Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

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1 Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

2 Cellular respiration

3 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP

4 ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4 ATP! There s got to be a better way! I need a lot more ATP! A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second

5 There is a better way! Electron Transport Chain series of proteins built into inner mitochondrial membrane along cristae transport proteins & enzymes transport of electrons down ETC linked to pumping of to create gradient yields ~36 ATP from 1 glucose! only in presence of O 2 (aerobic respiration) That sounds more like it! O 2

6 Mitochondria Double membrane outer membrane inner membrane highly folded cristae enzymes & transport proteins intermembrane space fluid-filled space between membranes Oooooh! Form fits function!

7 Electron Transport Chain Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane C Q NADH dehydrogenase Mitochondrial matrix cytochrome bc complex cytochrome c oxidase complex

8 Remember the Electron Carriers? Glycolysis glucose G3P Krebs cycle 2 NADH 8 NADH 2 FADH 2 Time to break open the piggybank!

9 Electron Transport Chain NADH NAD + + H e p H e- + Building proton gradient! C intermembrane space inner mitochondrial membrane NADH e H Q FADH 2 NAD + NADH dehydrogenase H e FAD cytochrome bc complex e 2 + O H 2 O cytochrome c oxidase complex mitochondrial matrix What powers the proton ( ) pumps?

10 Stripping H from Electron Carriers Electron carriers pass electrons & to ETC H cleaved off NADH & FADH 2 electrons stripped from H atoms (protons) electrons passed from one electron carrier to next in mitochondrial membrane (ETC) flowing electrons = energy to do work transport proteins in membrane pump (protons) across inner membrane to intermembrane space TA-DA!! Moving electrons do the work! NADH Q e FADH 2 NAD + NADH dehydrogenase e FAD cytochrome bc complex C e 2 + O H 2 O cytochrome c oxidase complex ADP + P i ATP H+

11 But what pulls the electrons down the ETC? H 2 O O 2 electrons flow downhill to O 2 oxidative phosphorylation

12 Electrons flow downhill Electrons move in steps from carrier to carrier downhill to oxygen each carrier more electronegative controlled oxidation controlled release of energy make ATP instead of fire!

13 We did it! Set up a gradient Allow the protons to flow through ATP synthase Synthesizes ATP proton-motive force ADP + P i ATP ADP + P i Are we there yet? ATP

14 Chemiosmosis The diffusion of ions across a membrane build up of proton gradient just so H+ could flow through ATP synthase enzyme to build ATP Chemiosmosis links the Electron Transport Chain to ATP synthesis So that s the point!

15 Peter Mitchell Proposed chemiosmotic hypothesis revolutionary idea at the time proton motive force

16 Pyruvate from cytoplasm Inner mitochondrial membrane Q Intermembrane space C Electron transport system 1. Electrons are harvested Acetyl-CoA and carried to the transport system. NADH e - Krebs cycle NADH CO 2 e - FADH 2 e - 3. Oxygen joins with protons to form water. 2. Electrons provide energy to pump protons across the membrane. H 2 O 1 O e - O 2 ATP Mitochondrial matrix 4. Protons diffuse back in down their concentration gradient, driving the synthesis of ATP. ATP ATP synthase

17 Cellular respiration 2 ATP 2 ATP ~36 ATP + +

18 Summary of cellular respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ~40 ATP Where did the glucose come from? Where did the O 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 go? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the ATP come from? What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? Why do we breathe?

19 Taking it beyond C What is the final electron acceptor in Q e Electron Transport Chain? e FADH 2 O 2 NADH NAD + So what happens if O 2 unavailable? ETC backs up nothing to pull electrons down chain NADH & FADH 2 can t unload H ATP production ceases cells run out of energy and you die! NADH dehydrogenase FAD cytochrome bc complex e 2 + O H 2 O cytochrome c oxidase complex

20 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP

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