STAGE 5: Interacting Systems

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1 Stage 5: In this stage, students will explore how systems interact with each other to maintain healthy and optimal body functioning, including how the body responds to changes in the environment such as with stress. Students will focus on the Circulatory, Respiratory, and Nervous s and their interactions. In the Welcome section, students are asked to think about how different systems work together. They draw a diagram showing how the systems interact. Lesson 1: The Circulatory parts and functions of the Circulatory. Warm- up: Students discuss the similarities, parts, and functions of a water pump, a pizza delivery service, an e- mail message and the circulatory system. Read & Discover: Students read about the main functions of the circulatory system. Check it Out: Students watch the BrainPOP video Blood and take the test at the end. Bring it to Life: Students make a model of blood using common materials. Check it Out: Students watch two BrainPOP videos that describe the heart and the route taken by blood. What do you Say?: Students play a game that focuses on the different components of the circulatory system. Help students see analogy between pump, delivery service, message, and the circulatory system. [Answer: All have different parts that work together as a system. Each system sends something from one place to another.] Answer questions as needed. If there is time, students can complete related BrainPOP quizzes and activities. Before class, get these materials: Plastic (sandwich) bag to be the plasma Small materials (e.g., erasers, rubber bands, paperclips, beads, cotton balls) Paper Markers and/or colored pencils If there is time, students can complete related BrainPOP quizzes and activities. Make sure students have an understanding of the analogies of pizza delivery service, e- mail, and pump as the Circulatory before beginning the game. The Circulatory transports important nutrients and waste throughout the body. The heart controls the movement of blood through the system. The Circulatory is made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Its primary function is to carry needed substances to cells and carry waste products away from cells. Blood contains plasma, white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Respiratory Circulatory Nervous Nutrients Function Multicellular Interacts Blood White Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Vessels Chambers Aorta Valve Atrium Capillaries Veins Arteries

2 Lesson 2: Interaction of the Circulatory and Respiratory s Respiratory and its organs. In addition, students learn how the Circulatory and Respiratory s work together. First, students think about how the Respiratory functions in their lives. Warm- up: Students answer simple questions in their notebook about why we need to breathe and the role of the Respiratory. Check it out: Students watch a BrainPOP video titled Respiratory and revise their answers from the warm- up. Bring it to Life: Students create their own lung models. Have the class name as many parts of the Respiratory they already know about. Ask students to predict how the Respiratory and Circulatory s work together. Students can complete related BrainPOP quizzes and activities if there is time. Present a model to students and have them create their own. Provide these materials/team: 1 empty 500ml drink bottle (clear without sport cap), drinking straw, balloon water balloon (or another normal size balloon) scissors, tape small piece of blu- tac or plasticine. The Respiratory and the Circulatory work together to transfer oxygen from the outside environment into the body, via the blood. The Respiratory and Circulatory work together to remove carbon dioxide waste from the cells of the body. Respiratory Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Lungs Interact Pulse Heartbeat Now You Try!: Students discuss questions about oxygen with their group. Then students do a lab activity and write an explanation of what happens during the activity in their notebooks. Check in with groups to ensure that students are remaining safe during the lab activity.

3 Lesson 3: The Nervous Nervous and how it interacts with all the systems in the body. Warm- up: Students think about times when their bodies have used reflexes and think about why their bodies would react that way. Read & Discover: Different types of neurons and the two types of nervous systems are presented. Check It Out: After watching the BrainPOP video titled Nervous, students answer questions in their notebooks. Provide other examples or ask students for other examples of reflexes as a whole class (e.g., touching a hot surface makes you pull your hand back; hearing your name makes you listen) Ask students to give examples of neurons (e.g., hearing the phone uses sensory neuron; interneuron tells motor neuron to react; motor neuron lets you pick up phone and talk) If there is extra time remember to ask students to complete the other BrainPOP activities that go along with the video. There are three types of neurons: sensory, motor, and interneurons. Sensory neurons help your senses. Motor neurons make you move. Interneurons send messages between sensory and motor neurons. Reflexes Stimuli Nerves Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons Central Nervous Peripheral Nervous Stimulate Bring It to Life: Students complete an interactive where they choose different stimuli to see how the brain and other organs respond. Now You Try: Students conduct a lab on the Nervous by measuring reaction time. You can project the interactive and show each of the ways the stimuli makes the brain respond and facilitate discussion. Before class get these materials for each group: 1 plastic cup with hole 1 lid with hole for cup 1 dowel (35 cm) response timer strips clothes pin half- sheet of paper lab sheet (in student content) Help students to assemble their experiment. There are two nervous systems in the body: Peripheral and Central Nervous s. The Central Nervous is made up of the brain and spinal cord; the Peripheral Nervous includes all other nerve cells.

4 Lesson 4: s Responding to the Environment After reading about how stress can impact the human body, students write their own examples of how different body systems may respond to a change in the environment. Warm- up: Students complete an online survey about stress in their lives. Read and Discover: Students read about how stress affects their body. Check it Out: Students visit a website called Goose Bumps to read about the physical changes the body undergoes during stress, and then create a diagram of the systems that interact during stress. As a whole class, have students name things that cause them stress and how their bodies respond. Help students connect the Nervous and Circulatory s (i.e., stress makes your heart pump faster to give more oxygen to body). Have a few students share and explain their drawings for the class. *Instructions for optional lesson below. Body systems interact to help the body respond to changes in the environment such as exercise, altitude, and stress. Stress Nervous Forum consequences of smoking and other lifestyle choices. Students write a paragraph about what they think happens when one of our systems isn't working right because of illness, lifestyle choices or environmental factors. Students provide specific examples to illustrate their point and then post their paragraph to the forum. Discuss the image of the overcrowded bus. People wanting to get in represent Oxygen. The bus represents a Red Blood Cell. The seats are taken by Carbon Monoxide (from smoking). Explain how systems are impacted by smoking: Tar makes the cilia clump together so that it can t sweep away mucus causing build- up and coughing (Respiratory impact). Carbon monoxide sticks to red blood cells, so the red blood cells can t carry as much oxygen (Circulatory impact). Nicotine is a drug that makes the heart beat faster and blood pressure rises. Nicotine also produces an addiction and dependence (Nervous and Circulatory s impact). Tobacco smoke has three deadly chemicals (tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine). Tar Nicotine Carbon Monoxide Concentrated Molecules Red Blood Cells Heart disease Nutrition

5 Stage 5 Lesson 4: Stimuli Interactive Purpose: In Stimulus and Response the students will Observe the bones, joints, and muscles that move when the hand and foot respond. Investigate the effect of practice on response time. Investigate response time when the stimulus is nonvisual (auditory ad tactile) Overview: In Stimulus and Response the students work with a falling cup device to investigate response time. One student holds a cup poised to fall; another student places her dominant hand under the cup. When the responding student sees the cup start to fall, she pulls her hand our of the way. The students take turns responding to the falling cup, recording results in order to determine the minimum distance from which an object can be released and still allows the responding student to avoid being hit. They then explore their hands and feet. Finally the students repeat a set of investigations after practicing and evaluate the effect practice has on response time. Materials: For each pair of students: * 1 plastic cup with hole * 1 lid for the cup with hole * 1 dowel, 35 cm * clothes pins (1 per pair) * half sheet of paper * 2 student lab sheets for Stimulus/Response data * Response timer strips For each team of students (4) * 1 meter tape For the class * 1 pair of scissors * transparent tape

6 Assembly of Falling Cup Device: a. Snap a lid with hole on a cup with hole. b. Slide a long dowle through the holes so that the cup with its lid can slide freely up and down. c. Hold the stick in a vertical position on a desk top with the cup bottom side up. d. Attach a clothes pin to the dowel above the cup to limit how high the cup can be raised above the desktop. The Activity 1. Review Movement. Ask the students to review the systems in their bodies that come into play when they move. (Skeleton, joints, muscles) When all of these systems work together to provide movement, it is called coordination. 2. Introduce Stimulus. Tell students that coordinated movements of the human body don't happen by themselves. Movements are directed by the central nervous system - the brain, spinal column, and nerves. The central nervous system gets information from the outside through special systems called senses. (sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell). When sensory input triggers an action, that input is a stimulus. Discuss different kinds of stimuli (e.g., hot and cold, pain, touch, sight, sound, smell, taste). 3. Demonstrate the falling cup. Bring out the falling cup device with the clothes pin at the top of the dowel. Place it on a desktop in ready position. Tell the students to imagine that the cup is filled with cement and likely to slide down the dowel at any moment. Release the cup and show how quickly it can fall to the desktop. Ask for a volunteer to place a hand on the desktop right next to the dowel. Stress that the responding student's fingers must be touching the dowel. Ask the class, "Do you think she will be able to get her hand out of the way when she sees the cup fall?" Tell the volunteer to pull her hand away when she sees the cup begin to fall. Release the cup and let the student respond. In all likelihood, she will withdraw her hand before being hit. 4. Introduce Response. Reinforce that the sight of the cup falling was the stimulus that started the student moving. Explain that the action of pulling a hand out of the way is the response. 5. Begin the Falling Cup Investigation a. Allow time for Free exploration of materials. b. Discuss refining the release. Have all students measure where they start their clothes pin so they can always start from the same position. You may also tape a half sheet of paper to the cup to shield the release of the cup.

7 c. Establish a Standard Release Height- Ask team members to ask 1 minute to discuss at what height the cup should be set so that it is a challenge to get their hand out of the way consistently. Then poll the groups. Write their suggested heights on the board and average them. Use the average as the standard release height for further investigations. d. Introduce the student sheet. It is time to gather data comparing the response of their left and right hands. e. Describe data recording. After the students have filled in their names and the date, give the following instructions. The stimulus (vision) and the response (right hand) have been filled in for the first data box. Fill in the height of the drop. In this case the standard release height you established should be recorded. One person is the cup releaser; the other is the responder. Each time the responder's hand is hit, an X is recorded in the hit column; misses are recorded in the miss column. Allow students to conduct the investigation. They may record other response times after completing the student sheet. (feet, left hand etc.) 6. Review the Results Which body part responds quickest to the falling cup? (HAND) Which is slowest? (FOOT) Why might that be the case? (DISTANCE FOR THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD) Is there anything you can do to improve your response time? (PRACTICE AND CONCENTRATE) 7. Challenge: Record your data for the experiment on your Vital Signs Spreadsheet. Make sure all members on the team are included. Compare your answers to those of students from other geographical locations. Are there any marked differences or similarities? If so, can you give an explanation for them? How might this result from this lab experiment differ from "Gotta Have a Heart" "Lung Capacity" with regards to other populations? Report your results and comments at the next lab session.

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