Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks. Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure

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1 Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure Geologist: a person who studies the Earth and the materials of which it is made Property: something you can observe such as size, color, shape or texture Dimensions Circumference: the distance around a circular object Diameter: the distance across a circular object Depth: how thick an object is from top to bottom Measurement Tools Meter Tape: measures linear (in a line) dimensions Balance: measures mass (how much stuff there is) Weigh: what you do to find out how much mass is in something Mass: how much stuff there is in something What properties can help us tell one rock from another? Shape, size, color and texture

2 How can you tell your mock rock from another mock rock or a real rock? A real rock would look very different in a lot of ways; a different mock rock could have different colors and different stuff in different places Why do geologists try to look carefully at the different properties? To identify different rocks How can we make comparisons of the different sizes of rock? Compare side by side but when that is not possible, we can use measurements Investigation 1-Part 2: Taking Rocks Apart Rock: an Earth material made up of different ingredients called minerals Mineral: an ingredient of rocks that cannot be broken down any further, every piece of a mineral is that mineral What is the difference between rocks and minerals? Rocks are made up of different materials; minerals are made up of only one How can the minerals in a rock be separated? Rocks can be broken apart to separate minerals; also water can be used to separate out some minerals

3 Investigation 1-Part 3: Observing Crystals Crystal: the solid form of a material that can be identified by its shape or pattern Evaporates: when a liquid breaks up into small parts and goes up into the air How were you able to separate the salt from the water? Evaporation How did you know that the square crystals were salt? They looked like salt crystals Investigation 2-Part 1: Scratch Test No New Words What is a mineral? An Earth material that has only one type of substance in it; that specific mineral What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

4 A rock has a lot of different minerals in it; minerals have only that mineral in it If someone sent you a letter and said they needed your help to identify a mineral that they had found, and they told you it was about the size of their fist, would you be able to identify it? No, you can t use size to identify a mineral; you need to use many properties to identify a mineral like color, texture, etc. Investigation 2-Part 2: Testing For Hardness Quartz: a hard mineral Gypsum: a softer mineral Calcite: a mineral with a boxy shape Fluorite: a mineral somewhat green in color What do we mean when we say a mineral has certain hardness? A mineral s resistance to being scratched If you didn t have any tools, how could you learn if one mineral was harder than another? You can use one mineral to try to scratch the other; whichever one scratches the other is the harder mineral

5 Investigation 3-Part 1: Calcite Quest Basalt: a type of rock Limestone: a type of rock Marble: a type of rock that can be used to make countertops, windowsills and other things Sandstone: a type of rock Vinegar: an acid that can be used to detect calcite Acid: a liquid that can cause a reaction Why are we testing for calcite in several rocks? Calcite is one of the most common minerals on Earth Why use vinegar to test for calcite? Calcite is the ONLY mineral that bubbles when it comes into contact with cold acid Investigation 3-Part 2: Calcite Quest Evidence: something that proves something

6 Why did we have to do two tests before we could decide which rocks contained calcite? Some of the vials had bubbling that looked confusing so we had to do other testing Why did we evaporate the liquid in the second test? To get further evidence of whether or not it contained Calcite Investigation 4-Part 1: Take It for Granite Granite: a rock made up of several minerals; feldspar, hornblende, mica and quartz Feldspar: a mineral Hornblende: a mineral Mica: a mineral that can flake What is the rock granite made up of? Granite is made up of feldspar, hornblende, mica and quartz

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