# Switch & Circuit Prototypes

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1 Wire Diagram Switch & Circuit Prototypes The Light-House Build & Blueprint Student Experience Students use circuit schematics to create a wire diagram for their house. Students must get diagram approved by the city (teacher) in order to get project materials. Students receive essential project materials (listed below) and must build prototypes of their series and parallel lights circuits, including switches. They determine a way to power both prototyped circuits from the same voltage source. Students design and build a functional model of their "dream house." Minimum requirements: 2 lights in series, 3 wired in parallel, and 1 stand-alone light, powered from a 9V battery with individual off and on switches. Students create design poster showing wire diagram and blue building blueprint. Material -- Big Idea Connection to Culminating Activity Diagrams allow engineers, architects, and contractors to analyze the performance of a circuit before building it. The approved circuit diagram will guide the wiring of lights, switches, and voltage source in the house. For each student: 6 Christmas lights + wire 3 paper clips 6 brads Section of cardboard or foam core The three branches of lights are in parallel with each other so they may operate independently. The prototypes allow students to quickly test switches on their series and parallel circuits. Time One 55-min period One 55-min period The cart Engineering requires an planning, prototyping, and analysis. Blueprints are accuratelyscaled diagrams of structures or machines. -- Two 55-min periods, plus time (~1 week) for students to work on projects at home. Physics Electricity The Light-House Project CA Standards: PH5. a. Students know how to predict the voltage or current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors. PH5. b. Students know how to solve problems involving Ohm s law. PH5. c. Students know any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Students can calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation) in any resistive circuit element by using the formula Power = V (potential difference) x I (current) = I 2 R. These lessons are not intended to be a complete unit, but rather a learning activity guide for concept attainment. Teachers should supplement these lessons with appropriate reading material and problem sets. The idea and student handouts for the Light-House project were generously shared by Bree Barnett Dreyfuss, who teaches physics at Amador Valley High School in California.

2 Lesson Plans for Light-House Culminating Project Prior Knowledge: Students know the requirements for a circuit (closed, conducting loop & voltage source) Students can create circuits with resistors in parallel and series, and can describe how adding additional resistors affects the voltage, current, and effective resistance of that particular circuit configuration Students know and can apply Ohm s Law for circuits (V = IR) 1. Wire Diagram Objective: Students will create wire diagrams for their electric buildings. Engage and Explore 1. Students are asked to respond these questions a. Do you think the electrical appliances in your house/apartment are in series or in parallel with each other? How do you know? b. How do you think electricians know how to correctly install lights and electrical outlets in a building? 2. Teacher provides support (as needed) in guiding students towards creating the correct wire diagram for the electric building (One switch controls a single lamp, one switch controls two lamps in series, and one switch controls three lamps in series, with all three branches in parallel with each other, connected to a 9-V voltage source). 3. Students submit wire diagrams to The City Inspector (the teacher) for approval. One representation of wiring (there are many different ways this can be drawn and still be correct):

3 2. Switch and Circuit Prototypes Objective: Students will prototype series and parallel circuit sections and test switches. Switch Prototype tutorial (Bree Barnett Dreyfus): Explain 1. Show examples of circuit diagrams drawn by various students in the class (students will place circuit elements in different locations on their page, and the various branches of the circuit will be arranged differently from student to student), and ask whether these circuits are really the same, even though they don t look identical. 2. Have students create two non-identical looking diagrams of two lamps in parallel a. Ask whether the physical wiring must match the exact picture of the wiring diagram, of whether the actual circuit may look slightly different and still function the same as the schematic. Elaborate 3. Have students create and test the prototypes to ensure that the switches and lights function as intended. 4. Teacher should provide feedback to students as to whether the series and parallel light circuits are constructed correctly.

4 3. Light-House Build & Blueprint Objective: Students construct light-houses according to circuit requirements, and create blueprints that accurately depict their buildings. Evaluate 1. Have students brainstorm what they would have in their ultimate dream house. They can create a list of themes or desirable features to include. Students should sketch the layout of the structure and the rooms (doors, windows, stairs, etc.). 2. Students are given time in class to acquire materials from the T4T cart and explore potential uses for the various materials. 3. Students create full electric building model. 4. Students create design poster selling their house to the public, explaining the purpose of each room and the theme of the entire building. Design poster must include approved circuit diagram and floor plan, front elevation, and side elevation blueprints of the house. *During all activities teacher serves as a facilitator of student learning (i.e. student centered instruction). Most tasks should be completed by students after simple directions, or facilitated questions to enhance student learning. **Use of student handouts serves as guidelines for students. Accommodations All individual accommodations for students should be met with respect to your particular students and classroom dynamics and will vary from class to class and group to group. Facilitator should always differentiate instruction by providing the necessary blend of guidance and exploration for each student group and their specific needs.

7 Name: Period: Light-House Project Rubric 1. Approval of Building Plans (Circuit Diagram) The building plan (circuit schematic) must clearly show one room with two lights in series, one room with three lights in parallel and an independent outside light all operating from a single 9 V battery using three independent switches. (10 pts) Date submitted: Denied Approved Resubmitted on: Denied Approved 2. Building Inspection: If your building fails to meet any of these inspection points you will have to pay a fine (a point deduction): Check Fine Series and parallel circuits work independently; Battery does not have to be moved There is a switch in each room One room has two lights in series wired correctly One room has three lights in parallel wired correctly One outside light works independently and is wired correctly The house is at least 4 x 6 x 1 (close to the size of a shoebox) 3. Design Evaluation: In order to determine the design appeal of your building to help prepare it for sale, the real estate agent will use this rubric for evaluation: Area evaluated: Description Décor The rooms are well decorated and it is obvious that care was taken to do so. The rooms have an obvious purpose. (10) There has been some effort made to decorate but the result is not clean or care was not taken. The purpose of the rooms is slightly unclear. (5) The rooms are sloppily or undecorated. The purpose is not clear. (1) Furniture & Structure The furniture appears to be well built and the structure of the building seems solid. (10) The furniture is questionable or the structure seems of lower quality. (5) The furniture appears poorly made or unsafe. The buildings structure appears poorly made or unsafe. (1) Blueprint The blueprints include a front elevation, side elevation, and floor plan. The drawing is neat, correctly scaled, and clearly labeled. (10) One of the three required blueprints is missing or done incorrectly. The drawing is slightly messy, missing some labels, or incorrectly scaled (5) Only one of the required blueprints was done correctly. The drawing is messy and most labels are missing. (1) Final Point Value (score): Building Plans (circuit diagram) completed: /10 points Building Inspection passed - any points in inspection fees: / 60 points Design Evaluation score: / 30 points TOTAL value: /100 points

8 Blue Prints Elevation: a view building seen from side, a flat representation of façade. This is the common view to describe the external appearance of a building. of a one one most used Floor plan: the most fundamental architectural diagram, a view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a particular level of a building. Technically it is a horizontal section cut through a building, showing walls, windows and door openings and other features at that level. The plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level: the floor, stairs (but only up to the plan level), fittings and furniture. Scale: Since an architectural drawing must fit on a piece of paper, you must scale down the actual dimensions of the building when you draw the blueprint. For example, if the height of your building is 12, but you need to fit it within an 8 space on your paper, you would use a scale of 2:3. This means that every 2 on your page actually represents 3 of your actual building. The scale is typically expressed as a ratio (e.g. 2:3) or as a fraction (e.g. 2/3), and should be displayed on your page. Check for understanding: if your drawing scale is 1:2 and the width of a window in your building is 2.8, then what should be the width of the window as drawn on your page?

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