Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy

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1 Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy Photosynthesis H 2 O + light energy Summary Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O 6 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosythesis provides Green Energy Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy Photosynthesis is carried out by Cyanobacteria 7 groups of algae All land plants chloroplasts One mature maple tree makes about 2 tons of sugar per season

2 In plants, photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts Cutaway view of a chloroplast Outer membrane Inner membrane Mesophyll cells contain chloroplasts. Thylakoids Sites of lightdependent reaction Stroma (space around thylakoids) light-independent reactions Granum Stromal lamellae Thylakoid lumen Thylakoid membrane Overview Photosynthesis Where does the oxygen come from? H 2 O The light reaction occurs in the Thylakoids. The lightindependent Calvin cycle occurs in the Stroma. Chloroplast LIGHT REACTIONS O 2 NADP + ADP + P i NADPH CALVIN CYCLE [CH 2 O] (sugar) Water is split during the light reaction

3 is a form of electromagnetic radiation What is?! comes as electromagnetic waves. Visible light ranges from wavelengths of about 400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (red)! The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy! Photons are discreet units of energy carried in light Engelmann Experiment 1880: What part of light is necessary for Photosynthesis? A glass prism breaks up a beam of light into a spectrum of colors, which are cast across a microscope slide. Bacteria Strand of Spirogyra Chlorophyll Absorption Spectrum! Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red wavelengths most strongly! Chlorophyll a absorbs best at 425 & 680 nm! Chlorophyll b absorbs at 460 & 645 nm! Carotenoids absorb best at 450 & 490 nm

4 Action Spectrum Leaves are green because we see the reflected -not the absorbed- light! Chlorophylls and carotenoids work together to absorb photons during photosynthesis Structure of Chlorophyll in chlorophyll a in chlorophyll b The Reaction! Chlorophylls are the major photosynthetic pigments in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria Hydrophobic side chain absorbing head H 2 O LIGHT REACTIONS NADP +! ADP NADPH CALVIN CYCLE O 2 [CH 2 O] (sugar)

5 Photosystems! Photosystems are large es of light-absorbing pigments and proteins embedded in the thylakoid membranes to absorb light efficiently Thylakoid membrane Photon Transfer of energy -harvesting es Photosystem Reaction center Special chlorophyll a molecules STROMA Primary electron acceptor Pigment molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Energy level of electrons Noncyclic Electron Flow energy Photosystem II Primary acceptor Plastoquinone pool synthase Cytochrome energy Plastocyanin Photosystem I Primary acceptor Ferredoxin NADP + reductase To lightindependent reactions (Calvin cycle) Cyclic Electron Flow NADPH Cytochrome Photosystem I Primary acceptor Ferredoxin NADP+ reductase Mill makes Photon Plastoquinone pool Ferredoxin Plastocyanin Photon Photosystem II Photosystem I synthase To light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle)

6 Electron Transport Chain, Chemiosmosis and synthesis The Calvin Cycle (light-independent) Stroma (low proton concentration) Photosystem II energy Antenna Primary acceptor Pigment molecules Cytochrome Electron transfer Photosystem I energy Ferredoxin To lightindependent reactions (Calvin cycle) H 2 O NADP +! ADP Plastoquinone NADP + reductase Stator LIGHT REACTIONS CALVIN CYCLE Water-splitting Plastocyanin NADPH synthase Thylakoid lumen (high proton concentration) Thylakoid membrane O 2 [CH 2 O] (sugar) Calvin Cycle Summary Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration both occur in Plant Cells! Carbon fixation added to RuBP by Rubisco to produce two 3PGA molecules! Reduction NADPH and used to convert 3PGA into G3P, a higher energy molecule used to build sugars! Regeneration remaining G3P molecules are used to recreate the starting material RuBP Rubisco

7 In hot and dry climates, plants convert to photorespiration C 4 plants separate carbon fixation and Calvin Cycle into different cells Mesophyll cell 4-C compound CALVIN CYCLE Sugarcane Bundle-sheath cell 3-C sugar C 4 plant C 4 plants CAM plants separate Carbon fixation and Calvin Cycle by time Include Corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and a number of other grasses They initially fix carbon using PEP carboxylase in mesophyll cells Oxaloacetate is produced (C4 compound), converted to malate, then transported to bundle-sheath cells Within the bundle-sheath cells, malate is decarboxylated to produce pyruvate and Now Rubisco uses the released, binds it to RuBP and the Calvin cycle can progress

8 Comparison C 4 versus CAM plants Sugarcane Pineapple 1 1 C 4 CAM CAM plants Many succulent (water-storing) plants, such as cacti, pineapples, and some members of about two dozen other plant groups Mesophyll cell Bundlesheath cell Organic acid Calvin Cycle Sugar (a) Spatial separation of steps 2 Organic acid Calvin Cycle Sugar Night Day (b) Temporal separation of steps 2 Stomata open during the night and close during the day Reverse of that in most plants Fix using PEP carboxylase during the night and store in vacuole Adaptations for Photosynthesis in hot, dry climates C 3 Plants that fix carbon using only C 3 photosynthesis (the Calvin cycle) C 4 and CAM Add to PEP to form 4 carbon molecule Use PEP carboxylase Greater affinity for, no oxidase activity C 4 two pathways occur in different cells CAM C 4 pathway at night and the C 3 pathway during the day Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming The Excess of in the atmosphere Is contributing to global warming Sunlight ATMOSPHERE Some heat energy escapes into space Radiant heat trapped by and other gases

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