# Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3)

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4 ANTENNA BASICS An important aspect of an antenna is directivity. Directivity is the ability of the antenna to direct the maximum amount of radiated microwave energy towards the liquid or solid we wish to measure. Two kinds of antennas are used in the process industry: various versions of dielectric rod antenna and horn antenna. The dielectric rod or horn antenna is connected to the tail of the instrument to ensure outstanding focusing and to direct the maximum amount of microwave energy toward the level being measured and to capture energy from the return echoes. The tapered section of the rod focuses the microwaves toward the material being measured. The function of an antenna in a radar level transmitter is to direct the maximum amount of microwave energy towards the level being measured and to capture the maximum amount of energy from the return echoes for analysis within the electronics. No matter how well the antenna is designed, there will be some microwave energy being radiated in every direction. The goal is to maximize the directivity. A measure of how well the antenna is directing the microwave energy is called the 'antenna gain'. Antenna gain is a ratio between the power per unit of solid angel radiated by the antenna in a specific direction to the power per unit of solid angle if the total power was radiated isotropically (equally in all directions). With horn antennas, this allows smaller nozzles to be used with a more focused beam angle. For example, a 1 ½" (40 mm) horn antenna radar at 26 GHz has approximately the same beam angle as a 6" (150 mm) horn antenna at 5.8 GHz. However, this is not the complete picture. Antenna gain (G) is dependent on the square of the diameter (D) of the antenna as well as being inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength (ë). Antenna gain also depends on the aperture efficiency (ç) of the antenna. Therefore the beam angle of a small antenna at a high frequency is not necessarily as efficient as the equivalent beam angle of larger, lower frequency radar. DIELECTRIC ROD ANTENNA Antenna Gain = Eq. 2. Antenna Gain Directional Power Isotropic Power ð x D G = ç ( ë ) Eq. 3. Antenna Gain Dielectric rods are made of polypropylene ( PP ) or Teflon (PTFE) and can be used in vessels nozzles as small as 40 mm (1½"). The microwaves travel down the inactive parallel section of the rod towards the tapered section. The tapered section of the rod focuses the microwaves toward the liquid being measured. It is imperative that all of the tapered section of the rod be inside the vessel, but not a good practice to allow a rod antenna to be immersed in the product. If a rod antenna is coated in viscous, conductive and adhesive product, the antenna efficiency will deteriorate. Rod antennas are usually used for liquids and slurries, while horn antennas are recommended for powder and granular applications. 2 HORN ANTENNA The metallic horn antenna or cone antenna is well proven for process level applications. The horn is mechanically robust and generally is virtually unaffected by condensation and product build up, especially at the lower radar frequencies such as 5.8 GHz or 6.3 GHz (Indumart LTR700). There are variations in the internal design of horn antennas. The operating principal is that the microwaves that are generated within the microwave module are transmitted down a high frequency cable for encoupling into a waveguide. The metal waveguide directs the microwaves towards a low dielectric material (PTFE) machined to a pointed cone and then the horn of the antenna. The microwaves are emitted from this pointed cone in a controlled way and then are focused towards the target by the metal horn. After reflection from the product surface, the returning echoes are collected within the horn antenna for processing within the electronics. 9 Indumart Inc.

5 RADAR LEVEL TRANSMITTER FROM INDUMART Indumart LTR700 Series Radar Level Transmitter is capable of monitoring virtually any short to medium range non-contact measurements of liquids and most free flowing solids (granules and powders). In applications characterized by dust, the instrument demonstrates notable stability by adjusting itself to the severity of the process. Measurement is virtually unaffected by changes in process temperature, pressure, density or gas/vapour composition within the vessel. A dielectric rod or horn antenna is connected to the tail of the instrument to ensure outstanding focusing and to direct the maximum amount of microwave energy toward the level being measured and to capture energy from the return echoes. The tapered section of the rod focuses the microwaves toward the material being measured. Polypropylene, PTFE, High temperature with de-coupler and 2" sanitary antennas are available. Optional RS232/RS485 communication provides both remote programming of and acquiring information from the field devices. The LTR700 with digital communication and the configuration software, which runs under Windows, enables remote programming of the field devices and viewing of the primary measurement values on a computer via EXCEL application. Programmable system is usually recommended, which gives the opportunity to declare both the dielectric constant of the material and the severity of the process to optimize level measurements. Other features of the LTR700 Series include: (1) fully self diagnostic system with individual error message; (2) service and test parameters read out, which reports on the operating conditions, echo profile, noise level and more to facilitate the installation and troubleshooting of the system. The optional remote display (DIS300) may also be added to this radar level measurement system to indicate the process value on its 4-digit display and to initiate alarm contact at 2 points. Fig. 15. Indumart LTR700 Radar Level Transmitters 10 Indumart Inc.

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