# Monday 21 May 2012 Morning

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2 2 TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE EQUATIONS Useful relationships The Earth in the Universe distance = wave speed time wave speed = frequency wavelength Sustainable energy energy transferred = power time power = voltage current efficiency = energy usefully transferred total energy supplied 100% Explaining motion speed = acceleration = distance travelled time taken change in velocity time taken momentum = mass velocity change of momentum = resultant force time for which it acts work done by a force = force distance moved in the direction of the force amount of energy transferred = work done change in gravitational potential energy = weight vertical height difference kinetic energy = 1 2 mass [velocity]2 Electric circuits power = voltage current resistance = voltage current voltage across primary coil voltage across secondary coil = number of turns in primary coil number of turns in secondary coil Radioactive materials energy = mass [speed of light in a vacuum] 2

3 3 Answer all the questions. 1 There are many sports in the Olympics. All of them use forces and energy. (a) A gymnast is balancing on a beam. (i) All forces arise from interaction pairs. Which of the following conditions are needed for two forces to form an interaction pair? Put ticks ( ) in the boxes next to the two correct answers. Each force acts on a different object. If the object the forces act on is stationary, the forces gradually increase in size. One force must be bigger than the other. The forces act in opposite directions. [1] (ii) Which of the following pairs of forces form an interaction pair in this situation? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. The friction from the beam and the weight of the beam. The reaction of the beam and the push of the gymnast on the beam. The friction from the beam and the reaction of the beam. The push of the gymnast on the beam and the weight of the beam. Turn over [1]

4 (b) Another gymnast is jumping on a trampoline. 4 The weight of the gymnast is 500 N. The trampoline does 250 J of work on the gymnast when launching her into the air. (i) What does this mean? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to the correct answer. The gymnast s weight increases to 750 N. The trampoline causes the force on the gymnast to halve. The gymnast pushes down on the trampoline with a force of 250 N. The trampoline transfers 250 J of energy to the gymnast. [1] (ii) How much height will the gymnast gain from 250 J of work being done on her? Put a ring around the correct answer m 0.5 m 2 m 5 m 10 m [1]

5 (iii) The trampoline stores elastic potential energy when it stretches. 5 Describe the energy changes as the gymnast moves from the top of one bounce to the top of the next bounce [3] Turn over

6 (c) A cyclist is travelling along a flat, straight road. The forces acting on the bicycle are shown below. 6 upwards force from the road counter force driving force due to the cyclist total weight The wind blowing into the face of the cyclist increases. The cyclist pedals harder to maintain the same speed. Here are some statements about the forces on the bicycle and the motion of the cyclist when these changes take place. Put a tick ( ) in the correct box to complete each statement. increases. stays the same. decreases. The counter force The upwards force from the road The driving force The weight The momentum of the cyclist [3] [Total: 10]

7 7 2 Two cars, A and B, are crash tested by scientists. Car A has a crumple zone but car B does not. car A: crumple zone car B: no crumple zone Here is some information about the two crash tests. Car A Car B Mass of car in kg Mass of driver in kg Starting velocity of car in m / s Time taken to stop in s Using the information given, and by calculating the forces on the drivers, explain why a government might choose to make crumple zones a legal requirement. The quality of written communication will be assessed in your answer.... [6] [Total: 6] Turn over

8 3 A delivery company wants to track where their vehicles are at any time. They install GPS trackers in two vehicles which transmit the vehicle s positions over time. 8 van A van B The graph below is a distance-time graph for van A distance in metres time in minutes (a) Use information from the graph to calculate the average speed of van A in m / s. Show your working. speed =... m / s [2]

9 (b) This table shows some of the GPS data from van B. 9 Time in minutes Distance in metres (i) Add this data to the graph. [1] (ii) Explain how the company can use the graph to tell which van had the greatest average speed, without doing any calculations [2] [Total: 5] Turn over

10 4 Mike is investigating motors. 10 (a) Name a device that uses a motor and explain why a motor is used in this device. device... explain why it uses a motor [1] (b) Mike makes some notes about the motor effect, but misses out some words. Put a tick ( ) in the box next to each correct choice to complete the sentence. charge at right angles to If a wire carrying a flow of potential difference protons is placed end to end with next to voltage parallel to an electric a force a gravitational fi eld, it experiences induction. energy. a force. a magnetic a voltage. [2]

11 11 (c) Mike has one battery, two identical motors and some identical connecting wires. He connects the components together in two different ways. In one circuit, he finds that both motors run slowly. In the other circuit, he finds that both motors run faster. (i) Draw the two circuits he used. motors run slowly motors run faster [2] (ii) Explain why the motors run faster in one circuit [3] [Total: 8] Turn over

12 12 5 Angela is installing some solar-powered lamps in her garden. They store energy from the Sun during the day and then use it at night. (a) Here are some circuit components. Draw straight lines from each circuit symbol to the component it represents and from the component to its function. circuit symbol component function switch breaks or makes a circuit cell resistance varies with temperature thermistor transforms chemical energy into electrical energy LDR resistance varies with light intensity [2] (b) The lamps automatically turn on when it becomes dark. They also have a manual override button to turn the lamp off when it is not wanted. Which of the components in part (a) is unlikely to be used in the solar-powered lamp? name of component... [1]

13 13 (c) The manufacturers can choose from two light sources for the lamps, either LEDs or filament lamps. The data in the table can be used to calculate the power of each source of light. Component Voltage in V Current in A LED filament lamp Use the data in the table to suggest why LEDs are used instead of filament lamps [2] Turn over

14 14 (d) Angela sets up the solar-powered lamps in her garden. Each month she measures how long the solar-powered lamps remain on at night. Here is a graph of her data average time lamps stay on in hours July August September October November December month Angela concludes that the older the solar-powered lamps, the less energy they can store. Discuss her conclusion with reference to correlation and cause [2] [Total: 7]

15 15 6 Tim walks on a nylon carpet wearing shoes with rubber soles. When he touches a metal rail, he feels an electric shock. Tim is worried about the risk from these electric shocks. Explain these observations, and discuss what Tim will need to consider to decide the size of the risk. The quality of written communication will be assessed in your answer.... [6] [Total: 6] Turn over

16 7 The diagram below shows two atoms that are isotopes of an element. 16 W X Y Z (a) Which labels should be on parts W, X, Y and Z? Choose the correct labels using words from this list. atom electron neutron nucleus molecule proton W =... X =... Y =... Z =... [2]

17 (b) The nucleus was first discovered by the scientists Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden. 17 Draw one line from their experimental method to the explanation of their results. experimental method alpha particle scattering explanation The nucleus is small, negative and has no mass. beta decay The nucleus is large, negative and has mass. nuclear fission The nucleus is small, positive and has mass. nuclear fusion The nucleus is small, positive and has no mass. [1] (c) The nucleus is held together by a force that only has an effect inside the nucleus. (i) Which word best describes this force? electrostatic gravity strong magnetic weak [1] (ii) Explain why this force must exist to hold the nucleus together [2] [Total: 6] Turn over

18 18 8 Amy reads that low-sodium salt contains a source of ionising radiation. She measures the amount of radiation coming from a sample of low-sodium salt for one minute. She does this three times. counter detector container with low-sodium salt These are Amy s results. Experiment Counts per minute (a) Amy s friend Billy carries out the same experiment. Their results are shown in the graph below counts in one minute repeat 1 repeat 2 repeat 3 repeat 1 repeat 2 repeat 3 Amy s results Billy s results Amy thinks she must have had a different batch of salt from Billy. Is she correct? Justify your answer [2]

19 19 (b) A teacher tells Amy and Billy that they carried out the experiment incorrectly, as they missed out an important step. What did they forget to do, and why is this step important? Draw one line from the correct step to the reason why it is important. step take measurements without the low-sodium salt reason to remove gamma rays repeat the experiment with paper on top of the container to allow the background radiation to be measured heat the low-sodium salt to break down the molecules dissolve the low-sodium salt in acid to mix the particles properly (c) The teacher carries out an experiment to find the half-life of another radioactive material. The results are shown below. [1] Time in minutes Corrected counts per minute (i) What is the half-life of this material? Put a ring around the correct answer. 4 minutes 6 minutes 6.5 minutes 13 minutes Turn over [1]

20 (ii) 20 Amy reads that an isotope of uranium has a half-life of 4.4 billion years. The teacher s experiment found a half-life that was only minutes long. Amy thinks that either the experiment or the book must be wrong. Put a tick ( ) in the box next to the statement that explains this. The book was wrong as half-lives are always short. The experiment was wrong as half-lives are always long. They could both be right, as half-lives can vary widely for the same isotope. They could both be right, as half-lives can vary widely between different isotopes. [1] (d) Amy takes a different radioactive source. She carries out an experiment to find out what type of radiation it gives out. She places different materials between the radioactive source and the detector. Here are her results. Material Count rate in counts per minute air 80 paper 79 aluminium sheet 20 lead block 21 What type of radiation does the sample give out?... [1] [Total: 6]

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