# Robot Perception Continued

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1 Robot Perception Continued 1

2 Visual Perception Visual Odometry Reconstruction Recognition CS

3 Range Sensing strategies Active range sensors Ultrasound Laser range sensor Slides adopted from Siegwart and Nourbakhsh

4 Range Sensors (time of flight) (1) Range distance measurement: called range sensors Range information: key element for localization and environment modeling Ultrasonic sensors as well as laser range sensors make use of propagation speed of sound or electromagnetic waves respectively. The traveled distance of a sound or electromagnetic wave is given by d = c. t Where d = distance traveled (usually round-trip) c = speed of wave propagation t = time of flight

5 Range Sensors (time of flight) (2) It is important to point out Propagation speed v of sound: 0.3 m/ms Propagation speed v of electromagnetic signals: 0.3 m/ns, one million times faster. 3 meters is 10 ms ultrasonic system only 10 ns for a laser range sensor laser range sensors expensive and delicate The quality of time of flight range sensors manly depends on: Uncertainties about the exact time of arrival of the reflected signal Inaccuracies in the time of fight measure (laser range sensors) Opening angle of transmitted beam (ultrasonic range sensors) Interaction with the target (surface, specular reflections) Variation of propagation speed Speed of mobile robot and target (if not at stand still) 4.1.6

6 Ultrasonic Sensor (sound) (1) transmit a packet of (ultrasonic) pressure waves distance d of the echoing object can be calculated based on the propagation speed of sound c and the time of flight t. d = c.t 2 The speed of sound c (340 m/s) in air is given by γ where : ration of specific heats c = γ. RT. R: gas constant T: temperature in degree Kelvin

7 Ultrasonic Sensor (sound) (3) typically a frequency: khz generation of sound wave: piezo transducer transmitter and receiver separated or not separated sound beam propagates in a cone like manner opening angles around 20 to 40 degrees regions of constant depth segments of an arc (sphere for -30 3D) Effective range 12cm, 5m Accuracy between 98-99% measurement cone Amplitude [db] Typical intensity distribution of a ultrasonic sensor 4.1.6

8 Ultrasonic Sensor (sound) (4) Other problems for ultrasonic sensors soft surfaces that absorb most of the sound energy surfaces that are far from being perpendicular to the direction of the sound -> specular reflection a) 360 scan b) results from different geometric primitives

9 Sources of Error Opening angle Crosstalk Specular reflection Slide adopted from C. Stachniss

10 Typical Ultrasound Scan Slide adopted from C. Stachniss

11 Parallel Operation Given a 15 degrees opening angle, 24 sensors are needed to cover the whole 360 degrees area around the robot. Let the maximum range we are interested in be 10m. The time of flight then is 2*10/330 s=0.06 s A complete scan requires 1.45 s To allow frequent updates (necessary for high speed) the sensors have to be fired in parallel. This increases the risk of crosstalk Slide adopted from C. Stachniss

12 Laser Range Sensor (electromagnetic) (1) Transmitter D P L Target Phase Measurement Transmitted Beam Reflected Beam Laser light instead of sound Transmitted and received beams coaxial Transmitter illuminates a target with a collimated beam Receiver detects the time needed for round-trip Lidar (light detection and ranging) 4.1.6

13 4.1.6 Laser Range Sensor (electromagnetic) (5) Confidence in the range (phase estimate) is inversely proportional to the square of the received signal amplitude. Hence dark, distant objects will not produce such good range estimated as closer brighter objects

14 Laser Range Sensor (electromagnetic) Typical range image of a 2D laser range sensor with a rotating mirror. The length of the lines through the measurement points indicate the uncertainties

15 Robots Equipped with Laser Scanners 29

16 Typical Scans 30

17 3D Laser

18 3D Laser

19 Heading Sensors Heading sensors can be proprioceptive (gyroscope, inclinometer) or exteroceptive (compass). Used to determine the robots orientation and inclination. Allow, together with an appropriate velocity information, to integrate the movement to an position estimate. This procedure is called dead reckoning (ship navigation) 4.1.4

20 Compass Since over 2000 B.C. when Chinese suspended a piece of naturally magnetite from a silk thread and used it to guide a chariot over land. Magnetic field on earth absolute measure for orientation. Large variety of solutions to measure the earth magnetic field mechanical magnetic compass direct measure of the magnetic field (Hall-effect, magnetoresistive sensors) Major drawback weakness of the earth field easily disturbed by magnetic objects or other sources not feasible for indoor environments 4.1.4

21 Gyroscope Heading sensors, that keep the orientation to a fixed frame absolute measure for the heading of a mobile system. Two categories, the mechanical and the optical gyroscopes Mechanical Gyroscopes Standard gyro Rated gyro Optical Gyroscopes Rated gyro 4.1.4

22 Global Positioning System (GPS) (1) Developed for military use Recently it became accessible for commercial applications 24 satellites (including three spares) orbiting the earth every 12 hours at a height of km. Four satellites are located in each of six planes inclined 55 degrees with respect to the plane of the earth s equators Location of any GPS receiver is determined through a time of flight measurement Technical challenges: Time synchronization between the individual satellites and the GPS receiver Real time update of the exact location of the satellites Precise measurement of the time of flight Interferences with other signals 4.1.5

23 Global Positioning System (GPS) (2) 4.1.5

24 GPS positioning Simple positioning principle Satelites send signals, receivers received them with delay ρ = (t r t e ) speed of light ρ = (X s X r ) 2 + (Y s Y r ) 2 + (Z s Z r ) 2 If we know at least three distance Measurements, we can solve for position on earth

25 Characterizing Sensor Performance Basic sensor response ratings (cont.) Resolution minimum difference between two values usually: lower limit of dynamic range = resolution for digital sensors it is usually the A/D resolution. Linearity e.g. 5V / 255 (8 bit) variation of output signal as function of the input signal linearity is less important when signal is after treated with a computer Bandwidth or Frequency the speed with which a sensor can provide a stream of readings usually there is an upper limit depending on the sensor and the sampling rate Lower limit is also possible, e.g. acceleration sensor

26 In Situ Sensor Performance (1) Characteristics that are relevant for real world environments Sensitivity ratio of output change to input change however, in real world environment, the sensor has very often high sensitivity to other environmental changes, e.g. illumination Cross-sensitivity sensitivity to environmental parameters that are orthogonal to the target parameters Error / Accuracy difference between the sensor s output and the true value error m = measured v = true value 4.1.2

27 In Situ Sensor Performance (2) Characteristics that are especially relevant for real world environments Systematic error -> deterministic errors caused by factors that can (in theory) be modeled -> prediction e.g. calibration of a laser sensor or of the distortion cause by the optic of a camera Random error -> non-deterministic no prediction possible however, they can be described probabilistically e.g. Hue instability of camera, black level noise of camera.. Precision reproducibility of sensor results 4.1.2

28 Characterizing Error: The Challenges in Mobile Robotics Mobile Robot has to perceive, analyze and interpret the state of the surrounding Measurements in real world environment are dynamically changing and error prone. Examples: changing illuminations specular reflections light or sound absorbing surfaces cross-sensitivity of robot sensor to robot pose and robotenvironment dynamics rarely possible to model -> appear as random errors systematic errors and random errors might be well defined in controlled environment. This is not the case for mobile robots!! 4.1.2

29 Multi-Modal Error Distributions: The Challenges in Behavior of sensors modeled by probability distribution (random errors) usually very little knowledge about the causes of random errors often probability distribution is assumed to be symmetric or even Gaussian however, it is important to realize how wrong this can be! Examples: Sonar (ultrasonic) sensor might overestimate the distance in real environment and is therefore not symmetric - Thus the sonar sensor might be best modeled by two modes: - mode for the case that the signal returns directly - mode for the case that the signals returns after multipath reflections. Stereo vision system might correlate to images incorrectly, thus causing results that make no sense at all 4.1.2

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