METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information"

Transcription

1 METAMORPHIC ROCKS Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - Formation of Metamorphic Rocks Lesson 2 - Metamorphic Rock Classification Chart Lesson 3 - Metamorphic Rocks - Lab Lesson 4 - The Many Facies of Metamorphic Rocks Lesson 5 - Michelangelo and Marble designed to be used as an Electronic Textbook in class or at home materials can be obtained from the Math/Science Nucleus EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS Math/Science Nucleus

2 Lesson 1 - Formation of Metamorphic Rocks MATERIALS: reader Objective: To learn where metamorphic rocks are formed. Teacher note Metamorphic rocks are the most difficult to understand and to identify. Show a picture of the rock cycle before beginning this unit. Illustrate how the three different types of rocks can change into another type of rock. Although metamorphic rocks are forming today, it is difficult to see. Increasing temperature and pressure occurs inside the crust of the Earth, which is impossible for humans to observe. Hold up a sedimentary or igneous rock. Ask the students to imagine what the rock would look like if it was squished. Accept any reasonable answers. Explain that metamorphism uses heat and pressure to change rocks. There is no net gain of elements in the system, just a changing of the chemistry. You can use the analogy of a square dance, when you change partners to make a different pair dancing. This creates new metamorphic rocks. Remind students that if pre-existing rocks are broken and recemented they are sedimentary, and if they are remelted and cooled, they are igneous. You may want to have several samples of metamorphic rocks and the rocks they changed from. A gneiss could have come from a granite (igneous). Shale (sedimentary) could have become slate. Slate (metamorphic) if put under more pressure could change into a schist. A basalt (igneous) could also become a schist. Limestone (sedimentary) can become marble.. Math/Science Nucleus

3 Metamorphic rocks in nature Deformation of sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks record how temperature and pressure affected an area when it was forming. The rocks provide clues to their transformation into a metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks are best identified when looking at the rock as you see them in nature. You can clearly see the deformation and features that are characteristic of an entire area. Metamorphic rocks were once sedimentary, igneous, or another metamorphic rock. These rocks are physically deformed and chemically changed due to different temperatures and pressures. The elements in the minerals can actually move to form new minerals. The rock does not melt, or else it would be considered an igneous rock. A rock looks different after it has been metamorphosed. The rocks texture and overall appearance changes also. It now has a squished look! Metamorphism is difficult to understand because there are many combinations of temperature and pressure that can create rocks. For example, mud and clay quietly settle on the ocean floor. As more mud and clay settle on top of it, the weight of the sediments squeezes the water from the mud and clay on the bottom. It becomes cemented together by chemical interactions and it becomes a sedimentary rock called shale. The shale is put under moderate pressure and low temperature due to burial or plate movements. The new pressure and temperatures changed the chemical make up of the shale into the metamorphic Shale to slate metamorphism rock called slate. Math/Science Nucleus

4 If not enough heat and temperature were applied another metamorphic rock could have been formed called phyllite, which is not as hard as slate. However, if the shale was in an area that was exposed to higher pressures and moderate temperatures, it might have been transformed into schist. The clay in the shale could have been converted to mica, which gives schist its shiny look. Granite is a light-colored rock made of quartz, feldspars, mica, and small amounts of hornblende. The crystals of all these minerals are randomly arranged. Granite can be metamorphosed into a rock called gneiss (pronounced like nice ). Gneiss has about the same mineral composition as granite, but the pressure of metamorphism causes the minerals to line up, giving gneiss a distinct banded appearance. Schist may also be converted into gneiss, if increased pressure and temperature is added. Metamorphic rocks are a mixed up group that have been under a lot of stress! The metamorphic system can also react differently if fluids are part of the system. Serpentinite, a mottled green rock, is usually formed with high pressure and low temperature. The original rock could contain a large amount of olivine (i.e., basalt). The olivine (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) reacts with water (H 2 O) to form the mineral serpentine (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 )plus magnesium oxide (MgO). Serpentinite is found in areas where faulting occurs. Along the San Andreas fault zone in California, serpentinite is so abundant it Serpentinite with quartz veins is recognized as the California state rock. The pressure of shearing seems to be ideal for the serpentinite to form a fibrous pattern. This form of serpentinite is a variety of asbestos, which is used as a fire retardant. Math/Science Nucleus

5 There are several ways that metamorphic rocks form at or near plate boundaries. There is localized metamorphism called contact metamorphism. Usually this occurs near molten magma or lava, under high temperature and low pressure. Metamorphism affecting a large area or regional metamorphism involves large increases of temperature and pressure. Contact metamorphism is common at both convergent and divergent plate boundaries, in areas where molten rock is produced. Regional metamorphism largely occurs at convergent plate boundaries. Each of these types of metamorphism produces typical metamorphic rocks, but they may occur in different sequences. For example, both regional and contact metamorphism produce schists and shales. However, gneiss would be common in regional metamorphism. In regional metamorphism conditions can range from low to high pressures and temperatures that occur over a large area. This will produce different zones or rocks that have characteristic minerals. The minerals are like a pressure gauge and thermometer and record the history of the conditions under which the rocks formed. Finding these minerals in metamorphic rocks are clues to the temperature and pressure. For example, chlorite, muscovite, and biotite (all micas) are common in low grade metamorphism which is low temperatures (200 C) and pressure. (Remember water boils at 100 C). Intermediate grade metamorphisms usually contains the minerals garnet and staurolite. High grade metamorphism (800 C) usually produces kyanite and sillimanite. A. Kyanite, B. Sillimanite Math/Science Nucleus

6 Contact metamorphism does not affect as large an area as regional metamorphism. It is associated with areas around a magma chamber as well as other smaller igneous structures like dikes or sills. Contact metamorphism zones can be a few centimeters to several kilometers, especially around large plutons. The rocks that are formed will depend on the country rock that the intrusion invades. There are other conditions that form metamorphic rocks. Burial metamorphism is a special type of low grade metamorphism with low temperatures and pressures. Cataclastic metamorphism only occurs along fault zones, usually associated with subduction or transform zones. Conditions include high pressures under lower temperatures. The formation of many metamorphic rocks is still debated. Observation of extreme pressure and temperature inside the crust and upper mantle and how they affect rocks is difficult. Some rocks are only slightly metamorphosed and given the term meta-igneous or meta-sedimentary. Math/Science Nucleus

7 EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS Lesson 2 - Metamorphic Rock Classification Chart MATERIALS: reader Objective: To learn characteristics of metamorphic rocks. Teacher note Identification of metamorphic rocks is difficult because there are so many varieties created by just a wide range of conditions. Students are asked to distinguish foliated and nonfoliated textures to help identification of metamorphic rocks. We only emphasize eight rocks, but there are many more varieties (and names) from these few basic forms. ANSWERS: 1. Slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss 2. Hornfels, quartz, quartz, marble, serpentinite 3. Slate: clay family, mica family, quartz Phyllite: mica family, quartz Schist: mica family, augite/hornblende family, feldspar family, quartz Gneiss: mica family, augite/hornblende family, feldspar family, quartz Hornfels: mica family, augite/hornblende family, feldspar family, quartz Quartzite: quartz Marble: calcite, little quartz Serpentinite: serpentine Math/Science Nucleus

8 Metamorphic rocks are either easy to identify or very difficult. Some textures or appearances, like foliation, are unique to metamorphic rocks. Foliation comes from the Latin meaning leafy. The texture is platy because it contains minerals like mica. However some nonfoliated textures like granoblastic or minerals that are large grained are difficult to distinguish from chemical sedimentary or plutonic igneous rocks. These rocks do not have a squished look. Granoblastic texture of quartzite (thin section) Mica (bluish) is aligned in a foliated texture in this mica schist (thin section) On the identification chart we separate the rocks by texture and refer to them as foliated or nonfoliated. Both groups are further subdivided by coarse and fine grained, depending on the size of the minerals. Mineral groups that are found within each rock can also help to identify the type of metamorphic rock. There are many types of metamorphic classifications that geologists use. The one we use in this unit is simplified into foliated and nonfoliated. We also group the minerals into families. Clay Family can include several specific minerals, like kaolinite. For example, Mica Family includes chlorite, mica, and biotite. Feldspar Family includes orthoclase and plagioclase. Metamorphic rocks use the minerals that are found to help identify it to distinguish one from another. For example, schist is a general term. A geologist would see which minerals are dominate then name it depending on the most abundant minerals. Math/Science Nucleus

9 Slate roof Slate is heavy, often dark colored and smooth when it breaks in sheets. It does not contain visible minerals, but with a microscope, you would see that all its minerals are lined up. The properties of slate make it ideal to use on the top of pool tables, shingles on roofs, walking stones, and the original blackboards, which teachers write on. Phyllite resembles slate but has a somewhat coarser texture. The flat surfaces have a lustrous sheen due to mica and chlorite. However, it is not as hard or flat as slate, and not used in construction like slate. Slate outcrops in Grand Canyon Phyllite Gneiss is coarsely foliated in bands. The bands can be straight, pancake-like, or wavy. The bands differ in composition and are coarse grained making them easy to identify. Many of the light-colored bands are composed of either quartz or feldspar. The dark bands belong to the augite/hornblende groups. Schist is finely foliated forming thin parallel bands. The individual minerals are visible but are usually platy or rod-like. Some minerals are larger within the foliated minerals, and these can include garnet, pyroxene or feldspars. Schist looks like it is composed of glitter. Schist Gneiss Math/Science Nucleus

10 Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are more difficult to identify because of their large, undeformed minerals. Hornfels are nonfoliated rocks composed of equal sized minerals in a random orientation. It is usually formed in low pressure, high temperature, during contact metamorphism. Quartzite is usually nonfoliated and composed of recrystallized quartz. Sandstone and chert are the common parent rock. Marble is composed of either calcite or dolomite, and usually derived from limestone. The purity of the marble will depend on the purity of the limestone. Serpentinite is nonfoliated, and composed mainly of the mineral serpentine. Serpentinite also occurs as a fibrous variety, especially found near fault zones. Thin section of hornfel Marble Quartzite Math/Science Nucleus

11 Metamorphic Rock Classification Chart Answer the questions below using the following chart: 1. List the metamorphic rocks that have a foliated texture: 2. List the metamorphic rocks that have a nonfoliated texture. Math/Science Nucleus

12 3. List what minerals can be found in the following rocks: Rock Minerals SLATE PHYLLITE SCHIST GNEISS HORNFELS QUARTZITE MARBLE SERPENTINITE Math/Science Nucleus

13 MATERIALS: EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS Lesson 3 - Metamorphic Rock Lab reader Metamorphic Rock Kit HCl acid steel nail Objective: To identify metamorphic rocks. Teacher note Metamorphic rocks are easily identified in nature. Usually you can see an association of rocks that have a squished look. Foliated metamorphic rocks are easier to identify in hand sample than non-foliated rocks. However, sometimes gneiss is difficult to identify if the bands are large, and the sample a student has is just one band. The non-foliated rocks are more difficult, but after learning the key characteristics of each, they become a little easier. However, some, like marble, are sometimes difficult to distinguish from some types of limestones. Hornfels are difficult, even for geologists because they resemble basalts. ANSWERS: Part I. 1. No there is not enough temperature and pressure. However, close to the surface, along fault zones, metamorphic rocks can form 2. Along different types of plutons from sills, dikes, to large batholiths 3. Convergent zones Part II. 1 A. flat, squished look; B. White - muscovite; black-biotite; C. The flat shiny one 2. A. 12 sides (answer depends on specimens); B. On Mohs hardness scale it ranges from so it is harder than a steel nail 3. A. It is flat and they lay on top of each other, like leaves; B. Yes, depends on specimen; C. Mica 4. A. Depends on sample; B. It fizzes, releases carbon dioxide from calcium carbonate; C. Calcite, depends on sample 5. A. Quartz, B. No you would have to scratch it with a steel nail; C. Steel nail because you can tell if it is quartz; D. Quartz; E. Quartz sandstone 6. A. Flat; B. Yes unlike phyllite; C. Pool tables, blackboards; stepping stones; D. Shale or mudstone 7. A. Depends on sample; B. It is banded. Term layered refers to sedimentary C. depends on sample 8. A. Green mottled color, like a serpent; B. Greasy; C. Decorative, carving (soft varieties), asbestos (some varieties) 9. A. Basalt; B. Depends on sample 10. Depends on sample, B. Thud Math/Science Nucleus

14 Metamorphic rocks are all around us. We use them from everything from old fashion chalk boards to decorative rocks around our homes. These rocks were formed inside the Earth s crust or near the surface along fault zones. Metamorphic rocks are easy to identify in nature, when you see squished, deformed rocks. Hand samples are more difficult. In this exercise you need to compare and contrast the different metamorphic textures. Learning to identify foliated texture in a hand sample is important. Recognition of nonfoliated metamorphic rocks is difficult, because they look similar to igneous and chemical sedimentary. Use a hand lens to look closely at the textures. The squished look in the field Math/Science Nucleus

15 EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS LAB PROBLEM: How can you identify metamorphic rocks? HYPOTHESIS: Part I: General Questions Answer each of the following questions. 1. Can metamorphic rocks form on the Earth s surface? Explain your answer. 2. In what areas of the Earth is contact metamorphism likely to occur? 3. Where might regional metamorphism take place? Part II Examining Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals Look at each of the metamorphic rock specimens. Carefully answer the questions for each. 1. MUSCOVITE AND BIOTITE MICA Muscovite and biotite are both flat silicate minerals. This is because the silica compounds they contain are joined together to make sheets, like the pages of a book. Mica commonly forms under metamorphic conditions. However, you find mica in igneous and sedimentary rocks. A. What properties does mica have that could associate it with metamorphic rocks? B. What is the difference between the two micas? C. How can you recognize mica in rocks? 2. GARNET Garnets are most common in metamorphic rocks formed under moderate temperature and pressure. It comes in various colors ranging from red to green. It forms a characteristic 12 sided crystal. A. Describe your crystal. B. Can a steel nail scratch your specimen? Math/Science Nucleus

16 3. MICA SCHIST Mica schist is a common metamorphic rock that is produced by regional metamorphism. The shiny look of schist is one of its key characteristics. The schist also has a nicely developed foliation. The word foliation comes from the Latin "folia" meaning leaves. A. In what way does schist have a leaf-like appearance? B. Are the minerals present in this schist visible with the naked eye? C. What is the sparkly mineral visible in this schist? 4. MARBLE is metamorphosed limestone. Limestone is a sedimentary rock that is mainly composed of calcite, derived from the shells of living organisms like clams and snails. Marble can be produced by contact or regional metamorphism. Marble does not develop foliation like schist, because the calcite crystals are all about the same size. There is no way for them to line up. Marbles often contain other minerals, such as quartz, mica, and hematite. A. Is this sample of marble fine (small) or coarse (large) grained? B. What happens when dilute HCl is dropped on marble? Why? C. How many types of minerals are in this specimen of marble? 5. QUARTZITE Quartzite is a very hard metamorphic rock. It can be made by contact or regional metamorphism. Like marble, it is made of crystals that are all about the same size, so it does not have foliation. Primitive people often used quartzite to make bladed weapons like knives and arrowheads. A. From its name, what mineral makes up quartzite? B. Can you tell this just by looking at the rock? Explain your answer. Math/Science Nucleus

17 C. Which would be more useful in identifying quartzite, a bottle of HCL or a steel knife? Explain your answer D. What was the likely mineral composition of the rock from which quartzite was made? E. You saw a rock in the sedimentary lab that could be this original rock. Can you guess which one it is? 6. SLATE Slate is formed by regional metamorphism. It is a low-grade metamorphic rock, meaning that it was created by relatively low temperature and pressure. Schist, which you have already examined, is a medium-grade metamorphic rock. A. Describe your piece of slate. B. Slate is formed under low to moderate pressure and temperature conditions. Does slate ring when lightly dropped? C. Can you think of any uses for a large piece of slate? (Hint: think about buildings.) D. Which sedimentary rock was slate most likely made from? 7. GNEISS Gneiss is a high-grade metamorphic rock. It is common only in areas of regional metamorphism. Several different rocks, such as granite, schist, and diorite can be metamorphosed to make gneiss. This is one of the most difficult things to understand about metamorphic rocks. Different preexisting rocks can produce the same kind of metamorphic rock. A. Describe your piece of gneiss. Make sure you look at the arrangement of the minerals. B. Is gneiss banded or layered? C. What makes up the different bands? Math/Science Nucleus

18 8. SERPENTINITE Serpentinite is a metamorphic rock produced largely by metamorphism along fault zones. The original rock is often an igneous rock like gabbro or basalt. Serpentinite is composed mainly of the mineral serpentine. Serpentinite is the state rock of California. However, the state legislators didn't know the difference between serpentinite (the rock) and serpentine (the mineral), and voted to make "serpentine" the state rock. A. Where do you think serpentinite got its name? B. How does serpentinite "feel?" C. Can you think of any uses for serpentinite? 9. HORNFEL Hornfel is a fine grained metamorphic rock that is nonfoliated. It usually forms under low pressure and varying ranges of temperature. It is difficult to distinguish. A. What igneous rock could you confuse hornfels with? B. Describe your sample. 10. PHYLLITE Phyllite is a metamorphic rock that has not been under as much pressure as slate. It is usually derived from mudstone or shale. 1. Describe your specimen? 2. What is the difference of dropping phyllite about 6 cm from a hard surface and a piece of slate? Math/Science Nucleus

19 EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS Lesson 4 - The Many Facies of Metamorphic Rocks MATERIALS: reader Objective: Students learn to interpret a metamorphic facies chart. Teacher note Metamorphic facies refers to zones of rock that have similar metamorphic minerals. These facies help to determine under what temperature and pressure the rock was created. This lesson can help students learn how to read graphs and gather information. This is not meant for students to memorize the different facies. More information on facies can be found on the following website. Illustrates the different rocks of the different facies. A rock is made of minerals that are stable in a given environment. If the physical conditions of a rock change, especially temperature and pressure, the minerals will not be stable. A new group of minerals will begin forming under metamorphism until the environment becomes stable again. These mineral assemblages will appear depending on conditions. The initial composition of a rock is very important. This will decide what it will become with changing metamorphic conditions. A rock with the same composition can turn into a different metamorphic rock, depending on the pressure and temperature. If the pressure and temperature are the same, the initial rock control the path metamorphism takes. Math/Science Nucleus

20 Ranges on temperature and pressure know this? It took geologists a long time to understand metamorphic rocks. They mapped the different area and found that minerals were clues to the temperature and pressure an area experienced. George Barrow, in the late 1900's was the first to map The amount of heat and pressure is the main factor that control mineral development. The length of time of metamorphism is also a major factor on the eventual rock. The varying temperature and pressures are found in different regions of the Earth, depending on its position according to the plate tectonic model. How do we Simplified geologic map zones in Scotland. He recognized six zones on the first appearance of six minerals including chlorite, biotite, garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and sillimanite. He did not know for sure if the zones had anything to do with the physical conditions of metamorphism, because he could not confirm his observations in a lab. Eventually the idea of metamorphic facies developed that included contact and regional metamorphism. These facies were defined by geologists in the field, but also experimental data helped to define the minerals more precisely. A facies is a metamorphic mineral assemblage that provides a geologist with a predictable relation between mineral composition and chemical composition with respect to the pressure and temperature of its formation. These metamorphic facies are defined by the minerals and corresponding rocks that they produce. Some of the minerals and rocks we have not discussed, but this facies concept is an important way of relating rocks in time and space. In the exercise you are read the graphs to try and derive information. Math/Science Nucleus

21 Zeolite Zeolite facies is the lowest grade of burial metamorphism. It main minerals are quartz, muscovite and chlorite. Recrystallization is usually incomplete so these rocks don t look as squished. Hornfels facies is confined to high temperature with lower Blueschist pressured and associated with contact metamorphisms. The minerals present include plagioclase, orthoclase, and quartz. Lower temperatures to higher temperatures produce other types of minerals. Blueschist facies is a low grade type of regional metamorphism specially in mountain building areas. Blue minerals like glaucophane are common, with quartz, chlorite, muscovite and garnet. Hornfel Greenschist facies is a common low grade metamorphism that produces rocks that are greenish because of the chlorite and biotite present. Amphibolite facies is a medium to high grade type of regional metamorphism, which is very common. The minerals include members from the Greenschist Amphibolite amphibolite (hornblende) family. Granulite facies is the maximum grade of region metamorphism found in older metamorphic rock formation. Eclogite facies represents a very deep, high grade form of metamorphisms found with high pressures and temperatures. Eclogite Granulite Math/Science Nucleus

22 Interpreting a Metamorphic Facies Graph facies pressure range temperature range depth range Math/Science Nucleus

23 EARTH SCIENCES - METAMORPHIC ROCKS Lesson 5 - Michelangelo and Marble MATERIALS: reader Objective: To learn how marble was used by Michelangelo.. Teacher note Michelangelo was one of the most productive and famous artists in the world. His genius was not only in paintings but also in sculpturing. His ability was discovered early through his persistence of knowing what he wanted to do. Michelangelo s life can help students realize that some of them should follow their dreams and skills. The following web sites can help your students gather more information on his life. a detailed biography and history of Michelangelo. good links to images link to a Carrara marble quarry in Italy. A detailed site with many good pictures Michelangelo was an Italian artist who lived from He was the second of five brothers, born in Tuscany. He was a sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. He is considered to be one of the greatest Western artists of all time. He was especially gifted at using art to express human emotions and meaning. Michelangelo lived and worked during the Renaissance, a period of European history when many discoveries and innovations in art, science, and technology were made. When Michelangelo turned 13 years old, he shocked his father when he told him that he had agreed to apprentice to the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied the technique of fresco painting. Michelangelo then went on to study at the sculpture school in the Medici gardens and then apprenticed in the household of Lorenzo de Medici, the Magnificent. Michelangelo Math/Science Nucleus

24 The Pieta Michelangelo carved sculpture throughout his lifetime. The Pieta shows the biblical figure Mary holding the body of Jesus in her lap. Her face expresses sorrow and sadness. This is the only sculpture Michelangelo ever signed. The Pieta was a great success, so one night he snuck into the display hall and carved MICHEL ANGELUS BONAROTUS FLORENT FACIBAT on the front of the statue. This means Michelangelo Buonarroti of Florence made this! (Note: Michelangelo is his first name, Buonarroti is his family name.) The David is Michelangelo s image of an ideal man, based on the biblical story of King David and Goliath. The David is a huge statue, standing 14 feet, 3 inches high. It took Michelangelo almost three years, and several models, to carve the final David which now stands in Florence, Italy. David Michelangelo was commissioned by Julius II to produce his tomb, which was planned to be the most magnificent of Christian times. Michelangelo was asked to include 40 statutes to depict the glory of the pope. So, he had to spend months in the quarries to obtain the necessary Carrara marble. Due to a mounting shortage of money, however, the pope ordered him to put aside the tomb project in favor of painting the Sistine ceiling. When Michelangelo went back to work on the tomb, money forced the project to not be as grand. Michelangelo still made some of his finest sculpture for the Julius Tomb, including the Moses around Statute of Moses Math/Science Nucleus

25 Michelangelo carved his statues from the metamorphic rock, marble. Almost all of this material came from quarries near the town of Carrara, Italy, so this rock is referred to as the Carrara marble. He would inspect the marble before he would work with it, to insure that the rock would express his artistic genius. Marble is composed of carbonate minerals, mainly of calcite (CaCO 3 ). The original rock is limestone, usually derived Colors of Carrara Marble from fossil shells. During metamorphism, the original fossils and cement dissolve, and reform in place as new calcite crystals. Since the crystals all form at about the same time, they are pretty close to the same size. This gives marble a sugary appearance. Marbles often contain small amounts of quartz, mica, pyrite, or hematite. These often give a color to the marble. For example, small amounts of hematite make the marble yellow-orange in color. Michelangelo used Carrara marble for three reasons. First, calcite is a soft mineral, which makes it easy to carve. Second, the calcite crystals in the Carrara marbles are very small. This also makes carving easier. More important, it makes the finished statue look more lifelike. Finally, the Carrara marbles are pure in color, which makes the statues more beautiful. The Carrara limestone quarries are still open. Modern sculptors still use the same marble as Michelangelo. Carrara quarries, Italy Outcrop of Carrara Marble Math/Science Nucleus

26 Earth Science - Metamorphic Rocks - Unit Test Part I. Definitions-Match the term or concept in column 1 with the definition in Column 2. Column 1 Column 2 1. Preexisting rock A. Metamorphism caused along a fault 2. Contact metamorphism B. Country rock 3. Pressure C. A metamorphic rock composed largely of calcite 4. Foliation D. The alignment of minerals in a metamorphic rock 5. Cataclastic E. A metamorphic rock containing lots of mica 6. Marble F. Metamorphism caused by the weight of overlying rocks 7. Burial metamorphism G. A metamorphic rock showing mineral banding 8. Regional metamorphism H. Metamorphism caused by high temperature 9. Gneiss I. Moderate temperature and pressure over a large area 10. Schist J. One of the main causes of metamorphism Part II. Multiple choice. Choose the best answer to complete each statement. 1. Quartzite is composed largely of a. calcite b. mica c. quartz d. clay 2. Granite can be metamorphosed into a. gneiss b. schist c. slate d. serpentinite 3. Which is not a cause of metamorphism? a. temperature b. Pressure c. faulting d. hydrochloric acid Math/Science Nucleus

27 4. Contact metamorphism is found near a. water b. magma c. pyroclastic ejections d. trees 5. Regional metamorphism is found mainly in a. volcanoes b. magma c. convergent zones d. divergent zones 6. Slate is a metamorphic rock. It may have formed from a. granite b. gneiss c. shale d. sandstone 7. Schist is easy to identify because it a. has foliation b. reacts with HCl c. has mineral bands d. is harder than a steel nail 8. Michelangelo carved statues with Carrara marble because a. the marble was soft b. the marble was fine grained c. the marble was pure in color d. all of the above 9. Which characteristics describe serpentinite? a. green, with a greasy feel b. red with fibrous texture c. harder than a steel nail d. None of the above 10. Which metamorphic rocks are easy to identify? a. nonfoliated rocks b. foliated rocks c. green rocks d. greasy rocks Math/Science Nucleus

28 Answers: 1. B 2. H 3. J 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. F 8. I 9. G 10.E Part C 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. A 10.B Math/Science Nucleus

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids.

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Metamorphic Rocks, Processes, and Resources Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Protolith or parent rock is

More information

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 1. Metamorphism is a that involves no melt phase. 2. The protolith of a metamorphic rock is the (a) sibling (b) brother (c) parent

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed? CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing solids, gases, liquids, and plasma. LAB: Exploring how states of matter can change.

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Geology Laboratory: Metamorphic Rocks

Geology Laboratory: Metamorphic Rocks OBJECTIVES Learn to identify metamorphic rocks by structure and mineralogy. Identify major minerals contained within a metamorphic rock. Distinguish between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks.

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

Chapter 4. Metamorphic Rocks. 4.1 Types of Metamorphism

Chapter 4. Metamorphic Rocks. 4.1 Types of Metamorphism Chapter 4 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have undergone a change in texture and/or mineralogy due to high temperature or pressure, or through the action of chemical alteration induced

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

SECOND GRADE ROCKS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE ROCKS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE ROCKS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the states of matter. LAB: Observing the elements on the periodic table. POST:

More information

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab. Introduction

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab. Introduction Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab Introduction A rock is any natural aggregate composed of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic particles. There are three primary rock

More information

Presents the. Rock Test Study Resource

Presents the. Rock Test Study Resource Presents the Rock Test Study Resource Created by Simone Markus Published by EngLinks 1 Preface This is a free resource provided by EngLinks for students in APSC 151. This presentation is a supplementary

More information

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle

Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Unit 4: The Rock Cycle Objective: E 3.1A Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another. E 3.1B Explain the relationship

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Rock Identification. Introduction

Rock Identification. Introduction Introduction Rock Identification In our everyday lives, we often find confusion between the terms rock and mineral. People will sometimes use the terms interchangeably since they are both found in the

More information

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION OBJECTIVES: LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION 1) to become familiar with the properties important in identifying minerals; 2) to learn how to identify the common rock-forming minerals. Preparatory

More information

Questions & Answers Proposed for Exam #3

Questions & Answers Proposed for Exam #3 Questions & Answers Proposed for Exam #3 GE50 Introduction to Physical Geology (Geology for Engineers) Missouri University of Science and Technology Fall Semester 2007, Leslie Gertsch (GertschL@mst.edu)

More information

Rock Identification Lab

Rock Identification Lab Rock Identification Lab Name Mineral Hardness Objective: You will determine the relative hardness of common objects relative to the known hardness of index minerals. We will use fingernail, copper, glass,

More information

How can you tell rocks apart?

How can you tell rocks apart? How can you tell rocks apart? Grade Range: 4-7 G.L.E Focus: 1.1.5 Time Budget: 1 1.5 hours WASL Vocabulary: Overview: Different rocks have different characteristics because of their minerals, the ways

More information

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

More information

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle Name Date Per Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should

More information

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock material. This can occur below the surface of the earth forming intrusive rocks

More information

Three Main Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks. Made by Liesl at The Homeschool Den

Three Main Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks. Made by Liesl at The Homeschool Den Three Main Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Igneous Rocks Above and below: Basalt Above: Gabbro Above: Pumice Above: Basalt, Giant Causeway in Ireland Above: Obsidian Above:

More information

Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice

Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice 1. The basaltic bedrock of the oceanic crust is classified as (1) felsic, with a density of 2.7 g/cm3 (2) felsic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3 (3) mafic, with a density

More information

IGNEOUS ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information

IGNEOUS ROCKS. Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information IGNEOUS ROCKS Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - Rock Cycle Lesson 2 - Formation of Igneous Rocks Lesson 3 - Classification of Igneous Rocks Lesson 4

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals.

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle a cycle that continuously forms and changes

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

O.Jagoutz. We know from ~ 20.000 borehole measurements that the Earth continuously emits ~ 44TW

O.Jagoutz. We know from ~ 20.000 borehole measurements that the Earth continuously emits ~ 44TW Lecture Notes 12.001 Metamorphic rocks O.Jagoutz Metamorphism Metamorphism describes the changes a rock undergoes with changing P, T and composition (X). For simplistic reasons we will focus here in the

More information

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch6&7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following does NOT change the form of existing rock? a. tremendous pressure c.

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE Rocks and Minerals I. OBJECTIVES One of the many ways to study Earth is by examining the rocks that make up its surface. Earth is a dynamic planet, with plate tectonics, water, wind, volcanoes, and mountains.

More information

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10.

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical

More information

Exploring How Rocks Are Formed

Exploring How Rocks Are Formed Exploring How Rocks Are Formed Grade Level: 3-4 Purpose and Goals: In this lesson, students are introduced to the three types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. After receiving background

More information

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia.

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia. Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common

More information

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics}

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} [Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} BACKGROUND Scientists and geologists have been able to do some drilling on Earth. They are also able

More information

Geology 200 Getting Started...

Geology 200 Getting Started... Geology 200 Getting Started... Name This handout should be completed and become a part of your Notebook for this course. This handout is intended to be a review of some important ideas from your introductory

More information

Introduction to Classification of Rocks Using the Building Stones of the Brooklyn College Campus

Introduction to Classification of Rocks Using the Building Stones of the Brooklyn College Campus Rocks and Stones EESC 1101 Introduction to Classification of Rocks Using the Building Stones of the Brooklyn College Campus Rocks and stones are not exactly the same thing: a rock is a natural material

More information

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE John J. Thomas Purpose An exercise in the identification of minerals that uses minerals with very distinct characteristics. The students will learn the characteristics

More information

CLASSIFICATION // CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ROCK FEATURES

CLASSIFICATION // CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ROCK FEATURES Reference: CLASSIFICATION // CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME ROCK FEATURES Engineering characteristics of main rock material: - Geological name, (type of rock) - Orientation of foliation/bedding/layering - Anisotropy,

More information

Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks. Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure

Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks. Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure Geologist: a person who studies the Earth and the materials of which it is made Property:

More information

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth.

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. They are derived from preexisting source rocks. They are composed by sediments, this is material that has been weathered,

More information

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning that all mountains are not volcanoes. LAB: Investigating rocks

More information

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the rocks produced by volcanoes. LAB: Comparing igneous rocks.

More information

FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK. Objectives. Sediments and Sedimentation

FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK. Objectives. Sediments and Sedimentation FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK Objectives Identify three types of sediments. Explain where and how chemical and biogenic sediments form. Explain three processes that lead to the lithification of sediments.

More information

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals.

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals. Introduction Minerals Minerals are the basic building blocks that make up the solid Earth. Therefore, any study of the solid Earth must begin with an understanding of minerals. A mineral, by definition,

More information

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS Ruth Siddall University College London, UK Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust Contents 1. Introduction 2. Minerals 2.1.

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Magmas and Igneous Rocks

Magmas and Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 14 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Magmas and Igneous Rocks This page last updated on 03-Sep-2015 Magma and Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Lab Activity on Minerals

Lab Activity on Minerals Lab Activity on Minerals 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction Rocks are made of many mineral grains stuck together.

More information

The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine

The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine Geologic Site of the Month February, 2002 The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine 43 14 23.88 N, 70 35 18.36 W Text by Arthur M. Hussey II, Bowdoin College and Robert G. Marvinney,, Department

More information

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6

Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Volcanoes Erupt Grade 6 Created by: Debra McKey (Mountain Vista Middle School); Valerie Duncan (Upper Lake Middle School); and Lynn Chick (Coyote Valley

More information

3. Practice describing and classifying rocks as sedimentary, metamorphic or igneous.

3. Practice describing and classifying rocks as sedimentary, metamorphic or igneous. Science Unit: Lesson 3: Renewable & Non-renewable Resources Mining in BC School Year: 2009/20010 Developed for: Developed by: Grade level: Duration of lesson: Notes: Dr. R. E. McKechnie Elementary School,

More information

Mineral Identification

Mineral Identification Mineral Identification Name Notes Page Objectives Explain which mineral properties are most important in identification. Explain how to identify minerals by their properties. Classify some common minerals

More information

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced.

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced. Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals,

More information

ROCKS OF THE GRAND CANYON BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR DOCENTS

ROCKS OF THE GRAND CANYON BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR DOCENTS ROCKS OF THE GRAND CANYON BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR DOCENTS There are three distinct types of rock. Igneous rocks. Igneous comes from the Greek word for fire. It is so hot deep in the Earth that rocks

More information

Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days

Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days 6 th Grade Science Unit: Sedimentary Rocks Unit Snapshot Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days Summary The following activities allow students to focus on the study of rocks.

More information

Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection

Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection Target Grade or Age Level Sixth grade science Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection Scientific Processes Addressed Defining operationally, formulating and testing hypotheses, constructing models

More information

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization

More information

The Rock Cycle: Metamorphic, Sedimentary, and Igneous Rocks

The Rock Cycle: Metamorphic, Sedimentary, and Igneous Rocks The Rock Cycle: Metamorphic, Sedimentary, and Igneous Rocks Intended for Grade: 3 Subject: Science Description: This presentation teaches students about the properties and formation of each of the three

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness : Finding Clues Like a Scientist Author: Kris Poduska Date Created: 2000 Subject: Earth Science, Classification Level: Elementary and Middle School Standards: New York State- Intermediate Science (www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/)

More information

1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

More information

Roadstone - which rock? Investigating the best rock type for the wearing course of roads

Roadstone - which rock? Investigating the best rock type for the wearing course of roads Roadstone - which rock? Investigating the best rock type for the wearing course of roads Roads are made of various types of rock aggregate (crushed rock fragments). Quarries provide the aggregate used

More information

Carbonate Rock Formation

Carbonate Rock Formation Limestone, dolomite (or dolostone), and marble are often collectively referred to as carbonate rocks because the main mineral is calcite. The chemical name of calcite is calcium carbonate. Limestone, dolomite,

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

LESSON PLAN FOR ROCKS AND MINERALS. Episode Six 306 Street Science (Earth Science)

LESSON PLAN FOR ROCKS AND MINERALS. Episode Six 306 Street Science (Earth Science) LESSON PLAN FOR ROCKS AND MINERALS Episode Six 306 Street Science (Earth Science) Science lessons come easily if you are along a stream bed or road cut. All around you are examples of sedimentary rocks,

More information

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I.

1. You are about to begin a unit on geology. Can anyone tell me what geology is? The study of the physical earth I. PLATE TECTONICS ACTIVITY The purpose of this lab is to introduce the concept of plate tectonics and the formation of mountains. Students will discuss the properties of the earth s crust and plate tectonics.

More information

Hardness Comparisons

Hardness Comparisons Hardness Comparisons Hardness Adapted from: An original Creek Connections activity. Creek Connections, Box 10, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania 16335. Grade Level: all Duration: 50 minutes Setting:

More information

Granite. A Rocky Journey and Talking Rocks Role play and sorting clues.

Granite. A Rocky Journey and Talking Rocks Role play and sorting clues. A Rocky Journey and Talking Rocks Role play and sorting clues. Granite I am grey or sometimes pink in colour. I am made up of big coarse particles. I have big crystals in me. People use me for buildings

More information

Science Rocks Grade Six

Science Rocks Grade Six Ohio Standards Connections: Earth and Space Sciences Benchmark D Identify that the lithosphere contains rocks and minerals and that minerals make up rocks. Describe how rocks and minerals are formed and/or

More information

1. Foliation or schistose textures are easily seen in rocks consisting of. 2. Which of these tectonic settings will be hottest at 20km depth?

1. Foliation or schistose textures are easily seen in rocks consisting of. 2. Which of these tectonic settings will be hottest at 20km depth? 2nd Midterm Questions Metamorphic Rocks 1. Foliation or schistose textures are easily seen in rocks consisting of. a. framework silicates (quartz, feldspar) b. platy minerals (micas) c. chain-silicates

More information

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Deposited at the earth s surface by wind, water, glacier ice, or biochemical processes Typically deposited in strata (layers) under cool surface conditions. This is

More information

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. LAB: Plotting

More information

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning the shapes of volcanoes. LAB: Experimenting with "lava." POST: Comparing

More information

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia-

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Minerals are the natural material that every inorganic material on planet Earth is composed of. They are the foundation of both our planet and most

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

1. A student found a sample of a solid material that was gray, shiny and made of all the same material. What category does this sample best fit?

1. A student found a sample of a solid material that was gray, shiny and made of all the same material. What category does this sample best fit? Grade 4 Standard 3 Unit Test A Earth Materials Multiple Choice 1. A student found a sample of a solid material that was gray, shiny and made of all the same material. What category does this sample best

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton

Sedimentary Rocks. Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton Sedimentary Rocks Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton Erosion Erosion is a natural process where rocks and soil are Broken and Moved We will focus on 4 types of erosion; Wind, Rain, Ice and

More information

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment

Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment Fourth Grade Geology: The Earth and Its Changes Assessment 1a. What is the center layer of the Earth called? a. crust b. core c. mantle d. middle 1b. Label each layer of the Earth. 1c. What are the Earth

More information

Chapter 2. Igneous Rocks

Chapter 2. Igneous Rocks Chapter 2 Igneous Rocks Most students find the definition of a mineral to be rather long and cumbersome. In contrast, the definition of a rock is short and sweet. A rock is any naturally occurring aggregate

More information

Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles

Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles Page 1 of 19 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles This page last updated on 31-Aug-2016 Objectives Since this course is

More information

Key concepts of rocks and soil

Key concepts of rocks and soil Rocks and soil Introduction It is by no means necessary to be a geological expert to implement a worthwhile study of rocks and soil at primary school level. Rocks and soil are not difficult to collect,

More information

Assessment Plan for Geology 101 Lab (Online)

Assessment Plan for Geology 101 Lab (Online) Plan for Geology 101 Lab (Online) John Turbeville, Earth Sciences MiraCosta College Description of course: This is an optional companion laboratory course for Geology 101, which is a survey level class.

More information

What are the controls for calcium carbonate distribution in marine sediments?

What are the controls for calcium carbonate distribution in marine sediments? Lecture 14 Marine Sediments (1) The CCD is: (a) the depth at which no carbonate secreting organisms can live (b) the depth at which seawater is supersaturated with respect to calcite (c) the depth at which

More information

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle What is the difference between a Rock and a Mineral? Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a definite chemical

More information

TYPES OF ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE

TYPES OF ROCKS & THE ROCK CYCLE Visit http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/index.html to complete the following questions and activities. TYPES OF ROCKS: 1. Click on TYPES OF ROCKS. Read the information on the webpage and answer

More information

Metamorphic rocks from the middle of the crust Quad Creek area, MT. Image: Darrell Henry

Metamorphic rocks from the middle of the crust Quad Creek area, MT. Image: Darrell Henry Introduction to Metamorphism (Chapter 21) Metamorphic rocks from the middle of the crust Quad Creek area, MT. Image: Darrell Henry IUGS-SCMR SCMR definition n of metamorphism Folded marble in the Campolungo

More information

FIFTH GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WEEK 1. PRE: Describing a chemical reaction. LAB: Illustrating how molecules move. POST: Comparing salt and sugar crystals. ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF

More information

INTRODUCTION TO TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS

INTRODUCTION TO TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS Presented at Short Course IX on Exploration for Geothermal Resources, Organized by UNU-GTP, GDC and KenGen, at Lake Bogoria and Lake Naivasha, Kenya, Nov. 2-24, 2014. Kenya Electricity Generating Co.,

More information