout for differences.

More information

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams The Cell: Organelle Diagrams Fig 7-4. A prokaryotic cell. Lacking a true nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure. Only

More information

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles

Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Biology Learning Centre Review of the Cell and Its Organelles Tips for most effective learning of this material: Memorize the names and structures over several days. This will help you retain what you

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope

Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life. The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Biology 101 Chapter 4 Cells as the Basic Unit of Life The Cell Theory Major Contributors: Galileo = first observations made with a microscope Robert Hooke = first to observe small compartments in dead

More information

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cells: Blood Cells Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic Cells: Bacteria Cell Structure and Function All living

More information

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic

cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 1 The interior contents

More information

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope

Microscopes. Eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope CH 6 The Cell Microscopy Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye. In a light microscope (LM), visible light is passed through a specimen and then through glass

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide and to make needed materials. S7L2a b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and

More information

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Activity Title: Quick Hit Goal of Activity: To perform formative and summative assessments

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 1

AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 1 AP BIOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes. (a) Describe the structure and function

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following can be made into crystal? (a) A Bacterium (b) An Amoeba (c) A Virus (d) A Sperm 2. A cell will swell up if (a)

More information

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport

3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport 3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport Module 1: Cells 1.1.1 Cell Structure Candidates should be able to: (a) state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission

More information

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside

Bacterial (Prokaryotic) Cell. Common features of all cells. Tour of the Cell. Eukaryotic Cell. Plasma Membrane defines inside from outside www.denniskunkel.com Tour of the Cell www.denniskunkel.com Today s Topics Properties of all cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Functions of Major Cellular Organelles Information, Synthesis&Transport,, Vesicles

More information

CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT. By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson

CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT. By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson CELL ANALOGY: AIRPORT By: Joe Behrmann and Isaac Thompson MITOCHONDRIA Location: The Mitochondria of a cell is located in both plant and animal cells. They are found floating throughout the cell. Function:

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Bio 100 - Cells 1 Cell Structure and Function Tenets of Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic living units within organisms, and the chemical reactions

More information

Eukaryotes. www.njctl.org PSI Biology Eukaryotes & Gene Expression

Eukaryotes. www.njctl.org PSI Biology Eukaryotes & Gene Expression Eukaryotes The Eukaryotic Cell Classwork 1. Identify two characteristics that are shared by all cells. 2. Suppose you are investigating a cell that contains a nucleus. Would you categorize this cell as

More information

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells

Comparing Plant And Animal Cells Comparing Plant And Animal Cells http://khanacademy.org/video?v=hmwvj9x4gny Plant Cells shape - most plant cells are squarish or rectangular in shape. amyloplast (starch storage organelle)- an organelle

More information

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org

Chapter 3. Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets. 39 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Cellular Structure and Function Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Cells Lesson 3.2: Cell

More information

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue RAD 223 Radiography physiology Lecture Notes First lecture: Cell and Tissue Physiology: the word physiology derived from a Greek word for study of nature. It is the study of how the body and its part work

More information

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys

The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys The Cell Teaching Notes and Answer Keys Subject area: Science / Biology Topic focus: The Cell: components, types of cells, organelles, levels of organization Learning Aims: describe similarities and differences

More information

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells.

Chapter 5 Organelles. Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Chapter 5 Organelles Lesson Objectives List the organelles of the cell and their functions. Distinguish between plant and animal cells. Check Your Understanding What is a cell? How do we visualize cells?

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Biology I. Chapter 7

Biology I. Chapter 7 Biology I Chapter 7 Interest Grabber NOTEBOOK #1 Are All Cells Alike? All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1.

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

The Cell Interior and Function

The Cell Interior and Function The Cell Interior and Function 5 5.0 CHAPTER PREVIEW Investigate and understand the organization and function of the cell interior. Define the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure.

More information

Biological cell membranes

Biological cell membranes Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 2 Biological cell membranes The cell surface membrane surrounds the cell and acts as a barrier between the cell s contents and the environment. The cell membrane has multiple

More information

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure

More information

THE LIVING CELL. Cells also have variety of shapes. Plant cells are often rectangular or polygonal, while egg cells are usually spherical.

THE LIVING CELL. Cells also have variety of shapes. Plant cells are often rectangular or polygonal, while egg cells are usually spherical. THE LIVING CELL A Tour of the cell The cell is the smallest and the basic unit of structure of all organisms. There are two main types or categories of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic

More information

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z.

Given these characteristics of life, which of the following objects is considered a living organism? W. X. Y. Z. Cell Structure and Organization 1. All living things must possess certain characteristics. They are all composed of one or more cells. They can grow, reproduce, and pass their genes on to their offspring.

More information

Eukaryotic Cell Structure: Organelles in Animal & Plant Cells Why are organelles important and how are plants and animals different?

Eukaryotic Cell Structure: Organelles in Animal & Plant Cells Why are organelles important and how are plants and animals different? Why? Eukaryotic Cell Structure: Organelles in Animal & Plant Cells Why are organelles important and how are plants and animals different? The cell is the basic unit and building block of all living things.

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test

Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by

More information

* The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells.

* The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. Define Cell * The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. * Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells. * Biochemical activities of cells are dictated

More information

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts.

Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. 10 pts. THE CELL model: Activity 4.1 Science / Biology Objective: On a team of no more than (2). Build to illustrate a 3D model of a PLANT or ANIMAL cell. - Your models should clearly demonstrate the following

More information

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY

THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY SECTION 4-1 REVIEW THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGY Define the following terms. 1. cell 2. cell theory Write the correct letter in the blank. 1. One early piece of evidence supporting the cell theory was the

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL

INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL CHAPTER 1: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CELL INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL Both living and non-living things are composed of molecules made from chemical elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.

More information

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration.

Date: Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George. Score: 1) A cell with 1% solute concentration is placed in a beaker with a 5% solute concentration. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Homeostasis and Transport - (BIO.A.4.1.1 ) Plasma Membrane, (BIO.A.4.1.2 ) Transport Mechanisms, (BIO.A.4.1.3 ) Transport Facilitation Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared

More information

4a. A Busy Factory. Cell Structure: An Overview

4a. A Busy Factory. Cell Structure: An Overview 4a. A Busy Factory Imagine a bustling factory manufacturing the latest must-have gadget. Whether they make bicycles, cell phones, or hot air balloons, most factories are set up in essentially the same

More information

Do Not Write on this Quiz Paper (südamlik aitäh)

Do Not Write on this Quiz Paper (südamlik aitäh) 1. This makes ribosomes. Cell Organelle Quiz Do Not Write on this Quiz Paper (südamlik aitäh) a. Rough ER c. Golgi apparatus (body) b. Nucleolus d. Mitochondria 2. This is an energy producing organelle.

More information

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside

7.2 Cells: A Look Inside CHAPTER 7 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 7.2 Cells: A Look Inside Imagine a factory that makes thousands of cookies a day. Ingredients come into the factory, get mixed and baked, then the cookies are packaged.

More information

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes.

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. LESSON 1. CELLS & TISSUES Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. THE CELL All living matter is composed of functional

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

Common Characteristics of cells

Common Characteristics of cells Characteristics of Cells Introduction to Cells Biology is the subject of life and living organisms. The living organisms are diverse in almost every aspect. What a great difference exists between human

More information

Lecture 8. Protein Trafficking/Targeting. Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm.

Lecture 8. Protein Trafficking/Targeting. Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm. Protein Trafficking/Targeting (8.1) Lecture 8 Protein Trafficking/Targeting Protein targeting is necessary for proteins that are destined to work outside the cytoplasm. Protein targeting is more complex

More information

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - Buffers play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms. - To maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

Organization and Structure of Cells

Organization and Structure of Cells Organization and Structure of Cells All living things fall into one of the two categories: prokaryotes eukaryotes The distinction is based on whether or not a cell has a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells do not

More information

called a cell wall. The cell wall protects against mechanical stress and keeps the cell from becoming over-filled with water.

called a cell wall. The cell wall protects against mechanical stress and keeps the cell from becoming over-filled with water. What are Cells? By: Byron Norelius About Cells A cell is the basic unit of life. All living organisms are composed of one (unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells. In unicellular organisms, like many

More information

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity CH 7 Membranes Cellular Membranes Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The fluid mosaic

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are )

tissues are made of cells that work together, organs are ) Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids

More information

ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes

ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes Page 1 of 22 Introduction Indiana students enrolled in Biology I participated in the ISTEP+: Biology I Graduation Examination

More information

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) The Cell... Page 28

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) The Cell... Page 28 The Cell... Page 28 Organelles of cells: Introduction : - The cell is the fundamental unit of life. - The modern Cell theory states : i) All living organisms are composed of cells. ii) All new cells are

More information

City Part Function Cell Part Controls what goes in and

City Part Function Cell Part Controls what goes in and Answer key: CELL CITY INTRODUCTION! Floating around in the cytoplasm are small structures called organelles. Like the organs in your own body, each one carries out a specific function necessary for the

More information

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Lab #3 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 28 Introduction...... 28 Activity 1: Eukaryotic Cell Structure... 29 Activity 2: Perspectives on Tissue Preparations.

More information

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e.

1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation b. a result c. a hypothesis d. a question e. BCOR 11 Exam 1, 2004 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested? a. an observation

More information

C E L L O. Recommended Age: 6 years-8 years Time: 45 minutes prep, additional 3 hours for Jello to set

C E L L O. Recommended Age: 6 years-8 years Time: 45 minutes prep, additional 3 hours for Jello to set C E L L O Recommended Age: 6 years-8 years Time: 45 minutes prep, additional 3 hours for Jello to set The smallest and simplest unit of life is called a cell. Cells are divided into two types of cells

More information

Cell Unit Practice Test #1

Cell Unit Practice Test #1 ell Unit Practice Test #1 Name: ate: 1. Which organelle is primarily concerned with the conversion of potential energy of organic compounds into suitable form for immediate use by the cell?. mitochondria.

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

Video Links: Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwz4ptp_qeu

Video Links: Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwz4ptp_qeu Comparing Animal and Plant Cells by Annie Plant and animal cells are known as Eukaryotic cells which contain a nucleus and other genetic material enclosed within membranes. (Science Daily, n.d.) The primary

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function Part A Multiple Choice 1. The fluid mosaic model describes membranes as having A. a set of protein channels separated by phospholipids. B. a bilayer of phospholipids in

More information

AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review

AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST- USE ANSWER DOCUMENT AP Biology-Chapter #6 & 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. All of the following are

More information

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

More information

The Living Cell from the Biology: The Science of Life Series. Pre-Test

The Living Cell from the Biology: The Science of Life Series. Pre-Test 1 Pre-Test Directions: Answer each question TRUE OR FALSE. 1. The instructions for making proteins are stored in molecules of DNA. 2. Proteins are made in the nucleus. 3. All cells are surrounded by a

More information

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function CHAPTER 3 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Vocabulary Practice cell theory vacuole concentration gradient cytoplasm lysosome osmosis organelle centriole isotonic prokaryotic cell cell wall hypertonic eukaryotic

More information

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Why? Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Do all cells have the same structure? An efficiency apartment is a one-room apartment. This one room is where you sleep, eat, shower, and entertain your guests. It

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

But what about the prokaryotic cells?

But what about the prokaryotic cells? Chapter 32: Page 318 In the past two chapters, you have explored the organelles that can be found in both plant and animal s. You have also learned that plant s contain an organelle that is not found in

More information

Plant and Animal Cells

Plant and Animal Cells Plant and Animal Cells Cell Scientists Hans and Zacharias Janssen Dutch lens grinders, father and son produced first compound microscope (2 lenses) Robert Hooke (1665) English Scientist looked at a thin

More information

Look for these related items from Learning Resources :

Look for these related items from Learning Resources : Look for these related items from Learning Resources : LER 1901 Cross Section Plant Cell LER 1902 Cross Section Heart Model LER 1903 Cross Section Brain Model LER 2437 Cross Section Earth Model For a dealer

More information

COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS SIMILARITIES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS

COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS SIMILARITIES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Cells vary widely in structure and function, even within the same organism. The human body, for example, has more than 200 different types of cells, each with a specialized

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function -plasma membrane acts as a barrier between cells and the surrounding. -plasma membrane is selective permeable -consist of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates -major lipids

More information

Cellular Structure and Function

Cellular Structure and Function Chapter Test A CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines a cell?

More information

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+ 1. Membrane transport. A. (4 pts) What ion couples primary and secondary active transport in animal cells? What ion serves the same function in plant cells? Na+, H+ 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport

Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport Week 1 EOC Review Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Cell Transport Benchmarks: SC.912.L.14.1 Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory) and relate the history of its discovery to the processes of

More information

Make your whiteboard come alive with science!

Make your whiteboard come alive with science! LER 6038 Grades 4+ Ages 9+ Make your whiteboard come alive with science! Explore a plant cell through handson investigation! A. Cell Wall A rigid and strong wall that protects and maintains the shape of

More information

Cells are tiny building blocks that make up all living things. Cells are so small that you need a microscope to see them.

Cells are tiny building blocks that make up all living things. Cells are so small that you need a microscope to see them. FC01 CELLS s are tiny building blocks that make up all living things. s are so small that you need a microscope to see them. ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL This is the control centre of the cell. It contains chromosomes

More information

UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations. Cells

UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations. Cells Lesson Summaries HUMAN AND SOCIAL BIOLOGY UNIT 1 - Living Organisms and the Environment Situations Lesson 2 Cells OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson you will be able to: a) Describe the structure of

More information

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY

PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Name PRESTWICK ACADEMY NATIONAL 5 BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY SUMMARY Cell Structure Identify animal, plant, fungal and bacterial cell ultrastructure and know the structures functions. Plant cell Animal cell

More information

BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology. Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of

BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology. Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of BME 42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology Lecture 02: Structural and Functional Organization of Eukaryotic Cells BME42-620 Lecture 02, September 01, 2011 1 Outline A brief review of the previous lecture

More information

H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier

H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier H.W. 1 Bio 101 Prof. Fournier 1. What is a similarity between all bacteria and plants? A) They both have a nucleus B) They are both composed of cells C) They both have chloroplasts D) They both lack a

More information

The Cell Grade Ten. Estimated Duration: Three hours

The Cell Grade Ten. Estimated Duration: Three hours Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark A Explain that cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms, that once life originated all cells come from pre-existing cells,

More information

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane 2007-2008 Phospholipids Phosphate head hydrophilic Fatty acid tails hydrophobic Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate attracted to water Fatty acid repelled by water Aaaah, one of those

More information

Organelle Name: Nucleus

Organelle Name: Nucleus Organelle Name: Nucleus Nucleus Whoa, what s that huge ball in the middle of the cell? It s pretty big, so it must be important. This organelle is called the nucleus (new-klee-us), and it s the cell s

More information