1 Lab Activity on Minerals 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction Rocks are made of many mineral grains stuck together. These individual mineral grains range in size from microscopic to several feet in diameter. Unfortunately for earth scientists, most mineral grains are quite small (that's why they're called grains ). In this lab, we will look at very large mineral grains and/or rocks made of small grains of just one mineral. These specimens will illustrate the basic physical properties of minerals exceptionally well. Once you have mastered the ability to identify the minerals in these exceptional specimens, you will learn to identify smaller mineral grains embedded in ordinary rocks. This skill is important because many rocks are classified by the minerals that they contain. We will spend two activity sessions on this lab. Objectives When you have completed this lab you should be able to 1. distinguish different kinds of minerals in the same rock. 2. determine the following types of physical properties of minerals: hardness, fracture, cleavage, streak, luster, reaction to acid, taste, and double refraction. 3. use these physical properties to identify 11 common minerals: amphibole chlorite halite quartz calcite feldspar iron oxides (rust) serpentine clay garnet mica Activity #1: Analysis of Cookies The ingredients of rocks are called minerals. Some rocks are made of just one type of mineral, but most rocks are made of several different types of minerals, all jumbled together. To ease you into the process of distinguishing minerals in rocks, you will first analyze and distinguish the ingredients in something much more familiar to you--cookies. Materials: 4 different cookies per group toothpicks paper towels Activity: 1. Break each cookie into pieces so that each member of the group gets a piece of each cookie. 2. Use the toothpicks to carefully pick the cookies apart and analyze how the four cookies are similar and how they are different. * Supported by NSF Grant # Permission is granted to reproduce this material for classroom use. B 31
2 B 32 Lab Activity on Minerals Questions: 1. Classify the cookies; i.e. give each cookie a name that clearly conveys what kind of cookie it is so that someone who couldn't see the cookie would instantly have a good understanding of what kind of cookie it is. Everyone in the group should agree to each of the names. Cookie #1: Cookie #2: Cookie #3: Cookie #4: 2. Write down all the ingredients that you think are in the cookies, including any ingredients you know are in there but you can't see. 3. Which ingredients can still be physically separated from the others? In other words, which ingredients still have their individual identities? 4. Apply this cookie analogy to rocks: Describe the relationships, in terms of ingredients, among rocks, minerals, and chemical elements. 5. Write down what you think might be the history of how the cookies were made. Include your best guesses as to when the cookies were made and what processes the ingredients went through to make the cookies.
3 Lab Activity on Minerals B 33 Activity #2: Analysis of Two Igneous Rocks Introduction: The basic ingredients of rocks are called minerals. All minerals have a crystalline structure. In other words, the atoms that make up minerals are arranged in regular geometric patterns. In all specimens of the same mineral (quartz, for example), the internal geometric arrangement of the atoms is the same. However, it is possible for the outsides of two crystals of the same mineral to have quite different shapes, especially if they bumped into other crystals as they grew (for example, not all quartz crystals have a perfect six-sided prism shape). All specimens of the same mineral have a similar chemical composition. That is, all minerals can be broken up into ingredients called elements (some examples of elements are silicon, oxygen, and iron). There is some variation in the numbers and kinds of elements that make up minerals, just as there is some variation in the ingredients in chocolate chips, but that variation is within a limited range. Materials: Two igneous rocks, labeled A and B Activity: Carefully examine the two rocks. Questions: 1. Rocks A and B are both of the same type of igneous rock. What type of rock are they? 2. Are rocks A and B plutonic or volcanic? How do you know? 3. Even though rocks A and B are similar enough to be considered the same type of rock, there are some differences. Describe these differences as clearly and accurately as you can. 4. Each rock contains three major types of minerals. Describe the color, shape and other characteristics of any major mineral(s) that the two rocks have in common:
4 B 34 Lab Activity on Minerals 5. Describe the color, shape and other characteristics of any major mineral(s) found in one of the rocks but not in the other. Activity #3: First Attempt at Identifying Which Minerals are in a Rock Materials: Two rocks, labeled A and B 12 minerals *, labeled as follows: 1) quartz 7) halite 13) chlorite 2) quartz 8) calcite 14) serpentine 3) quartz 9) calcite 15) amphibole 4) feldspar 10) clay 16) garnet 5) feldspar 11) mica 17) iron oxides (rust) 6) feldspar 12) mica 18) olivine Activity: As best you can, match the three most common minerals in rocks A and B to the numbered mineral samples in the boxes. If you aren't sure (we fully expect you not to be sure at this point), list all of the possibilities. Minerals in Rock A: Minerals in Rock B: * There are multiple examples of some minerals; you WILL NOT be asked to distinguish among multiple examples of the same mineral. We gave you several examples of some minerals so that you could see some of the variety within those mineral types.
5 Lab Activity on Minerals B 35 Lab Activity #4: Refining Our Ability to Identify Minerals Color Background Information: Color is an obvious property of minerals, but it is generally not a reliable property to use for identification. Small amounts of impurities can change the color of a mineral, especially if the mineral tends to be clear when pure. For example, quartz can be clear, white, pink, purple, gray, black or almost any color you can think of. However, for some minerals, color doesn't vary much at all; so it can be safely used to help identify the mineral. Materials: minerals as listed below Activity: Note the colors of these minerals. Mineral amphibole Color chlorite serpentine olivine Lab Activity #5: Refining Our Ability to Identify Minerals Hardness Background Information: Hardness is a measure of scratchibility. Diamonds are harder than glass; if you scrape a diamond across a piece of glass, the diamond will leave a scratch mark on the glass (so will many other minerals, as you will soon see). If you scrape a piece of glass across a diamond, the glass will powder and, perhaps, leave a mark; but that mark is easily rubbed off. Another effect of the differences in hardness is that the glass will skate easily across the diamond, whereas the diamond resists being scraped across the glass. Materials: The minerals listed below Piece of window glass (Hardness = 5.5) Copper penny (Hardness = 3.0) Fingernail (Hardness 2 2.5) Activity: Following the step-by-step procedure described on the next page, determine the hardness of the minerals listed here. For these minerals, hardness is an important diagnostic property (i.e. a physical property that makes it easy to diagnose the presence of the mineral). Mineral Hardness Mineral Hardness amphibole halite calcite clay feldspar mica quartz serpentine garnet
6 B 36 Lab Activity on Minerals Step 1: Place the piece of glass flat on the lab table. With some pressure, drag the mineral specimen across the piece of glass. Rub off any powder that may have formed. If no mark remains, go to step 2. If a mark remains, the mineral has scratched the glass because it is harder than the glass; i.e. it has a hardness greater than 5.5. Write > 5.5 on the appropriate line of the table above. Go on to the next specimen. Step 2: If the specimen does not scratch the glass, the mineral is softer than glass and has a hardness of less than 5.5. Drag the mineral specimen across the copper penny. If the mineral fails to scratch the penny, go to step 3. If the mineral scratches the penny, its hardness is between that of a penny and a piece of glass (between 3 and 5.5). Write between 3 and 5.5 on the appropriate line of the table above. Go on to the next specimen. Step 3: If the mineral cannot scratch a penny, its hardness is less than 3. Try to scratch the mineral with your fingernail. If you're successful, the hardness of the specimen is less than 2.5. Write <2.5 on the appropriate line of the table above. If you fail to scratch the specimen, its hardness is between 2.5 and 3. Write between 2.5 and 3 on the appropriate line of the table above. Go on to the next specimen. Question: Try to use hardness and color combined to narrow down your choices of the minerals that could be in rocks A and B? What possibilities have you eliminated? Lab Activity #6: Refining Our Ability to Identify Minerals How a Single Crystal of a Mineral Breaks (Cleavage vs. Fracture) Background Information: Read about cleavage and fracture on p. 27 in the textbook and study Figures 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9. Watch the segment on cleavage in the videotape Rocks that Originate Underground. Additional Information: The concept of the characteristic cleavage of a mineral applies only to how a single crystal (or a fragment of a single crystal) behaves. For minerals such as clay, serpentine and iron oxides, which tend to form tiny microscopic crystals, the terms cleavage and fracture do not apply because we can't see how a single crystal breaks. A mineral may cleave in some directions and fracture in others. It is very easy to confuse cleavage surfaces (perfectly planar surfaces along which the crystal broke) with crystal faces (the edges of the crystal as it grew). Common minerals will have, at most, three cleavage directions. Those cleavage directions will generally form angles of around 60, 90 or 120. If there are three directions, those three directions will tend to form a box shape, never a pencil shape. In addition, a true cleavage surface will often have lots of surfaces parallel to it; all those surfaces will reflect light at the same angle, so that all those parallel surfaces will light up as you turn the mineral and catch the light at just the right angle. Materials: Bulk unlabeled samples of quartz, halite and calcite (not the nice ones in the boxes) Rock hammer Goggles Zip-loc bag Labeled mineral specimens in boxes
7 Lab Activity on Minerals B 37 Activity: 1. Obtain unlabeled samples of quartz, halite and calcite (Please do not bash the labeled samples in the boxes). 2. Examine and then break the unlabeled samples as follows: a. Before you break each sample, sketch it in the appropriate box of the table on the next page, so that you remember what it looked like. b. One at a time, place each mineral specimen in the Zip-loc bag and hit it with the rock hammer until it breaks. c. Sketch the broken pieces in the appropriate box of the table below. d. Describe how the mineral broke (did it cleave or fracture or both?) e. Try to break one piece of each mineral again, in a different direction. Continue this process until you have determined the number of cleavage directions for each of the three minerals. Note the angles between the directions of cleavage ( 90 or not 90 ). 3. Examine the mineral samples in the boxes, but don't break any of them. Most have already been broken. Describe any cleavage and/or fracture of each mineral listed in the tables. Fill in the appropriate boxes in the tables on the next page. Question: Try to use color, hardness, cleavage or fracture to narrow down your choices of the minerals that could be in rocks A and B. What possibilities have you eliminated? Bashing Unlabeled Bulk Mineral Specimens Before Sketch After Sketch Does it cleave or not? # of cleavage directions and angle between them ( 90 or not 90 ) quartz halite calcite
8 B 38 Lab Activity on Minerals Examining (No Bashing!) Labeled Mineral Specimens in Boxes Does it cleave or not? # of cleavage directions and angle between them ( 90 or not 90 ) feldspar mica chlorite amphibole Lab Activity #7: Special Properties of Some Minerals Materials Needed: mineral specimens unglazed white ceramic tile small bottles of 10% hydrochloric acid Procedure: For each mineral characteristic below, record your observations under Luster or Other Characteristics, as appropriate, on your mineral study sheets. (See p. 26 in the textbook) Describe the luster of each mineral (suggested terms: glassy, dull, pearly) and record on the mineral study sheets. Double Refraction: Place all of the clear specimens on a page of paper with writing on it. Look at the writing through the specimen and check for double images (caused by double refraction). Note any specimens that display double refraction. Taste: Lightly place your tongue on the halite. Note its strong taste. Reaction to Acid: Acid reacts with some minerals, vigorously dissolving them and releasing a gas. When we put acid on these minerals, we hear a fizz and see bubbles. The calcite is the only mineral in our boxes that reacts to acid. Place a drop of dilute hydrochloric acid on the calcite specimen that is milky (not the pretty clear one, please--you'll cloud it up); note the reaction. Streak: (See p. 27 in the textbook) The only mineral in our boxes with a characteristic streak is the iron oxide. Rub the iron oxide over a white unglazed tile. Note the color of the powder. Crystal Form: When a crystal grows freely without bumping into other nearby crystals, it develops a characteristic shape. Two of the mineral samples in the boxes have nicely formed crystals with characteristic shapes: quartz and garnet. Carefully examine your garnet and quartz samples and label each diagram on the right with the appropriate mineral name.
9 Lab Activity on Minerals B 39 Lab Activity #8: Identifying Minerals in Rocks Introduction: You now have a bag of tricks for using the physical properties of minerals to identify them. It is time to go back to the igneous rocks and use these physical properties to make certain that our identification of the minerals in rocks A and B is correct and to take on the more challenging task of identifying the minerals in rocks O and W (the other rocks are all too fine grained or too dark to pick out the minerals in them). Activity: Identify the minerals in the igneous rocks A, B, O and W. Minerals in Rock A: Minerals in Rock B: Minerals in Rock O: Mineral in Rock W:
10 B 40 Lab Activity on Minerals Lab Activity #9: Summarizing Mineral Properties Complete one box (below and on the following pages) for each mineral you have studied.
11 Lab Activity on Minerals B 41
12 B 42 Lab Activity on Minerals
13 Lab Activity on Minerals B 43 The Properties of Several Common Minerals Mineral/Composition 1 Hardness Cleavage Color(s) Occurrence 2 Comments Amphibole Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca Na, O, H Calcite CaCO directions at 60 and 120 to each other 3 directions, not at 90 to each other Black Colorless, white, pink, gray I, M S, M Crystals are often elongate when found in rocks. Can be difficult to distinguish from black mica, but it has two cleavage directions (not one) and does not flake off. See Figure 1.13 on p. 33 in the textbook. Glassy luster. Clear crystals display double refraction. Will dissolve in dilute hydrochloric acid, releasing bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. Calcite is the major mineral in limestone and marble. Chlorite Mg, Fe, Si, Al, O, H direction Various shades of green M Very similar to mica, but chlorite is always green. Large crystals are very rare (we were lucky to find some). Clay Si, Al, Na, K, O, H Not applicable (individual crystals too small to see) White, gray S Earthy luster. Formed by hydration (a type of chemical weathering) of many kinds of minerals, especially feldspar and mica. Feldspar Si, Al, Ca, K, Na, O 6 2 directions at 90 to each other White, gray, pink, light green, black I, M, S See Figure 1.13 on p. 33 in the textbook. One direction of cleavage is often better than the other. Garnet Si, O, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, and more None; displays conchoidal fracture Dark red, light green, tan M, I (rare) Glassy luster. Often in well-formed crystals with 12 sides. Some sides are diamond-shaped. 1 2 See Table 1.2 on p. 24 of the textbook for full names of elements. Elements not in Table 1.2: S = sulfur; H = hydrogen, C = carbon, Cl = chlorine I denotes igneous rocks; S denotes sedimentary rocks; M denotes metamorphic rocks
14 B 44 Lab Activity on Minerals The Properties of Several Common Minerals, Continued Mineral/Composition 1 Hardness Cleavage Color(s) Occurrence 2 Comments Halite NaCl Iron Oxide Fe, O Mica Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, O H Olivine (Mg, Fe) SiO directions at 90 to each other None; usually the crystals are too small to see if there is cleavage or not 1 direction None Colorless, white gray Usually brick red; can be red-brown, yellow, or lead gray (colors sometimes mixed) Black, brown, gold, silver, clear Light green S S, I (rare) I, M, S (rare) I See Figure 1.13 on p. 33 in the textbook. Glassy luster. Salty taste (table salt is powdered halite). Usually has an earthy luster. Has a red or yellow streak. Can have a metallic luster (when it does, its color is lead gray). Many iron-rich minerals oxidize (a type of chemical weathering) to form iron oxide. See Figure 1.7 on p. 27 in the textboook. Occurs as books, sheets are elastic (you can bend them but they bounce back). Cleavage surfaces are very shiny, they look almost like metal. Glassy luster. Transparent. Common in mafic and ultramafic rocks. The transparent gem variety is known is peridot. Quartz SiO 2 Serpentine Si, Fe, Mg, O, H None; shows very nice conchoidal fracture None; has gentlycurved cleavagelike surfaces Clear when pure; can be tinted any color. Purple is amethyst; pink is rose quartz Various shades of green to black I, M, S M See Figures 1.6B (p. 26) and 1.9 (p. 28) in the textbook. Has a very glassy luster. Well-formed crystals have a distinctive 6-sided prism shape. Slippery feel. The California state rock is serpentinite, a rock made of almost 100% serpentine. Serpentine forms when water combines with olivine in mafic and ultramafic rock (in other words; the mafic or ultramafic rock undergoes metamorphism)
15 Lab Activity on Minerals B 45 Minerals in Igneous Rocks Composition Overall Color Most grains Microscopic All grains large enough to see 100% 75% Cream, Pink and/or Light Gray Granite Feldspar White or Pink 50% 25% 0% Felsic (High in Si) Intermediate Mafic (Low in Si) Gray to Black Quartz Dark Gray to Black Rhyolite Basalt Gabbro Mica Olivine Names of Rocks Minerals in The rocks Amphibole and Pyroxene (another black mineral) Special Textures of Some Volcanic Rocks (terms used as adjectives for the above rock names) Porphyritic: a mixture of microscopic crystals and crystals large enough to see. Vesicular: containing large rounded holes (frozen gas bubbles). Volcanic Rocks that contain no Minerals (They are made of disordered atoms, i.e. glass) Obsidian: black, gray or red-brown; glassy. Contains no crystals. Usually has felsic composition. Pumice: gray, full of holes, very lightweight, spun glass. Usually has felsic composition.
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ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference