Metabolism Poster Questions

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1 Metabolism Poster Questions Answer the following questions concerning respiration. 1. Consider the mitochondrial electron transport chain. a. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every NADH? b. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every FADH 2? 2. How many ATP s can be generated for each hydrogen ion that flows through the ATP synthase? 3. One NADH is the equivalent of how many ATP s? 4. One FADH 2 is the equivalent of how many ATP s? 5. GTP is also made in respiration. How many ATP s can be made from a GTP? 6. Fill in the table below: Process Location #ATP #GTP #NADH #FADH2 Total equivalent ATP Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs Cycle 7. How many total ATP can be made? Why is this sometimes a different number? 8. What drives the ATP synthase? 9. What is the significance of the folding of the inner mitochondrial membrane into crystae?

2 10. In the electron transport chain, why doesn t FADH 2 release its electrons to the same acceptor as NADH? 11. Electrons passing through proteins imbedded in membranes are not influenced by gravity. In what sense are electrons flowing downhill? 12. Where do the hydrogen ions that are pumped across the membrane by the electron transport system come from? 13. Describe what happens to the electron transport chain when there is no oxygen present. 14. What is the purpose of fermentation? Why can t the cell simply produce pyruvate and excrete it?

3 15. Describe what happens in the investment phase of glycolysis. What is the purpose of this investment? 16. Describe what happens in the energy harvesting phase of glycolysis. 17. In terms of enzyme regulation, describe what happens when the cell has plenty of energy. What molecules are in abundance and what enzymes do they affect? 18. Describe the processes that generate carbon dioxide. 19. Explain where oxygen is used and what its function is.

4 20. Describe the advantage of separating these processes into different compartments. 21. Compare the energy produced by oxidation of a 6-carbon fatty acid with the 6-carbon glucose molecule 22. The Atkins diet works by creating a deficit of carbohydrates. Where in the system do carbohydrates enter? 23. In terms of metabolic pathways, why is it OK to eat fat on the Atkins diet?

5 24. Glycolysis is thought to be the most ancient of the metabolic pathways we have studied. Explain why it is thought to have evolved first. 25. The mitochondrion is thought to have evolved by endosymbiosis. Explain what endosymbiosis is and describe evidence that supports the theory. 26. Our posters did not explore the catabolism of proteins. Where do amino acids enter the process? 27. Where do the materials for anabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates come from? 28. What is light? 29. How do photosystems I and II differ?

6 30. What enables these photosystems to absorb and use light other than that of exactly 700 and 680 nm? Explain how this works. 31. After an electron is removed from the chlorophyll a molecule in the photosystem, how is it replaced in photosystem I and in photosystem II? 32. Describe what each photosystem uses and what it generates. 33. Describe the difference between the z scheme (noncyclic photophosphorylation) and cyclic photophosphorylation 34. Where do the hydrogen ions that are pumped across the membrane by the photosynthetic electron transport chain come from?

7 35. Are the electrons passing through proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane flowing downhill as in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Explain how both yes and no are correct answers. 36. Explain where oxygen is generated and what its function is. 37. Why are the reactions of the photosynthetic electron transport system sometimes referred to as the light reactions? 38. What is the direct source of energy for the ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane? Compare this with the mitochondrial membrane. 39. List the starting materials and end products of the Calvin Cycle. Hint it is not glucose. 40. For one sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), how many turns of the Calvin Cycle are necessary?

8 41. For one sucrose molecule, how many ATP s are used? How many NADPH s? 42. In what compartment does the Calvin Cycle take place? 43. The Calvin Cycle is sometimes referred to as the Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis. Why is this a misleading term? 44. How is Rubisco activity regulated? 45. What is photorespiration and why is it considered to be a slipping of the gears? 46. Explain how C4 and CAM plants avoid photorespiration.

9 47. Describe the interaction between temperature and concentrations of CO2 and O2 inside a plant leaf. 48. Global atmospheric CO2 levels and temperature are rising. What impact might each of these have on the different types of metabolism (C3, C4, and CAM that plants do)? 49. Since metabolism consists of an inter-related series of chemical reactions and must also have evolved, classify the metabolic processes of glycolysis, fermentation, fatty acid metabolism and respiration into more ancestral and more derived pathways. Since evolution frequently re-uses old structures in new ways, are there any pathways that seem related? 50. Compare the inner mitochondrial membrane with the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Do the similarities suggest an evolutionary relationship? 51. Humans often make the mistake of thinking that we are the most complex organisms. Photoautotrophs such as plants and algae are necessarily more metabolically complex. Explain why this is so.

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