# 8-bit Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter

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1 AVR222: 8-point Moving Average Filter Features 31-word Subroutine Filters Data Arrays up to 256 Bytes Runable Demo Program Introduction The moving average filter is a simple Low Pass FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter commonly used for smoothening an array of sampled data. This application implements an 8-point filter to simplify the average calculation. The application note gives an excellent demonstration of how the powerful addressing modes in the AVR architecture can be utilized. 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Theory The moving average filter can be imagined as a window of a certain size (in this case eight) moving along the array, one element at a time. The middle element of the window (in this case element #4) is replaced with the average of all elements in the window. See Figure 1. However, it is important to remember the value of new elements and not make the replacement until the window has passed. This must be done since all averages shall be based on the original data in the array. Figure 1. The 8-point Averaging Window CURRENT WINDOW NEW VALUE = ( ) / 8 = 20 When the ends of the array is filtered and parts of the window is outside the array, the averaging must be done on less elements than when the entire window is inside the array. This implementation leaves the ends of the array unfiltered to save code. For an 8-point filter, this means that when n elements are filtered, elements 1, 2, 3, and n-3, n-2, n-1, n remain unchanged when filtering is complete. For many applications, this is no problem. Rev. 1

2 Implementation Usage Algorithm Description The application defines an 8-byte ring buffer (R0 - R7) which always holds the data in the current averaging window. The filter routine calculates the sum of the window and computes the average, which is stored back in the array. The AVR s three pointers are assigned the following functions: Z points to the array element to be replaced. Y points inside the ring buffer when the sum of the buffer contents is calculated in a program loop. X is the ring pointer which holds the position of new values to the buffer. To filter an array in SRAM, use the following procedure: 1. Load ZH with the high address of the first element in the array. 2. Load ZL with the low address of the first element in the array. 3. Load the register variable t_size with the number of elements in the table. 4. Call mav8. The following procedure describes how the sorter is implemented on the AVR: Initialization 1. Clear the X and Y pointers (point to R0). Fill Ring Buffer Initially: 1. Get the SRAM contents at Z and increment Z. 2. Store in register at Y and increment Y. 3. If Y not eight, goto Step 2. Find Average 1. Clear the 16-bit register variable AH:AL (Average Value). 2. Clear YL (point to R0). 3. Get the register contents at Y. 4. Add to AH:AL. 5. If Y not eight, goto Step Divide AH:AL by 8. Write Back Average and Get Next Value to Buffer 1. Get SRAM contents at Z+5 (Next value to buffer). 2. Store to register at X and increment X. 3. Clear the highest five bits of XL to make it point to the start of the buffer if the end is passed. 4. Store AL at Z and increment Z. 5. Decrement t_size. 6. If t_size is not zero (end of array is reached) goto Step 5. 2 AVR222

3 AVR222 Figure 2. mav8 Flow Chart MAV8 CLEAR X AND Y Z Z + 1 CALCULATE AVERAGE FILL RING MAV_TMP Y Y + 1 YL = 8? Y CLEAR AH:AL, YL Y Y + 1 AH:AL AH:AL +MAV_TMP YL = 8? N Y AH:AL AH:AL / 8 WRITE BACK AVERAGE AND GET NEXT VALUE TO RING BUFFER MAV_TMP, X X + AL, Z Z + 1 T_SIZE = CLEAR X BITS 7,6,5,4,3 T_SIZE T_SIZE - 1 Y Return 3

4 Performance Table 1. mav8 Register Usage Register Input Internal Output R0-R7 Ring Buffer R8 mav_tmp Temporary Storage R9 AL Average Low Byte R10 AH Average High Byte R16 t_size Number of Elements t_size Loop Counter R26 XL R27 XH R28 YL R29 YH R30 Z Address of First Element ZL R31 Z Address of First Element ZH Table 2. mav8 Performance Figures (1) Parameter Code Size (Words) Execution Time (Cycles) Value 30 + return x (SIZE - 7) + return Register Usage Low Registers High Registers Pointers Interrupts Usage Peripherals Usage None None :11 :1 :X, Y, Z Note: 1. SIZE = Number of bytes to filter Test/Example Program avr222.asm contains a test program which copies 60 bytes of random data from the Program memory to SRAM and calls mav8 to filter the data. The test program is well suited for running under the AVR Studio. 4 AVR222

5 AVR222 5

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AVR287: USB Host HID and Mass Storage Demonstration Features Based on AVR USB OTG Reduced Host Runs on AT90USB647/1287 Support bootable/non-bootable standard USB mouse Support USB Hub feature (Mass Storage

### Application Note. Microcontrollers. AVR480: Anti-Pinch System for Electrical Window

AVR480: Anti-Pinch System for Electrical Window Automotive motorized window or door apparatus which closes automatically involve risks for trapping, squeezing or injury to people. They must reverse their

### AVR115: Data Logging with Atmel File System on ATmega32U4. Microcontrollers. Application Note. 1 Introduction. Atmel

AVR115: Data Logging with Atmel File System on ATmega32U4 Microcontrollers 01101010 11010101 01010111 10010101 Application Note 1 Introduction Atmel provides a File System management for AT90USBx and ATmegaxxUx

### Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2. 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR4921: ASF - USB Device Stack Differences between ASF V1 and V2 Features Advantages Implementation differences Integration Migration from stack V1 to stack V2 8-bit Atmel Microcontrollers Application

### Application Note. AVR Microcontrollers. AVR493: Sensorless Commutation of Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) using AT90PWM3 and ATAVRMC100. 1.

AVR493: Sensorless Commutation of Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) using AT90PWM3 and ATAVRMC100 1. Introduction This application note describes how to implement a sensorless commutation of BLDC motors with the

### Atmel AVR4920: ASF - USB Device Stack - Compliance and Performance Figures. Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

Atmel AVR4920: ASF - USB Device Stack - Compliance and Performance Figures Features Compliance to USB 2.0 - Chapters 8 and 9 - Classes: HID, MSC, CDC, PHDC Interoperability: OS, classes, self- and bus-powered

### AVR441: Intelligent BLDC Fan Controller with Temperature Sensor and Serial Interface. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR441: Intelligent BLDC Fan Controller with Temperature Sensor and Serial Interface Features Application Example for Controlling Brushless DC Motors - Ideal for Use as an Integrated Fan Controller Automatically

### 80C51 MCU s. Application Note. Analyzing the Behavior of an Oscillator and Ensuring Good Start-up. Oscillator Fundamentals

Analyzing the Behavior o an Oscillator and Ensuring Good Start-up This application note explains how an oscillator unctions and which methods can be used to check i the oscillation conditions are met in

### AVR447: Sinusoidal driving of three-phase permanent magnet motor using ATmega48/88/168. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note.

AVR447: Sinusoidal driving of three-phase permanent magnet motor using ATmega48/88/168 Features Three-phase sine waves - 192 steps per electrical revolution - 8-bit amplitude resolution Software dead-time

### AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR Features Implementation of Digital Filters Coefficient and Data scaling Fast Implementation of 4 th Order FIR Filter Fast Implementation of 2 nd Order IIR Filter Methods

### Atmel AVR4903: ASF - USB Device HID Mouse Application. Atmel Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

Atmel AVR4903: ASF - USB Device HID Mouse Application Features USB 2.0 compliance - Chapter 9 compliance - HID compliance - Low-speed (1.5Mb/s) and full-speed (12Mb/s) data rates Standard USB HID mouse

### AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features.

AVR055: Using a 32kHz XTAL for run-time calibration of the internal RC Features Calibration using a 32 khz external crystal Adjustable RC frequency with maximum +/-2% accuracy Tune RC oscillator at any

### AVR064: A Temperature Monitoring System with LCD Output. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR064: A Temperature Monitoring System with LCD Output Features Presenting data on an LCD-display Temperature measurement Real Time Clock (RTC) UART communication with a PC PWM implementation 8-bit Microcontrollers

### AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR32788: AVR 32 How to use the SSC in I2S mode Features I²S protocol overview I²S on the AVR32 I²S sample rate configurations Example of use with AT32UC3A on EVK1105 board 32-bit Microcontrollers Application

### Application Note. 8-bit Microcontrollers. AVR293: USB Composite Device

AVR293: USB Composite Device Features Combining several USB applications using ONE DEVICE No HUB needed Bus powered 1. Introduction Adding to the flexibility given to the user with the Hot Plug & Play,

### 8-bit RISC Microcontroller. Application Note. AVR910: In-System Programming

AVR910: In-System Programming Features Complete In-System Programming Solution for AVR Microcontrollers Covers All AVR Microcontrollers with In-System Programming Support Reprogram Both Data Flash and