YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather

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1 YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather Contents Include: The four seasons Tools to record the weather Making graphs Clouds Weather forecasts Weather around the world Please Note: The activities included in this pack are suggestions only. Teachers should adapt the lessons to ensure they are pitched correctly for their pupils. For an outline of the content included in Year 1 Science please see: Core Knowledge Science Sequence

2 Lesson 1: Seasons and Weather This lesson is the first in a series about the seasons and weather. By the end of this unit of work children should be able to describe weather types including wind, rain, sun, fog and snow. Children should be able to describe each season and the associated weather conditions. Weather can be understood as the state of the atmosphere at a given time. This contrasts to climate, which describes average weather conditions over a longer period of time. Weather is caused by interactions amongst various atmospheric factors including heat energy, moisture, air pressure and wind. Temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind direction are all determined by what is happening in the atmosphere at a given time. In Britain we have a temperate maritime climate which means the weather we experience is influenced by the sea, in our case the Atlantic Ocean. Our northern latitude and the Gulf Stream (a warm current in the Atlantic) also influence our weather. Despite our weather being very changeable, it is possible to identify certain characteristics of our four seasons. Spring often has mild temperatures and can have heavy rainfall, in summer temperatures are warmer and rainfall is less frequent, in autumn temperatures cool leading to winter where temperatures are often at their lowest. Winter can sometimes bring snow. Seasons occur due to the tilt of the Earth on its axis. See page 251 of What your Year 1 Child Needs to Know Learning Objective Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary To name and describe the four seasons. Our four seasons are spring, summer, autumn and winter. Colder weather comes in autumn and winter. Warmer weather comes in spring and summer. Challenge: Our days of sunlight are longest in the summer and shortest in the winter. Prior Learning Assessment: Give children a page with Seasons and Weather written in the middle. Ask children to note down (draw or write) anything they already know about seasons and weather. This record of their prior learning will help to inform subsequent lessons. Teach children about the four seasons and their features. Discuss how the weather changes throughout the four seasons. Children can record descriptions of each season (written or illustrated). Challenge: Demonstrate how the tilt of the Earth s axis means that we have more sunlight during the summer than the winter. Children should begin to understand that we have more sunlight in the summer and less in the winter. season seasonal spring summer autumn winter warm cool wind rain sun fog snow axis orbit tilt Resources: Teacher Knowledge: Why we have seasons - Woodlands Junior School (includes a diagram of how the tilt of the Earth s axis creates our seasons. Assessment Questions Can you describe the season of summer in England? Compare summer and winter in England. Which season would be ideal for a BBQ and why? Describe something you might notice in a forest during autumn.

3 Name: Date: LO: To name and describe the four seasons. Describe the four seasons:

4 Lesson 2: Tools to record the weather This lesson will introduce three tools that can be used to record different kinds of weather. Children will learn about the rain gauge, wind vane and thermometer. If possible children should have hands on experience either making or using tools to measure the weather. To provide children with opportunities to apply their knowledge, regular weather observations should be recorded throughout this unit. A rain gauge is a simple tool that collects rainfall over a set period of time. Early records show that the Ancient Greeks recorded rainfall in 500 BC, followed shortly by people in India using bowls to record rainfall in 400 BC. A wind vane indicates which way the wind is blowing and is often positioned on the highest point of a building. Traditionally, a cockerel is used on a weather vane alongside arrows pointing north, south, east and west. The earliest known weather vane depicted the Greek god Triton and was fixed to the top of the Tower of Winds, built in Athens in 48 BC. A thermometer measures temperature using a substance that expands as temperature increases. In the past thermometers often contained mercury; however for safety reasons, alcohol with red colorant is now widely used. See page 120 of What your Year 1 Child Needs to Know Learning Objective To know that tools are used to gather information about the weather. Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary A rain gauge measures how much rain has fallen. A wind vane shows which way the wind is blowing. A thermometer measures the temperature. Throughout this unit of work, children regularly use tools to gather information about the weather. A system can be set up for children to share the responsibility of data collection and recording. During this lesson, children can either design and make tools to record data about the weather, or handle some ready-made tools before writing a description of how each one works. Ideally, opportunities to take weather recordings should be taken throughout the year. Homework challenge: Design a Tower of the Winds. rain gauge wind vane thermometer tools measure observe record precipitation Assessment Questions How could I find out how much rain has fallen today? What might tell me which way the wind is blowing? How can I measure the temperature in the playground? Why is it useful to measure and record the weather? Resources: Make your own rain gauge Met Office How to make a water cycle- Met Office UK

5 Name: Date: LO: To use tools to gather information about the weather

6 Lesson 3: Using a graph to show information During this lesson children will organise data using a graph. Children can either use data they have collected themselves, or they can use the example data provided in the lesson resources. This lesson is a good opportunity for children to build on the data handling skills they have been developing in Mathematics. Children can begin to understand that scientists use graphs to help them understand weather data. From this information, scientists can make predictions about the weather. See page 120 of What your Year 1 Child Needs to Know Learning Objective To present data using a graph. Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary Data is a collection of facts. We can present data using a graph. We can gather information from a graph which helps us to understand the data. Explain to children that we have some data gathered from a weather station. We want to show this data in a graph to help us understand it. Explain that a graph is like a picture of data. We must include labels to help us to see what the data is telling us. Demonstrate how children should colour a square for each ml of rainfall on the graph template provided in the resources (two versions are included, one with labels already added and one without). Discuss how the graph helps us to see how much rainfall there was and also to compare different days. What information can we find out from this graph? graph measure information record data Assessment Questions What is data? What information can we find out from this graph? Why is it useful to record information using a graph? Why might scientists study graphs? Why is it helpful to know things about the weather? Show children some other examples of graphs showing rainfall and discuss what they show. Resources: Prior to this lesson: Make your own rain gauge Met Office Advice on recording the weather with children.

7 Rainfall in millilitres (ml) Name: LO: To present data using a graph Date: This is a graph to show 6 Day Rainfall (ml) 5 Monday Tuesday 3 Wednesday 6 Thursday 2 Friday 0 1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Days of the week

8 Name: LO: To present data using a graph Date: This is a graph to show Day Rainfall (ml) Monday 1 Tuesday 3 Wednesday 6 Thursday 2 Friday 0

9 Lesson 4: Clouds Clouds are formed when water vapour collects and condenses as liquid water or ice around dust or other solid particles in the atmosphere. These tiny particles remain in the air because air resistance prevents them from falling. Clouds are formed in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. There are three main types of clouds: cirrus, stratus and cumulus. Cirrus clouds are often thin and wispy and form at high altitude. Cirrus clouds usually indicate good weather. Stratus clouds often form a sheet in the sky blocking out the sun. They are often grey in colour and can signal light rain. Cumulus clouds are puffy and often appear to have a flat bottom. They can be a sign of fair weather unless they are larger and darker in colour in which case they can signal thunderstorms. Cloud formations indicate what kind of weather we are about to experience. Learning Objective Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary To understand there are different types of cloud. Clouds are made of tiny droplets of water that float in the air. Dark clouds are carrying more water. Extension: Cirrus clouds are white, thin and wispy. Cumulus clouds are white and fluffy like cotton wool. Stratus clouds are grey and cover the whole sky. Children should, where possible, spend some time looking at cloud formations. This could be set as a homework task or children could be taken into the playground to look at the shapes of clouds on different days. Explain to children that clouds are made of tiny droplets of water that float in the air. There is water in the air all of the time, but when it is cooled it turns into little droplets. If possible, demonstrate this (see resources). Show children examples of cirrus, cumulus and stratus clouds. Use the meaning of the names of each cloud to help children remember them. Discuss how cloud formations can indicate what kind of weather we might be about to experience. Would cirrus clouds indicate a heavy rainstorm? What do darker clouds often tell us? cloud droplet float dark fluffy storm cirrus cumulus stratus Assessment Questions How are some clouds different from others? Describe what storm clouds might look like. What can we find out from looking at clouds? Children can write a description of each of the three types of cloud they have looked at. Resources: How to make a cloud in a glass- Met Office UK Weather Apparatus create a weather station Cirrus- from the Latin cirrus meaning lock or curl of hair Cumulus- cumulo means heap or pile in Latin. Stratus- from the Latin prefix strato meaning layer.

10 Name: Date: LO: To understand there are different types of cloud. Cirrus Cumulus Stratus

11 Lesson 5: Weather Forecasts Climate describes the average temperature and precipitation over a long period of time. Weather itself describes daily conditions which can be changeable from hour to hour. When talking about weather, people are usually referring to temperature, cloud cover and precipitation. Precipitation is any form of water; rain, snow, sleet or hail that falls to Earth from the atmosphere. It occurs when cloud droplets join together and become too heavy to remain suspended in a cloud. When rain falls it refills lakes, rivers, streams and groundwater supplies, continuing the water cycle. The weather affects our daily lives in many ways. From deciding what to wear, to determining our leisure activities, we are all influenced by the weather. In terms of agriculture, the weather can affect which crops are grown, when harvests occur and the quantity of crops grown. Therefore forecasting the weather is important for both individual people and businesses too. Learning Objective Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary To understand that weather forecasts help people to prepare for different kinds of weather. A weather forecast tells us what the weather will be in the next few days. Scientists study the weather and use computers to make forecasts. (A scientist who studies the weather is called a meteorologist.) Weather forecasts help people to be prepared for different kinds of weather. Ask children what they think a weather forecast tells us. Discuss their ideas and highlight the link between the word forecast and the word before. A forecast tells us what the weather might be like in the future. It is not always completely accurate, but is the best prediction that can be made based on the information scientists have at the time. Watch a weather forecast and ask children to look for the symbols used. Discuss the weather symbols that are needed for a forecast. Children can fill in the table showing different weather forecasts, adding detail about how people can prepare for different types of weather. Children could work in pairs to role play weather reporting. forecast predict future scientist meteorologist prepare Assessment Questions What is a weather forecast? Why are weather forecasts helpful? What sort of thing might you hear on a weather forecast? Show children pictures of meteorologists at work to help develop their understanding of this role. Resources: The Met Office s You Tube Channel National Geographic Education: Meteorology

12 Name: LO: To understand that weather forecasts help people to prepare for different kinds of weather. Date: Weather Forecast What you can wear Activities you can do Be aware of Bright sunshine Heavy rain Snow Strong winds Sunny first, then rain showers Foggy

13 Lesson 6: Weather around the world In this lesson children will find out about extreme weather and how it impacts upon people around the world. A specific example, Hurricane Katrina, is given here, but this can be changed if a particular event is of relevance at the time this lesson is taught. Hurricane Katrina hit the south-eastern part of America in August The winds reached up to 125 miles per hour and there was also widespread flooding. New Orleans is a city near the coast that was badly flooded during the hurricane; water levels reached depths of up to six metres. Flooding is dangerous because people can become trapped by fast moving flood waters. Hurricanes can cause sea levels to rise and the winds can create huge waves. The strong winds blew buildings down and people s homes were destroyed. Over a thousand people died as a result of the storm and many other people had to leave their homes, some could never come back. There are some things people can do to protect their homes from dangerous weather, for example, glass window panes can be replaced with plastic panes, hurricane shutters can be fitted to cover doors and windows, and special straps or clips can be fitted to keep the roof in place. Some people keep hurricane preparation kits in their homes which contain drinking water, first aid kits, dried food, waterproof torches and a whistle. Learning Objective To understand that certain types of weather can be dangerous. Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary Show children where America is on a world map. Explain Some weather can be very that in 2005 (before they were born!) there was a very bad extreme dangerous. storm that started in the Bahamas and moved up the danger south-eastern coast of America. Tell children that sometimes, a storm gets so strong that it becomes a flood A flood is an overflow of water. hurricane. Scientists give some storms names. Show tornado children some images or video of Hurricane Katrina. Explain hurricane A hurricane is a storm with very that hurricanes have very strong winds and can cause strong wind. drought flooding too. Discuss the dangers of hurricanes and flooding. Discuss the importance of forecasting during Extension: There are things people dangerous weather. can do to prepare for dangerous Children could write some information about how the weather. weather became dangerous during Hurricane Katrina. Explain some of the things people to do prepare for dangerous weather such as adapting their homes and creating hurricane preparation kits. Children could think about the steps that could be taken to prepare for dangerous weather. Resources: MET office education case study: Hurricane Katrina The History Channel video: Hurricane Katrina Assessment Questions How can certain types of weather be dangerous? What sort of damage could strong winds cause? What do some people do to prepare for bad weather? Why might a whistle be useful in a hurricane preparation kit?

14 Name: LO: To understand that certain types of weather can be dangerous. Date: What happened? How can people protect their homes?

15 Lesson 6: Assessment In this lesson, children will apply the knowledge they have learnt during this unit of work. Children should be able to identify features of the weather we experience here in the UK and should also be able to describe some extreme weather conditions such as flooding and hurricanes. An assessment template has been included in the resources, but teachers can select their own method for assessing their pupil s progress. Learning Objective Core Knowledge Activities for Learning Related Vocabulary All previous To identify and describe We have four seasons; spring, seasons and weather. summer, autumn and winter. Our weather is warmer during the spring and summer and cooler during the autumn and winter. Some weather can be dangerous, for example, flooding and hurricanes. This lesson is an opportunity for children to show what they know about seasons and weather. Teachers should select an appropriate way of gathering information about what children know. An assessment template is included in the resources, but teachers are encouraged to select their own method of gathering meaningful assessment. Assessment Questions Can you describe our seasons? What can you tell me about the weather here in the UK? What do you know about dangerous weather? Resources: All previous

16 Year 1 Science Assessment 1. Seasons and Weather Name: Date: The Four Seasons

17 Weather 2. Draw some symbols to show a weather forecast for the UK: The forecast:

18 Describe how some weather can be dangerous: 3. Draw and label things people can do to prepare for dangerous weather:

19 Assessment notes: 4. Teachers should read the questions to the class and explain what they need to do on each page. This is not intended to be a high-stakes test but should provide helpful insight into what content children have remembered and understood, the results of which can be used to inform future planning and teaching. Marking notes: This assessment has been designed to indicate what children have learned, not to give a particular level. It is possible to give children scores against the following criteria, but this is not essential. 1. Seasons a total of 8 marks available, one mark for each correctly named season and one mark for additional drawn information for each season. 2. Weather- a total of 6 marks available, one mark for each plausible symbol up to a total of 4 and then two additional marks for written forecast, one for each mention of weather up to a total of Dangerous weather a total of 6 marks available, two marks for mentioning both hurricane and flooding, one additional mark for a mention of other forms of dangerous weather. The remaining three marks can be awarded for correctly identifying ways in which people prepare for dangerous weather, one for each suggestion up to a total of 3. The total is out of 20 marks.

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