# Statistical tests for SPSS

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1 Statistical tests for SPSS Paolo Coletti A.Y. 2010/11 Free University of Bolzano Bozen Premise This book is a very quick, rough and fast description of statistical tests and their usage. It is explicitly designed for an SPSS course and therefore the description of tests is oversimplified and focused only on their practical usage. This book is not indicated for any statistics course. Table of Contents 1. Statistical tests Example Accept and reject Parametric and non parametric test Prerequisites Tests Student s t test for one variable Student s t test for two populations Student s t test for paired data One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) Kolmogorov Smirnov test Sign test Mann Whitney (Wilcoxon rank sum) test Wilcoxon signed rank test Kruskal Wallis test Pearson s correlation coefficient Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Chi square test for a one dimensional contingency table Chi square test for a two dimensional contingency table... 8 Page 1

2 1. Statistical tests Statistical tests are inference tools which are able to tell us the probability with which results obtained on the sample can be extended to the population. Every statistical test has these features: a sample of data,,..., and a population, to which we want to extend information and relations found on the sample; the null hypothesis H 0 and its contradictory hypothesis H 1 ; prerequisites, special assumptions which are necessary to perform the test; the statistic, a function calculated on the data, whose value determines the result of the test; significance, also called p value, from which we can deduct whether accepting or rejecting null hypothesis. 1.1 Example In order to show all the elements of a statistical test, we run through a very simple example. We want to study the age of workers of a large company. We want to check whether the expected value is 35 years or not. Of this random variable the only thing we know are the observations on a sample of 100 workers, which are: 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 30; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 30; 30; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50; 51; 52; 20; 54; 55; 56; 57; 20; 20; 20; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35; 36; 37; 35. We now formulate the test s hypotheses: H 0 : expected value of age 35 H 1 : expected value of age 35 Now we calculate the age average on the sample, age 36.2, which is an estimation for the expected value. We compare this result with the 35 of the H 0 hypothesis and we find a difference of 1.2. At this point, we ask ourselves whether this difference is large enough, implying that the expected value is not 35 and thus H 0 must be rejected, or is small and can be caused by an unlucky choice of the sample and therefore H 0 must be accepted. However, this conclusion in a statistical research cannot be drawn from a subjective decision whether the difference is large or small. It is taken using formal arguments and therefore we must rely on this statistic function age hypothesized expected value, sample variance which, on our data, has a value of The only reason why we have built this statistic instead of using directly the difference at the numerator is because we know the statistic s distribution and we can calculate the significance. Therefore we can calculate that the probability of getting a value larger than 1.40 or smaller than 1.40 is 16%. This value is called significance or p value. If significance is large it means that, supposing H 0 to be true and taking another random sample, the probability of obtaining a worse result is large and therefore the result that we have Page 2

3 obtained can be considered to be really close to 0, something which pushes us to accept the idea that H 0 is true. When, instead, significance is small, it means that if we suppose that H 0 is true we have a small probability of getting such a bad result, something which pushes us to believe that H 0 be false. In the example s situation we have a significance of 16%, which usually is considered large (the chosen cut point is typically 5%) and therefore we accept H 0. Confidence is equal to 100% minus the significance. 1.2 Accept and reject At the end of the statistical test we must decide whether accepting or rejecting: if significance is above the significance level (usually 5% or 1%), we accept H 0 ; if significance is below the significance level, we reject H 0. It is very important to underline the fact that, for technical reasons that are not be explained here, when we reject we are almost sure that H 0 is false, since we are keeping errors under a small significance level. However, when we accept we may not say that H 0 be true, since we do not have any estimation on errors. Therefore, rejecting is a sure thing, while accepting is a no answer and from it we are not allowed to draw any conclusion. 1.3 Parametric and non parametric test There are parametric and non parametric statistical tests. A parametric test implies that the distribution in question is known up to a parameter or several parameters. For example, it is believed that many natural phenomena are normally distributed. Estimating and of the phenomenon is a parametric statistical problem, because the shape of the distribution, a normal one, is known up to these two parameters. On the other hand, non parametric test do not rely on any underlying assumptions about the probability distribution of the sampled population. For example, we may deal with continuous distribution without specifying its shape. Non parametric tests are also appropriate when the data are non numerical in nature but can be ranked, thus becoming rank tests. For example, taste testing foods we can say we like product A better than product B, and B better than C, but we cannot obtain exact quantitative values for the respective measurements. Other examples are tests where the statistic is not calculated on sample s values but on the relative positions of the values in their set. 1.4 Prerequisites Each test, especially parametric ones, may have prerequisites which are necessary for the statistic to be distributed in a known way (and thus for us to calculate its significance). A typical prerequisite for many parametric tests is that the sample comes from a certain distribution. Page 3

4 2. Tests 2.1 Student s t test for one variable Prerequisites: none. H 0 : expected value = SPSS: Analyze Compare Means One Sample T Test Student s t test is the one we have already seen in the example. It is a test which involves a single random variable and checks whether its expected value is or not. 2.2 Student s t test for two populations Prerequisites: two populations A and B and the variable must be distributed normally on the two populations H 0 : expected value on population A = expected value on population B SPSS: Analyze Compare Means Independent Samples T Test This test is used whenever we have two populations and one variable calculated on this population and we want to check whether the expected value of the variable changes on the populations. For example, we want to test H 0 : Eheight for male Eheight for female H 1 : Eheight for male Eheight for female 2.3 Student s t test for paired data Prerequisites: two variables and on the same population and must be normally distributed H 0 : expected value of expected value of SPSS: Analyze Compare Means Paired Samples T Test This test is used whenever we have a single population and two variables calculated on this population and we want to check whether the expected value of these two variables has a certain difference or not. For example, we want to test whether population s income in a country has decreased by 2. We take a sample of 10 people s income and then we take the same 10 subjects income the next year Income 2010 (thousands ) Income 2011 (thousands ) Difference Page 4

5 The subjects must be exactly the same. Hypotheses are: H 0 : Eincomefor 2011 Eincomefor H 1 : Eincomefor 2011 Eincomefor One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) Prerequisites: populations, variable is normally distributed on every population with the same variance H 0 : expected value of the variable is the same on all populations SPSS: Analyze Compare Means One Way ANOVA This test is the equivalent of Student s t test for two unpaired populations when the populations are more than two. We note that if only one population has an expected value different from the other, the test rejects. Therefore, a rejection guarantees us that populations do not have the same expected value but does not tell us which populations are different and how. For example, we have heights for young (180; 170; 150; 160; 170), adults (170; 160; 165) and old (155; 160; 160; 165; 175; 165) and we want to check H 0 : Eheightfor young Eheight for adults Eheight for old H 1 : at least one of the Eheight is different from the others 2.5 Kolmogorov Smirnov test Prerequisites: none. H 0 : variable follows a known distribution SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric Tests 1 Sample K S This is a rank test which checks whether a variable is distributed, on the population, according to a known distribution specified by the researcher. 2.6 Sign test Prerequisites: continuous distribution. H 0 : median is SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric Tests Binomial Sign test is a rank test which tests the central tendency of a probability distribution. It is used to decide on whether the population median equals or not the hypothesized value. Consider the example when 8 independent observations of a random variable having a Page 5

6 continuous distribution are 0.78, 0.51, 3.79, 0.23, 0.77, 0.98, 0.96, We have to decide whether the distribution median is equal to We formulate the two hypotheses: H 0 : median 1.00 H 1 : median Mann Whitney (Wilcoxon rank sum) test Prerequisites: the two probability distributions are continuous H 0 : position of distribution for population A = position of distribution for population B SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric Tests 2 Independent Samples Suppose two independent random samples are to be used to compare two populations and we are unwilling to make assumptions about the form of the underlying population probability distributions (and therefore we cannot perform Student s t test for two populations) or we may be unable to obtain exact values of the sample measurements. If the data can be ranked in order of magnitude, the Mann Whitney test (also called Wilcoxon rank sum test) can be used to test the hypothesis that the distributions of the two populations have the same position. 2.8 Wilcoxon signed rank test Prerequisites: the difference is a random variable having a continuous probability distribution. H 0 : position of distribution for variable 1 = position of distribution for variable 2 SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric Tests 2 Related Samples Rank tests can also be employed to compare two probability distributions when a paired difference design is used. For example, consumer preferences for two competing products are often compared by analyzing the responses in a random sample of consumers who are asked to rate both products. Thus, the ratings have been paired on each consumer. 2.9 Kruskal Wallis test Prerequisites: there are 5 or more measurements in each sample; the probability distributions from which the samples are drawn are continuous H 0 : distribution of populations is the same SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric Tests K Independent Samples The Kruskal Wallis test is the Mann Whitney test when more than two populations are involved. Its corresponding parametric test is the Analysis of Variance. For example, a health administrator wants to compare the unoccupied bed space for three hospitals. She randomly selects 10 different days from the records of each hospital and lists the number of unoccupied beds for each day: Hospital 1 Hospital 2 Hospital Page 6

7 We test H 0 : the distributions of the number of unoccupied beds are in the same positions for all three hospitals H 1 : at least one of the hospitals has distribution in a different position with respect to the others Pearson s correlation coefficient Prerequisites: coupled data H 0 : Corr,, i.e. and are linearly independent SPSS: Analyze Correlate Bivariate Consider two random variables, and, of which we have only couples of outcomes, ;. It is important that the outcomes that we have are in couples, since we are interesting in estimating the correlation between the two variables. We use as estimator the Pearson s correlation coefficient which is defined as. The value of must lie between 1 and 1, independently from how large or small are the numbers and. A value of near or equal to zero is interpreted as little or no correlation between and. In contrast, the closer comes to 1 or 1, the stronger is the correlation of these variables. Positive values of imply a positive correlation between and. That is, if one increases, the other one increases as well. Negative values of imply a negative correlation. In fact, and move in the opposite directions: when increases, decreases and vice versa. In sum, this coefficient of correlation reveals whether there is a common tendency in moves of and. For example, suppose we have these 11 couples of data we get with 11 couples of data and the value of our statistic is and a significance of 1.04%. Therefore, taking a significance level of 5%, 11 couples of data with Pearson s correlation coefficient of are enough to prove that the correlation is different from 0 and therefore the two variables are not independent Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Prerequisites: coupled ranked data or coupled data from continuous distributions H 0 : ranks are the same SPSS: Analyze Correlate Bivariate Page 7

8 The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is the non parametric version of the Pearson s correlation coefficient Chi square test for a one dimensional contingency table Prerequisites: at least 5 elements per cell H 0 : classification follows a predetermined distribution SPSS: Analyze Nonparametric tests Chi Square For example, suppose a large supermarket chain conducts a consumer preference survey by recording the brand of bread purchased by customers in its stores. Assume the chain carries three brands of bread, A, B and C. The brand preferences of a random sample of 150 consumers are observed, and the resulting count data are as follows: A: 61, B: 53, C: 36. Do these data indicate that a preference exists for any of these brands? We build a table of observed counts and a table of predicted counts A B C A B C observed counts predicted counts under H 0 hypothesis The test statistic is the table s chi square, a measure calculated as 6.52 with a significance of 3.84% and therefore we reject, meaning that consumers preferences are not uniform and that there is at least one type of bread that has a probability different from 1/3. As another example, using the same data we want to check whether the bread s probabilities follow a 40%, 40%, 20% distribution: H 0 : 40% and 40% and 20% H 1 : 40% or 40% or 20%. The observed and predicted tables are A B C A B C observed counts predicted counts under H 0 hypothesis and 1.43 with a significance of 48.8%. Therefore we accept, meaning that our sample is not able to prove that consumers preference is not 40%, 40%, 20% Chi square test for a two dimensional contingency table Prerequisites: at least 5 elements per cell H 0 : classifications are independent SPSS: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs Statistics Chi square Suppose, for example, that an automobile magazine is interested in determining the relationship between the size and manufacturer of newly purchased automobiles. One thousand recent buyers of cars made in Germany are randomly sampled, and each purchase is classified with respect to the size (small, intermediate, and large) and manufacturer of the automobile (Volkswagen, Page 8

9 BMW, Opel, Mercedes). The data are summarized in the two way table: Size\Manufacturer VW BMW Opel Mercedes Totals Small Intermediate Large Totals This table is called a contingency table. It presents multinomial count data classified in two dimensions, namely automobile size and manufacturer. We test whether the two classifications, manufacturer and size in our example, are independent. H 0 : row variable and column variable are independent H 1 : row variable and column variable are independent We use the chi square statistic to compare the observed and predicted counts in each cell of the contingency table 45.81, significance is %: therefore we reject the hypothesis of independence and we conclude that the size and manufacturer of a car selected by a purchaser are dependent. Page 9

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