# Explore architectural design and act as architects to create a floor plan of a redesigned classroom.

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1 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AT A GLANCE Explore architectural design and act as architects to create a floor plan of a redesigned classroom. OBJECTIVES: Students will: Use prior knowledge to discuss functions of various architectural structures. Understand the difference between the job of an architect and the job of an engineer. Explain what a floor plan is and how architects use them. Be able to draw a floor plan to scale. Create a floor plan of their classroom. KEY VOCABULARY Architect, Engineer, Floor Plan, Scale Drawing, Dimension Line NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS Science and Engineering Practices: Asking questions and defining problems Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations and designing solutions Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information CROSSCUTTING CONCEPTS Patterns Cause and effect Scale, proportion and quantity DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS Patterns Cause and effect Scale, proportion and quantity PACE YOURSELF: Two 60-minute periods ADVANCE PREPARATION 1. Copy the Architectural Design Student Worksheet for each student as well as several graph sheet pages. 2. Make sure there are enough materials for each pair of students to have a ruler, meter stick, tape measurer, plain paper and graph paper. MATERIALS Per pair: At least five pictures of different buildings Pencil Ruler Meter stick Tape measure 3-4 sheets of graph paper 3-4 sheets of plain paper WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW The job of architects and engineers involves planning and designing structures and then overseeing their construction. Architects create drawings and designs that are used to give engineers the information they need to build structures. Drawing plans with pens, pencils or computers is called drafting. Architects decide on the size and shape of the structures they are designing and what materials should be used in the building of the structure. These designs need to be accurate so the engineers know exactly what to build. Such designs must take everything into account, including the purpose of the structure, the setting, materials being used and energy sources. Plans for structures must be very detailed using exact measurements. Architects draw and construct floor plans and models both by hand and by using sophisticated computer programs. A floor plan is a drawing that shows a room as seen from above. Everything looks flat when drawn in a floor plan. Architects use floor plans to design rooms or whole buildings. Floor plans usually show measurements (called dimension lines) for how long things are in real life. Dimension lines show the lengths of windows, walls, doorways, closets and distances between these objects. Floor plans must be drawn to scale which means reducing the size of a drawing so a whole room or building can fit on one piece of paper. Common scales 1

2 used are 1 inch = 1 foot or inch = 1 foot. Below is an illustration showing a simple floor plan of a bedroom drawn with dimension lines. Helpful vocabulary words and definitions: Architect - A person who plans and designs how a building looks; the art of the building. Engineer A person who plans the structure of a building including materials used and how the building will support its weight; the science of building. Floor plan A drawing that shows a room seen from above. Scale drawing - A drawing that represents a real object reduced in size. Dimension line A line showing a measurement in a scale drawing. 2

5 EXTENSIONS Ask students to write an essay describing a design for their perfect bedroom. If they could have a bedroom all to themselves and include anything they like, what would it look like? Students should include a drawing of the room. Have students do research on architects and engineers. What are the specific jobs of each of these careers? How are they similar? How are they different? Ask students to write a paper describing which career they feel they would be more suited for and why. Reading a floor plan is similar to reading a map. You need to understand measurements and scale. Have students search for architectural floor plans on the internet and examine them. In what scale did the architect design? What other details and measurements are important? Have students practice conversion skills by converting the floor plan measurements into the metric system. Have students draw a floor plan on cardstock, cut out all the furniture and movable objects, and rearrange them to make a new floor plan. How else could you arrange the room while including all the same features? The Incas built an incredible city called Machu Picchu. Show PBS NOVA s Ghosts of Machu Picchu Chapter 5: Remarkable Engineering. Discuss some of incredible feats of engineering, e.g. how to access fresh water that the Incas used to create this once thriving city. What types of tools did they use? 5

6 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDENT WORKSHEET NAME Floor plans can be drawn with pictures of the actual objects such as the following: Floor plans can also be line drawings:

7 Use the graph paper below to draw a detailed floor plan of your classroom.

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