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1 Ohio Standards Connection: Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard Benchmark B Use models and pictures to relate concepts of ratio, proportion and percent. Indicator 1 Use models and visual representation to develop the concept of ratio as partto-part and part-to-whole, and the concept of percent as part-to-whole. Mathematical Processes Benchmarks E. Link concepts to procedures and to symbolic notation. K. Use mathematical language to explain and justify mathematical ideas, strategies and solutions. Lesson Summary: In this lesson, students use models and real-world scenarios to investigate ratios as comparisons. Students generate comparisons relevant to their experiences and learn multiple ways of describing ratios in words and symbols (except for fractional notation). They describe differences between a 2:1 ratio and a 1:2 ratio. Students use informal methods to find ratios that represent the same comparison such as 2:4 is the same as 8:16. Estimated Duration: Three hours Commentary: Ratios are a comparison between two quantities and can be used in many different situations. In developing students understanding of ratios, it is important for students to have concrete experiences before introducing formal algorithms and procedures. The concrete experiences should involve comparisons in situations familiar to students and provide students opportunities to develop a conceptual definition of equality of ratios. A conceptual understanding of ratios and equality of ratios is needed before students are exposed to algorithms for solving proportions and before students begin to use fractions to represent ratios. Pre-Assessment: Write the following statement on the board: Four out of five dentists recommend sugarless gum. Ask students to consider this statement and write their individual thoughts in journals, then share their responses in small groups. Conduct a class discussion about the statement. Ask questions such as: 1. How might someone conduct a survey of dentists? 2. How many dentists were surveyed - only five? 3. If five dentists were surveyed, how many did not recommend sugarless gum? 4. If they survey 10 dentists, how many recommended sugarless gum? Scoring Guidelines: Informally assess student understanding by listening to the classroom discussion and by reading students journal responses. The classroom discussion provides a sense of the groups prior knowledge and intuitive understanding of ratios. The journal responses provide evidence of students individual prior knowledge. 1

2 Post-Assessment: Use Attachment A, Post-Assessment. Students may work individually if the goal is to assess individual knowledge and understanding of concepts of ratios. Make counters available to students as they complete the problems. Scoring Guidelines: Students who answer #1 correctly have a basic understanding of how the numbers in a ratio represent a direct relationship to objects. Students who can explain the difference between the ratios in problem #2 understand the relationship of the order of a ratio to the objects being compared. Finally, students who find a ratio equivalent to 50:5 in problem #3 and are able to explain a correct strategy for finding the ratio, have developed a conceptual understanding of the equivalence of ratios. Students who find a correct ratio without being able to explain how may be operating at a concrete level and may not have a complete understanding of ratios. Instructional Procedures: Part One Instructional Tips: Using fractions to represent ratios is discouraged throughout this entire lesson. An incomplete understanding of fractions combined with an incomplete understanding of ratios can facilitate the development of misconceptions that are difficult to correct. Prior to the lesson, create bags of color cubes. Place three red cubes, four yellow cubes, and two green cubes in each bag. Prepare one bag for each pair of students. 1. Ask students to describe situations in which they might want to compare the quantity of one thing to the quantity of another. For example, how heavy one person s book bag is compared to another person s bag. Record student ideas on chart paper. Students typically generate ideas such as the number of boys compared to the number of girls in a class, the number of teachers to number of students in a grade level, number of desks to number of students. Encourage students to think outside the classroom by comparing the number of pets to people, 1 table in the cafeteria to the number of seats at the table, and other such ideas. 2. Select items from the student-generated comparisons and have the class discuss different ways of writing those comparisons. For example, if comparing heights between two people, one might write: her height is 54 inches and his height is 53 inches, 54 inches to 53 inches, 54:53, or many other representations, such as a table or chart. Introduce the common notation using a colon (54:53) and the terminology ratio (a comparison of two quantities). 3. Place students in pairs and provide each pair with a bag of cubes. 4. Ask the pairs to sort the cubes by color, count and record how many of each color and how many cubes were in the bag. All groups have the same configuration of cubes. 5. Conduct a class discussion about the contents of the bags. a. Ask students to describe the contents of the bags. Expect responses that indicate the bags contain cubes, the cubes are different colors, there are three red cubes, four yellow cubes, and two green cubes in each bag. b. Ask several different students to describe the number of red cubes in relation to the whole bag. Listen to how students phrase their responses. Write a statement on the board to 2

3 summarize the individual students descriptions. For example, there are three red cubes out of the nine total cubes. Repeat this with the other colors. c. Ask the pairs to write down all the comparisons they can make for the cubes in the bag. Share the lists with the class. Include all comparisons, including the reverse order (e.g., one blue cube and two white cubes, and two white cubes and one blue cube). 6. Ask students to suggest shorter ways to write some of the comparisons. Use student suggestions and encourage the use of common mathematical forms e.g., three red to 12 total, 3 red:12 total, and 3:12 if students do not suggest it. Avoid using fractions to represent the ratios in this lesson unless students suggest it. 7. Combine pairs to form small groups. Ask the groups to complete the table below assuming that the later rows of the table are found by combining bags. Red Yellow Green Total Number of a. Have groups fill in the table. Remind them that they will be asked to explain their strategies. b. Ask groups to share the strategies they used to complete parts of the table and complete the table. Red Yellow Green Total Number of Instructional Tip: For groups that struggle with completing the table, provide additional bags of cubes so they can combine the bags and count cubes to check their thinking. 8. Remind the class that a ratio s job is to describe a relationship between quantities. Facilitate a discussion to introduce equal ratios. a. Ask questions such as; When we went from single bags to combined bags, what happens to the relationship between the number of yellow cubes and the number of red cubes? (Relationship stayed the same: still four yellow for every three red.) If we combined six bags would there still be more yellow than red? Why? If necessary, tell the class, that a 4:3 ratio can be thought of as saying for every four yellow cubes there are three red cubes. Then, ask if this holds true for the combined bags. 3

5 9:6. Students should be able to see intuitively that 8:6 cannot possibly be the same ratio as 9:6.) 11. Use ratios to represent students in the classroom. Do the following as a think- pair-share activity. Have students work alone to answer the first question, and then share thoughts with a partner. Finally, discuss the responses and strategies as a class. a. Find the ratio of female students to the total students in the room. Write the ratio in several ways on the board. For example: 12 girls to 26 students, 12 girls:26 students, 12:26. b. Find the ratio of male students to the total students. Write two different ratios to compare the number of male students to the total students. For example, 14:26 or 7:13. c. Find the ratio of female students to male students. Explain how this ratio is different from girls to total, or boys to total. Part Two 12. Discuss ratios and the meaning with students. a. Pose situations such as: In the winter when people wear mittens, what is the ratio of mittens to a person? (2:1) Have 4 boys and 6 girls stand at the front of the class. Ask students to identify the ratio of boys to girls (4:6), girls to boys (6:4). Ask students if there are other ways these students could be grouped that would visually demonstrate the same ratio. The students can be separated into two groups, each containing 2 boys and 3 girls, so the ratio could also be 2:3. This should be done as an intuitive separation of groups, and should not be approached in this lesson using formal algorithms for finding equivalent ratios. What is the ratio of feet to inches? (1:12); What is the ratio of inches to feet? (12:1) Ask students what is meant when a teacher or tutor provides one-to-one help. Ask students to identify the ratio of students to teachers in those settings. (1:1) If the Cavaliers are playing the Pistons and are using a one-on-one defense, what does that mean? What is the ratio of Cavalier players to Piston players on the court in that setting? (1:1) How is one computer to three students different from three computers to one student? Describe both ratios and tell how they are different. b. Select students to write the ratios on the board. Accept answers written in words or using the short notation, such as 2:1. c. Ask students to find another ratio equivalent to the given ratio. For example, if the answer was 2:1, another ratio would be 14:7. Do not provide students with a process or algorithm for finding equivalent ratios. This will occur later in this part of the lesson. Instructional Tip: At this point in the lesson, asking students to describe a systematic way for finding equivalent ratios would be appropriate if so desired. See the Extensions section of this lesson. The remainder of the lesson can be completed whether or not a method of finding equivalent ratios is formalized. 5

9 Research Connections: Burns, Marilyn. About Teaching Mathematics: A K-8 Resource. Sausalito, Calif.: Math Solutions Publication, Demana, F., & Leitzel, J. Transition to College Mathematics. Reading, Mass.:Addison Wesley, Schoenfeld, Alan. Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates, Van de Walle, John A. Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Attachments: Attachment A, Post-Assessment Attachment B, Working with Ratios Attachment C, Ratio Mystery 9

10 Attachment A Post-Assessment Name: Date: Directions: Answer the following questions. You may use counters to work through any problems. 1. Use the circles in the rectangle to answer the questions. A. What is the ratio of shaded circles to unshaded circles? B. What is the ratio of shaded circles to all the circles? 2. Sally heard the teachers talking about the teacher to student ratio on the next field trip. She started to tell her friend what she had heard, but could not remember if the ratio was 1:20 or 20:1. Explain how these ratios are different. 3. If the ratio of chocolate chips to cookies is 50:5, find another ratio that could be used to compare the number of chocolate chips and cookies. Explain how you found this ratio. 10

11 Attachment B Working with Ratios Name: Date: 1. Alison went to bat 12 times in a game and made 7 hits. a. What is her ratio of hits to at bats? b. If she continues to hit with the same ratio, how many hits should she expect to have at the end of the season, when she has been to bat 72 times? Explain how you determined this answer. 2. There are 6 students who ride the bus in a class of 28 students. All the other students walk to school. Answer each question and explain how you determined the answer. a. What is the ratio of students who ride the bus to those who walk? b. What is the ratio of walkers to students in the class? c. If the school of 336 has the same ratio of walkers to riders, how many students in the school ride the bus? 3. Suppose a bag of candy contains 24 grape flavored, 18 strawberry flavored, and 3 chocolate flavored pieces. Answer the questions and explain how you determined the answer. a. One ratio for grape to strawberry would be 24:18. Find two more ratios that could compare the grape and strawberry candies in this bag. b. Find two different ratios for comparing the number of chocolate pieces to the total pieces of candy. 11

12 Attachment C Ratio Mystery Name: Date: 1. Measure the height and the arm span for each person in the group. To measure arm span, measure from tip of the longest finger on one hand to the longest finger on the other hand. Name Height Arm Span Average Height Average Arm Span Ratio of Average Height to Arm Span 2. Measure the radial length by measuring the length from the inside of the wrist to the inside of elbow. Compare this measurement to the height. Name Radial Length Height Average Radial Length Average Height Ratio of Average Radial Length to Height 12

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Comparing and Ordering Fractions Objectives To review equivalent fractions; and to provide experience with comparing and ordering fractions. www.everydaymathonline.com epresentations etoolkit Algorithms

### Today, my view has changed completely. I can no longer imagine teaching math without making writing an integral aspect of students' learning.

October 2004 Volume 62 Number 2 Writing! Pages 30-33 Writing in Math Marilyn Burns Innovative teachers can make writing an invaluable part of math instruction. One reason I chose mathematics for my undergraduate