# PH3FP. (Jun14PH3FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June Unit Physics P3. Time allowed 1 hour TOTAL

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2 2 Answer all questions in the spaces provided. 1 Figure 1 shows an X-ray image of a human skull. Figure 1 1 (a) Use the correct answers from the to complete the sentence. absorbs ionises reflects transmits When X-rays enter the human body, soft tissue... X-rays and bone... X-rays. 1 (b) Complete the following sentence. The X-rays affect photographic film in the same way that... does. (02)

3 3 1 (c) Table 1 shows the total dose of X-rays received by the human body when different parts are X-rayed. Table 1 Part of body X-rayed Dose of X-rays received by human body in arbitrary units Head 3 Chest 4 Pelvis 60 Calculate the number of head X-rays that are equal in dose to one pelvis X-ray. Number of head X-rays =... 1 (d) Which one of the following is another use of X-rays? Tick ( ) one. Cleaning stained teeth Killing cancer cells Scanning of unborn babies 6 Turn over (03)

4 4 2 Figure 2 shows a girl standing on a diving board. Figure 2 Point A 5 metres Support Weight of girl = 600 newtons Water 2 (a) Calculate the moment of the girl s weight about Point A. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Moment =... newton metres (04)

5 5 2 (b) Figure 3 shows the girl standing at a different place on the diving board. The support provides an upward force F to keep the diving board balanced. Figure 3 F Point A Support Weight of girl Water Complete the following sentence. The diving board is not turning. The total clockwise moment is balanced by the total.... Question 2 continues on the next page Turn over (05)

6 6 2 (c) Figure 4 shows how the upward force F varies with the distance of the girl from Point A Figure F in newtons Distance of girl from Point A in metres 5 2 (c) (i) Use Figure 4 to determine the upward force F when the girl is standing at a distance of 3 metres from point A. Upward force F =... newtons 2 (c) (ii) What conclusion should be made from Figure 4? 5 (06)

7 7 3 (a) Digital cameras and human eyes both form images. Complete Table 2 by putting a tick in the correct column(s) to show if the parts are found in the digital camera or in the human eye or in both. The first part has been completed for you. [3 marks] Table 2 Part In a digital camera In the human eye Cornea Lens Pupil Charge-coupled device (CCD) Question 3 continues on the next page Turn over (07)

8 8 3 (b) Some humans are short-sighted. Complete the following sentence. Short sight can be caused by the eyeball being too (c) Spectacles can be worn to correct short sight. Table 3 gives information about three different lenses that can be used in spectacles. Table 3 Lens feature Material Mass in grams Type Lens A Plastic 5.0 Concave (diverging) Lens B Glass 6.0 Convex (converging) Lens C Glass 5.5 Convex (converging) Which lens from Table 3 would be used to correct short sight? Draw a ring around the correct answer. Lens A Lens B Lens C Give the reason for your answer. (08)

9 9 3 (d) Every lens has a focal length. Which factor affects the focal length of a lens? Tick ( ) one. The colour of the lens The refractive index of the lens material The size of the object being viewed 3 (e) A lens has a focal length of 0.25 metres. Calculate the power of the lens. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Power of lens =... dioptres 3 (f) Laser eye surgery can correct some types of eye defect. Which of the following is another medical use for a laser? Tick ( ) one. Cauterising open blood vessels Detecting broken bones Imaging the lungs Turn over (09)

10 10 3 (g) Figure 5 shows a convex lens being used as a magnifying glass. Figure 5 Not to scale An object of height 14 mm is viewed through a magnifying glass. The image height is 70 mm. Calculate the magnification produced by the lens in the magnifying glass. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Magnification = (10)

11 11 4 (a) Use the correct answer from the to complete the sentence. concentrated stored pivoted The centre of mass of an object is the point at which the mass of an object may be thought to be (b) Figure 6 shows an oval-shaped piece of card. Draw an X on Figure 6, so that the centre of the X marks the centre of mass of the oval shape. Figure 6 Oval-shaped card Question 4 continues on the next page Turn over (11)

12 12 4 (c) Figure 7 shows some apparatus and a sheet of card. Boss Figure 7 Sheet of card Clamp stand String Strong pin Mass The sentences describe how to find the centre of mass of the sheet of card. The sentences are in the wrong order. A Tie the mass to one end of the string and then hang the string from the pin. B Repeat this using the other hole. The centre of mass is where the two lines cross on the card. C Put the pin through one of the holes in the card and hold the pin in the boss. D Draw a line on the card marking the position of the string. E Make two holes in the card, with each hole near to the edge of the card. Put the sentences into the correct order to describe how to find the centre of mass of the card. Start with E and end with B. Write the correct order in these es. E B (12)

13 13 4 (d) Figure 8 shows a person in a wheelchair. Figure 8 Wheel Seat Tipping the wheelchair at a large angle may cause it to become unstable and to topple over. How could the design of this wheelchair be changed to make it less likely to be toppled over? Tick ( ) two es. Lower the person s seating position Make the wheelchair from lighter materials Move the wheels further apart Use taller wheels 6 Turn over (13)

14 14 5 Musicians sometimes perform on a moving platform. Figure 9 shows the parts of the lifting machine used to move the platform up and down. Figure 9 Movement Platform Cross-sectional area of piston = 200 cm 2 Liquid Pump 5 (a) What name is given to a system that uses liquids to transmit forces? Draw a ring around the correct answer. electromagnetic hydraulic ionising (14)

15 15 5 (b) To move the platform upwards, the liquid must cause a force of 1800 N to act on the piston. The cross-sectional area of the piston is 200 cm 2. Calculate the pressure in the liquid, in N/cm 2, when the platform moves. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Pressure =... N/cm 2 5 (c) A new development is to use oil from plants as the liquid in the machine. Growing plants and extracting the oil requires less energy than producing the liquid usually used in the machine. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. Using the oil from the plants gives an environmental an ethical a social advantage over the liquid usually used. 4 Turn over for the next question Turn over (15)

16 16 6 A student is investigating the strength of electromagnets. Figure 10 shows three electromagnets. The student hung a line of paper clips from each electromagnet. Insulated wire Figure 10 Nail 20 turns 30 turns 30 turns Current Electromagnet A Electromagnet B Electromagnet C Paper clip No more paper clips can be hung from the bottom of each line of paper clips. 6 (a) (i) Complete the conclusion that the student should make from this investigation. Increasing the number of turns of wire wrapped around the nail will... the strength of the electromagnet. 6 (a) (ii) Which two pairs of electromagnets should be compared to make this conclusion? Pair 1: Electromagnets... and... Pair 2: Electromagnets... and... 6 (a) (iii) Suggest two variables that the student should control in this investigation (16)

17 17 6 (b) The cell in electromagnet A is swapped around to make the current flow in the opposite direction. This is shown in Figure 11. Figure turns What is the maximum number of paper clips that can now be hung in a line from this electromagnet? Draw a ring around the correct answer. fewer than 4 4 more than 4 Give one reason for your answer. 6 (c) Electromagnet A is changed to have only 10 turns of wire wrapped around the nail. Suggest the maximum number of paper clips that could be hung in a line from the end of this electromagnet. Maximum number of paper clips =... 7 Turn over (17)

18 18 7 (a) What is ultrasound? 7 (b) Figure 12 shows how ultrasound is used to measure the depth of water below a ship. Figure 12 Electronic system Emitted ultrasound Reflected ultrasound Seabed A pulse of ultrasound is sent out from an electronic system on-board the ship. It takes 0.80 seconds for the emitted ultrasound to be received back at the ship. Calculate the depth of the water. Speed of ultrasound in water = 1600 m/s Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. [3 marks] Depth of water =... metres (18)

19 19 7 (c) Ultrasound can be used in medicine for scanning. State one medical use of ultrasound scanning. 7 (d) Images of the inside of the human body can be made using a Computerised Tomography (CT) scanner. The CT scanner in Figure 13 uses X-rays to produce these images. Figure 13 State one advantage and one disadvantage of using a CT scanner, compared with ultrasound scanning, for forming images of the inside of the human body. Advantage of CT scanning... Disadvantage of CT scanning... 7 Turn over (19)

20 20 8 Man-made satellites can orbit the Earth, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14 Satellite Resultant force Earth Not to scale The satellite experiences a resultant force directed towards the centre of the orbit. The resultant force is called the centripetal force. 8 (a) What provides the centripetal force on the satellite? 8 (b) State two factors that determine the size of the centripetal force on the satellite (20)

21 21 8 (c) Table 4 gives data for five different satellites orbiting the Earth. Table 4 Satellite Average height above Earth s surface in kilometres Time taken to orbit Earth once in minutes Mass of satellite in kilograms A B C D E (c) (i) State the relationship, if any, between the height of the satellite above the Earth s surface and the time taken for the satellite to orbit the Earth once. 8 (c) (ii) State the relationship, if any, between the time taken for the satellite to orbit the Earth once and the satellite s mass. Question 8 continues on the next page Turn over (21)

22 22 8 (d) Over 300 years ago, the famous scientist Isaac Newton proposed, with a thought experiment, the idea of satellites. Newton suggested that if an object was fired at the right speed from the top of a high mountain, it would circle the Earth. Why did many people accept Isaac Newton s idea as being possible? Tick ( ) one. Isaac Newton was a respected scientist who had made new discoveries before. Isaac Newton went to university. It was a new idea that nobody else had thought of before. 6 (22)

23 23 9 (a) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. There are two types of traditional transformer; step-up and step-down. Describe the similarities and differences between a step-up transformer and a step-down transformer. You should include details of: construction, including materials used the effect the transformer has on the input potential difference (p.d.). You should not draw a diagram. [6 marks] Extra space... Question 9 continues on the next page Turn over (23)

24 24 9 (b) Figure 15 shows a mobile phone and charger. Figure 15 Charger Mobile phone chargers use a different type of transformer, which is smaller and lighter than a traditional transformer. What name is given to the type of transformer used in a mobile phone charger? 7 END OF QUESTIONS Acknowledgement of copyright-holders and publishers Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements in future papers if notified. Figure 1: Figure 8: Figure 13: Getty Images Getty Images Getty Images Copyright 2014 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. (24)

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