CLIMATE OF RWANDA. Overview. Linked to other lessons

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1 Geography S6 GENERAL PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF RWANDA Lesson 75 Developed by (Niwagaba Innocent) Subtopic Climate and factors influencing it in Rwanda Specific Objectives The learners must be able to: Describe climate of Rwanda and factors influencing it Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson, learners should be able to: CLIMATE OF RWANDA Overview 50 minutes Class group and pairs Climate and factors influencing it in Rwanda Overview During this lesson learners shall be introduced to the meaning of climate, climatic regions of Rwanda and why they differ due to factors that influence its distribution. The relationship between climate and land use shall be covered too. Linked to other lessons This Lesson is linked to the previous lesson. Evaluation At the end of the lesson learners shall be able to: Define the term climate Give the climatic regions of Rwanda Explain factors responsible for distribution of climate in Rwanda Define the term climate Give the climatic regions of Rwanda Explain factors responsible for distribution of climate in Rwanda

2 Terminology Terminology Climate Definition Climate is the average weather conditions of a place measured and recorded for a long period of time usually between or 45 years. Step1 Introduction Duration: 10 minutes Resources needed: Text books and sketch maps Class organization: Class group The teacher needs to review the previous lesson through oral questions such as; Give land forms of weathering What are the importances of weathering The learners shall respond to the questions. The teacher shall then introduce the new lesson of climate and factors that influence climate in Rwanda. How to achieve this learning Arrange learners in convenient groups Use question and answer method. Allow learners ask questions where clarification is needed. Step 2: How to conduct the lesson Activity 1 Climate of Rwanda Duration: 15 minutes Resources needed: Textbooks and sketch maps Class organization: Class group The teacher shall discuss with the learners the meaning of climate and describe rainfall and temperature distribution in Rwanda. During this interaction, the teacher shall ask learners to define climate and mention areas where rainfall is high and low, rain fall seasons are responsible for distribution of climate in Rwanda and where the learners encounter problems, the teacher shall guide them to the correct information. Expected outcomes during this activity include;

3 Climate is the average weather conditions of a place measured and recorded for a long period of time usually between or 45 years Weather means the daily state of the atmosphere of a specific area measured and recorded for a short period of time. Weather can be best understood by thorough study of its elements which include; rainfall, cloud cover, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed (strength), sunshine, temperature and sometimes visibility. Rwanda being a mountainous country has a temperate climate with daily average temperature of 730c or 23 0 c near Lake Kivu. Annual temperatures of Kigali (capital) are 19 or 66 f and receive 4o inches of rainfall. The country receives two rainy seasons February to April and from November to January, mild in the mountains with frost and snow fall in the mountains. Daily temperatures are approximately 24 c and receive sunshine throughout the year. Rwanda s minimum night temperatures are approximately 10 c and during the day they are about 34 c In Rwanda areas that receive heavy rainfall are; Western and northern parts. Areas occupied by forests like Nyungwe, Gishwati and Birunga areas. A map of Rwanda below shows the distribution of rainfall.

4 Activity 2 Factors for distribution of climate in Rwanda Duration: 15 minutes Resources needed: Text books and sketch maps Class organization: Class group The teacher shall discuss with the learners the factors that influence distribution of climate in Rwanda. During this interaction, the teacher shall ask learners to explain factors responsible for distribution of climate in Rwanda and where the learners encounter problems, the teacher shall guide them to the correct information. Expected outcomes during this activity include; FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE CLIMATE OF RWANDA Rwanda is not far away from the equator but has no pure equatorial climate she has temperate climate. This can be explained by both physical and human factors. The effect of relief: Rwanda is composed of many highlands or mountains e.g Karisimbi, Birunga. winds cause rainfall on the wind ward side and dry areas on the lee ward side as shown below The effect of latitude; latitude means the angular distance north and south of the equator in November and April. Rwanda receive direct heat from the sun that causes unstable air to rise cool condense and result into rainfall (convectional rainfall. This type of rainfall is received in Nyungwe, Gishwati, Mukura and Birunga forests. Influence of latitude. Altitude means the height of the land above the sea level. Areas of low latitude in Rwanda have high temperatures while higher slopes e.g of birunga ranges and other highlands have lower temperature as the saying goes the higher you go, the cooler it becomes. Effects of local winds: local winds are common in low lying areas, mountains and on shores of lakes like Ruhondo, Burera, muhazi, ihema and mugesera. They are formed due to temperature differences and result into land and sea breezes. The sea breeze takes place during the day because the land gains too much heat than the sea. Air above the land becomes warm, expand and cold air rise from the sea blowing to the land to replace the risen air. The diagram of a sea breeze is shown below;

5 1. Cool air over land sinks 2. Land Breeze moves out over water 3. Relatively warmer water heats air which then rises 4. Upper level return sea breeze 5. Cool air over land sinks During the night, the sea retains heat absorbed during the day but the land cools down fast cold air from the land blowing to the sea hence the land breeze occur as shown below. 1. Warm air over land rises 2. Sea Breeze moves inland as a mesoscale cold front 3. Cumuli develop aloft and move seaward 4. Upper level return land breeze 5. Cool air aloft sinks over water 6. Sea Breeze (meso-cold) Front

6 Influence of westerlies: These are warm and moist local winds that originate from the Congo basin. They blow towards Rwanda and affect areas of Rubavu, Lake Kivu area and Musanze districts bringing prolonged rainfall showers from November to April. The eastern slopes are warm due to influence of dry winds and are called foehn winds. The position of the over head sun: Rwanda experience two rainy seasons in the year when the sun is overhead the equator (21 st march and 22 nd June). This creates inter tropical convergence zones ( areas of low pressure ) that influence prevailing winds and cause rainfall. In October and November as the sun advances south wards North east trade winds that are moist over Lake Victoria causes rainfall in Rwanda. Aspect or slope of the land: Aspects mean the position of the land in relation to the position of the land. The eastern and western slopes in Rwanda are warmed while the northern and southern slopes are cool. Conclusion Duration: 05 minutes The teacher should conclude this lesson by telling learners to briefly talk about; The definition climate Climatic regions Factors influencing distribution of climate After the oral session, the teacher shall inform the learners the next lesson that will be covered which will be about characteristics of rocks and their importance. Homework Duration: open The teacher shall give learners home work such as the one shown below; 1. Define climate 2. Give three areas in Rwanda that receive; a) High rainfall b) Low rain fall 3. Explain any five factors that influence the climate of Rwanda For the expected answers for this home work the teacher should refer to the above given notes Additional Activities Learners should be sent to the library to read about vegetation and types of vegetation in Rwanda

7 References Nathan, K. Twinomujuni, Abel Nzabona, Stella K. Kibuka, Elsie M. Nsiyona Fountain Geography of Rwanda for secondary schools, Fountain publishers Rwanda Ltd (pp ) Safari, Sibol, Silvester, Musisi, Godfrey, Sekandi, Emanuel, Sanga, Carol,M, Serwanga, JC Mutyaba, Margaret, N,Serwanga, MK Junior secondary Geography (pp ) Social science Geography module 3 Geography of Rwanda (pp 55-59)

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