BIO 1: Review: Evolution

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1 Name: Class: Date: ID: A BIO 1: Review: Evolution True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Radiometric dating measures the age of an object by measuring the proportions of radioactive isotopes. 2. Radioisotopes are stable elements. 3. On the early Earth, oxygen was found in the atmosphere millions of years before it was present in the oceans. 4. Scientists hypothesize that DNA may have acted as a catalyst in the formation of the first proteins. 5. Double-stranded DNA evolved before RNA. 6. Life began before the mechanism of heredity was developed. 7. Eukaryotes are characterized by an internal membrane system and a nucleus containing DNA. 8. The first living things to appear on the Earth were prokaryotes. 9. The photosynthetic cyanobacteria produced the oxygen in the Earth s atmosphere. 10. Eukaryotes probably descended from bacteria. 11. The theory of endosymbiosis proposes that mitochondria are the descendants of symbiotic aerobic eubacteria. 12. Mitochondria and chloroplasts each contain DNA unrelated to the nuclear DNA of the cells in which they reside. 13. Extinctions increase competition for resources causing a decrease in the population sizes of the surviving species. 14. Mass extinctions open ecological niches allowing for the invasion of new species which may change the change the face of the ruling class of plants and animals. 15. Mass extinctions have had a significant impact on the course of evolution of life on Earth. 16. Ozone was not present approximately 4 billion years ago. 17. Life on land could not exist without ozone. 18. Carbon dioxide is an important component of ozone. 19. The evolution of land plants had to take place before the evolution of land animals. 1

2 Name: ID: A 20. The first animals to live on land were birds. 21. Species that have evolved from a common ancestor should have certain characteristics in common. 22. The inheritance of acquired characteristics was one mechanism of evolution supported by Darwin. 23. Natural selection can cause the spread of an advantageous adaptation throughout a population. 24. The two major ideas that Darwin presented in The Origin of the Species were that evolution occurred and that natural selection was its mechanism. 25. The theory of evolution states that species change over time. 26. Natural selection causes allele frequencies within populations to remain the same. 27. The fossil record suggests that species have become less complex with time. 28. Evidence for evolution occurs only in the fossil record. 29. The human forelimb and the bat forelimb are homologous structures. 30. Early in development, human embryos and the embryos of all other vertebrates are strikingly similar. 31. Two hypotheses suggested about the rate at which evolution proceeds are gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. 32. The environment selects which organisms will survive and reproduce by presenting challenges that only individuals with particular traits can meet. 33. The accumulation of differences between species or populations is called convergence. 34. Within populations, divergence leads to speciation. 35. Radiometric dating is not possible on rocks that contain fossils since the radioactive isotopes that could be used are found only in igneous or metamorphic rock. 36. Miller and Urey constructed a chamber containing the hypothetical atmosphere of early Earth, input energy in the form of a spark, and the chamber produced simple prokaryotic cells. 37. In the sequence of hypothesized events leading to the evolution of eukaryotes, prokaryotes appeared first. 38. A vestigial structure in one organism can be defined as a reduced form of a functional structure in another organism. 39. Natural selection is based on the concepts of excess reproduction, variation, inheritance, and the advantages of certain traits. 2

3 Name: ID: A 40. Homologous structures indicate a shared ancestry, while vestigial structures do not. 41. The Hardy-Weinberg principle describes the conditions within which evolution definitely occurs. Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 42. Earth was a molten body when it first formed about 1.4 billion years ago. 43. More than 99 percent of all the species that have ever lived are extinct. 44. A preserved dinosaur footprint is an example of a trace fossil. 45. Fossilization occurs more rarely in marine organisms because organisms need to be buried in sediment to be preserved. 46. Experiments with a mix of gases from the early atmosphere believed to be more likely than those used by Miller and Urey produced proteins, nucleotides, and sugars. 47. After his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin wondered whether similar species from the Galápagos Islands could once have been members of the same species. 48. Charles Darwin came to realize that organisms of the same species are identical. 49. In Charles Darwin s time, many people thought that Earth and its living things were formed about a few thousand years ago. 50. Lyell hypothesized that human populations are kept in check by war, disease, and famine. 51. In 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent Charles Darwin an essay proposing an explanation for evolution that was very similar to Darwin s. 52. In natural selection, human breeders, rather than the environment, select the variations of traits to be passed to offspring. 53. According to Darwin, the word selection would indicate organisms ability to survive and reproduce in their particular environments. 54. The term fitness refers to an organism s ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. 55. The fact that species today look different from their ancestors can be described as descent with modification. 3

4 Name: ID: A 56. According to Charles Darwin, individuals best suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully. 57. According to Charles Darwin, members of a species must share limited resources. 58. The theory of natural selection says that evolution will not occur in a population unless allelic frequencies are acted on by forces that cause change. 59. Any change in the allelic frequencies in a population that is due to chance is called founder effect. 60. A population of ants declines to a very low number. When the ants habitat is turned into a picnic area for humans, the additional food causes the population of ants to rebound. This is an example of natural selection. 61. A mutation is a random change in genetic material. 62. Humans born with either below-normal or above-normal birth weights have a lower chance of survival than those born with average birth weights. Consequently, birth weights vary little in human populations. This form of natural selection is called directional selection. 63. Punctuated equilibrium and gradualism are two models that describe the cause of speciation. 64. Gradualism and punctuated equilibrium are similar models of evolution. 65. Embryos of different organisms exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of development that become totally different structures in adult forms. This indicates that organisms evolved from different ancestors. 66. In a gene pool, as the relative frequency of one allele for a trait increases, the relative frequencies of other alleles for that trait decrease. 67. Most inheritable differences are due to gene shuffling that occurs during the production of gametes. 68. Mutations do not always affect an organism s phenotype its physical, behavioral, and biochemical characteristics. 69. In a population of snakes with a range of body lengths, if the longest individuals have the highest fitness, disruptive selection is likely to occur. 70. In small populations, an allele can become more or less common simply by chance. 4

5 Name: ID: A 71. Genetic drift may occur when a small group of individuals colonize a new habitat. 72. When mutations introduce new alleles into a population, genetic variation is disrupted. 73. In a population of birds, if females prefer males with long tails, the population violates the condition of directional selection described by the Hardy-Weinberg principle. 74. In the type of reproductive isolation called behavioral isolation, two populations are separated by barriers such as rivers or mountains. 75. Two populations that have overlapping ranges can remain reproductively isolated through behavioral isolation or temporal isolation from each other. 76. The first step of the speciation of the Galápagos finches likely was the arrival of founders from South America. 77. The fossil record, although incomplete, provides evidence about the history of life and illustrates that most species have remained unchanged over time. 78. Scientists use relative dating to determine the absolute age of a rock in years. 79. The vast majority of Earth s history about 88 percent is taken up by the Cenozoic Era. 80. The Cenozoic Era included the Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic Period. 81. The molten elements of early Earth arranged themselves according to density, and the most dense elements formed Earth s surface. 82. The earliest sedimentary rocks were formed about the time that liquid water formed on Earth s surface. 83. Stanley Miller and Harold Urey assumed that the assembly of complex organic molecules from simpler compounds on early Earth would have required an energy source, which they hypothesized was radioactive decay. 84. Asexual reproduction increases genetic variation the raw material on which natural selection operates. 85. During the Mesozoic Era, animals began to invade the land. 86. The Galápagos finches underwent adaptive radiation, a process in which a small group evolves into several different forms that live in different ways. 5

6 Name: ID: A Completion Complete each statement. 87. The study of radioactive decay in rocks indicates that the Earth is about years old. 88. Forms of an element that differ in atomic mass are called. 89. are unstable elements that give off energy as they decay, forming stable elements. 90. A(n) is the amount of time required for one half the number of radioactive atoms in a sample to decay, forming stable elements. 91. By determining the number of half-lives that have passed since the formation of a rock containing radioisotopes and their stable daughter elements, scientists are able to determine the approximate of the rock. 92. The goal of each of the models that attempt to explain how life s basic chemicals were formed is to explain the development of building blocks. 93. Cyanobacteria produced the that is now present in our atmosphere. 94. The theory of is a widely accepted theory that explains the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells. 95. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own. 96. were the first eukaryotes. 97. Multicellularity allows cells to. 98. Having more than one cell is known as. 99. All of the major phyla on the Earth today evolved during the period The death of all members of many different species is called At the end of the period 250 million years ago, about 96 percent of all species of animals became extinct The Earth s surface is protected from ultraviolet radiation by molecules The first animals to successfully invade the land from the sea were Reptiles evolved from. 6

7 Name: ID: A 105. The first vertebrates on land were Birds and mammals became the dominant vertebrates on land after the extinction A change in species over time is called Charles Darwin sailed for five years on a ship named Darwin s observations led him to doubt the beliefs of divine The process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than organisms less suited for that environment is called Natural selection leads to changes in both the physical appearance and the of a species Published in 1859, Charles Darwin s book, changed biology forever A species that has disappeared permanently is said to be The most direct evidence that evolution has occurred comes from Closely related species show more in nucleotide sequences than distantly related species Homologous structures are similar because they are inherited from a common Eyes in a blind salamander are an example of a type of organ known as structures are similar because they are inherited from a common ancestor is the hypothesis that evolution occurs at a constant rate in species is the raw material for natural selection According to Darwin, the determines the rate at which organisms survive and reproduce Darwin s observations of finches lead him to believe that there was a close correlation between beak shape and source The availability of food supply affects the number of different shapes in finches The endosymbiont theory is an explanation of the origin and evolution of. 7

8 Name: ID: A 125. Scientists hypothesize that RNA, not DNA, was the first molecule to carry heritable information because RNAs called ribozymes are capable of activity The transition from the Permian to the Triassic periods is marked by a James Hutton and Charles Lyell held similar views about Earth s age. Both thought that Earth was of years old The geologist proposed that past changes in Earth must be explained in terms of events and processes observable today According to Lamarck, evolution resulted from the inheritance of traits According to s theory of the inheritance of acquired traits, the long legs of certain shore birds could be acquired by frequent wading in water and then passed on to offspring Although his idea was incorrect, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a scientific explanation for Charles Darwin applied Thomas Malthus s thoughts about human population growth to all Charles Darwin observed that instead of being perfect and unchanging, individuals in a species show Charles Darwin concluded that, in similar environments around the world, could produce similar structures in unrelated species Certain animal structures that have different functions in different species and develop from the same embryonic tissues are called structures According to Darwin s theory of evolution, change over time According to Darwin s theory of evolution, all species on Earth are united by Darwin proposed that natural selection took place as individuals best suited to the survived and reproduced Charles Darwin realized that the measure of success for an organism was not only a long period of survival but also Natural selection is the only mechanism of evolution that will lead to Information on genetics and now provide compelling evidence of evolution that was not available to Darwin. 8

9 Name: ID: A 142. Not all fossils of organisms have modern counterparts Imagine that you are a paleontologist and you have found a dinosaur fossil that is intermediate in form between species. You would classify this fossil as a fossil Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestor are called structures The snake pelvis is an example of a structure A(an) is all of the genes that are present in a particular population The number of possible phenotypes for a given trait depends on how many control the trait The pattern of natural selection that acts most strongly against gray individuals in a population that ranges from black through gray to white is selection According to the principle, allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more of five specific factors cause those frequencies to change When a population is NOT evolving, it is in a situation called For new species to evolve, populations must be isolated from each other If two populations have been reproductively isolated and can no longer breed and produce fertile offspring, the process of has occurred In a particular environment, populations that are very different from each other are less likely to with each other for resources The record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth A researcher could quickly date a new rock sample if it contained a(an) fossil After Precambrian Time, the main divisions of the geologic time scale are eras and In Stanley Miller and Harold Urey s experiment, several, which are the building blocks of proteins, began to accumulate It is possible that RNA was the first information-storing molecule, but over time, became the primary way in which genetic information is stored and transmitted is the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time. 9

10 Name: ID: A 160. The similar body structure but different ancestry of sharks and dolphins indicates that these groups have undergone, a process in which unrelated organisms come to resemble each other. 10

11 BIO 1: Review: Evolution Answer Section TRUE/FALSE 1. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: T The isotopes needed are not present in sedimentary layers likely to hold fossils. PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level B REF: 396 TOP:

12 36. ANS: F Amino acids and other organic molecules were formed. PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level B REF: 403 TOP: ANS: T Review the endosymbiotic theory to see how eukaryotes are thought to have developed from prokaryotes. PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level D REF: 405 TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy B REF: 425 NAT: LS_3c TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 420 NAT: LS_3a TOP: ANS: F Vestigial structures are homologous structures and both indicate a shared ancestry. PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: NAT: LS_3c TOP: ANS: F The Hardy-Weinberg principle describes the conditions within which evolution does not occur. PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: TOP: 15-7 MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 42. ANS: F, 4.6 PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level A REF: 392 TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level A REF: 393 NAT: LS_3b TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level B REF: 393 TOP: ANS: F, commonly PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level B REF: 393 TOP: ANS: F, amino acids PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level C REF: 403 TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 372 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 2

13 48. ANS: F differ are different have natural variations PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 379 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 49. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 373 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 50. ANS: F, Malthus PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 377 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b C.3.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 51. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 378 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 52. ANS: F, artificial selection PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 379 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: analysis 53. ANS: F, fitness PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 380 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.6.c STA: BIO.8.c KEY: knowledge 54. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 380 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.6.c STA: BIO.8.c KEY: comprehension 55. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 381 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.6.c STA: BIO.8.c KEY: analysis 56. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 380 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 57. ANS: F, compete for PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 380 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 58. ANS: F, Hardy-Weinberg principle PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: TOP: ANS: F, genetic drift PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 433 TOP:

14 60. ANS: F, a bottleneck PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy D REF: 433 TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy B REF: 434 NAT: LS_2c TOP: ANS: F, stabilizing selection PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy E REF: 434 NAT: LS_3a TOP: ANS: F, rate PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: TOP: ANS: F, competing PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 441 TOP: ANS: F, common PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 426 NAT: LS_3d TOP: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 394 OBJ: NAT: C.2.a C.3.a STA: BIO.8.e KEY: application 67. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 395 OBJ: NAT: C.2.a C.3.a STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 68. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 394 OBJ: NAT: C.2.a C.3.a STA: BIO.8.e KEY: analysis 69. ANS: F, directional PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 398 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.b STA: BIO.8.c KEY: evaluation 70. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 400 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.b STA: BIO.8.c KEY: knowledge 71. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 400 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.b STA: BIO.8.c KEY: application 72. ANS: F, equilibrium PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 402 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: comprehension 4

15 73. ANS: F, random mating PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 402 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: evaluation 74. ANS: F, geographic PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 405 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: application 75. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 404 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: analysis 76. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 408 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.8.c KEY: knowledge 77. ANS: F changed evolved PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 417 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: comprehension 78. ANS: F, radioactive PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 420 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: comprehension 79. ANS: F, Precambrian Time PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 421 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: knowledge 80. ANS: F, Mesozoic PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 421 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: knowledge 81. ANS: F, core PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 423 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: application 82. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 424 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: synthesis 83. ANS: F, lightning PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 424 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: analysis 84. ANS: F, Sexual PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 428 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b C.3.c STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: analysis 5

16 85. ANS: F, Paleozoic PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 430 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: knowledge 86. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 436 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: application COMPLETION 87. ANS: 4.5 billion PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: isotopes PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Radioisotopes PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: half-life PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: age PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: organic PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: oxygen PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: endosymbiosis PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: DNA PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Protists PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: specialize PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: multicellularity PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE

17 99. ANS: Cambrian PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: mass extinction PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Permian PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: ozone PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: arthropods PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: amphibians PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: amphibians PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Cretaceous PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: evolution PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: H.M.S. Beagle PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: creation PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: natural selection PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: genetic makeup PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: The Origin of Species PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: extinct PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: fossils PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE

18 115. ANS: similarities PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: ancestor PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: vestigial PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Homologous PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Gradualism PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: Genetic variation PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: environment PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: food PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: beak PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: BPE ANS: eukaryotes PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level A REF: 406 TOP: ANS: enzymatic PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level C REF: 404 TOP: ANS: mass extinction PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Level C REF: 399 TOP: ANS: many millions millions PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 374 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 8

19 128. ANS: Lyell PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 375 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 129. ANS: acquired PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 376 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 130. ANS: Lamarck PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 376 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 131. ANS: evolution PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 376 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b D.3 STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 132. ANS: organisms living things PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 377 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b C.3.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: application 133. ANS: variation different traits PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 379 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.e KEY: comprehension 134. ANS: natural selection PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 383 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.e KEY: analysis 135. ANS: homologous PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 384 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.e KEY: evaluation 136. ANS: species PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 381 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 137. ANS: common descent common ancestors PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 382 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: synthesis 9

20 138. ANS: environment PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 381 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: application 139. ANS: reproduction PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 381 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.a C.3.d C.6.c STA: BIO.8.e KEY: synthesis 140. ANS: adaptation PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: NAT: LS_3a TOP: ANS: biochemistry PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 427 NAT: LS_3c TOP: ANS: extinct PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 423 TOP: ANS: transitional PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy E REF: 424 NAT: LS_3c TOP: ANS: homologous PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy C REF: 424 NAT: LS_3d TOP: ANS: vestigial PTS: 1 DIF: Bloom's Taxonomy D REF: 425 TOP: ANS: gene pool PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 394 OBJ: NAT: C.2.a C.3.a STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 147. ANS: genes PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 395 OBJ: NAT: C.2.a C.3.b STA: BIO.8.e KEY: knowledge 148. ANS: disruptive PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 399 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.b STA: BIO.8.c KEY: evaluation 149. ANS: Hardy-Weinberg PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 401 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: knowledge 10

21 150. ANS: genetic equilibrium PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 401 OBJ: NAT: C.2.c C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: comprehension 151. ANS: reproductively PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 404 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: knowledge 152. ANS: speciation species formation PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 404 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.d STA: BIO.8.c KEY: synthesis 153. ANS: compete PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 409 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.8.c KEY: analysis 154. ANS: fossil PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 417 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: knowledge 155. ANS: index PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 419 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a C.3.c STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: application 156. ANS: periods PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 421 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: knowledge 157. ANS: amino acids PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 424 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: analysis 158. ANS: DNA PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 425 OBJ: NAT: C.3.b G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: comprehension 159. ANS: Coevolution PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 437 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: application 160. ANS: convergent evolution PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 437 OBJ: NAT: C.3.a G.3 STA: BIO.7.b BIO.8.a KEY: evaluation 11

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