# Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

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1 Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present Mesozoic Tertiary 1.8 Cretaceous 65 Jurassic 145 Paleozoic Triassic 208 Permian 245 Carboniferous 290 Devonian 363 Silurian 410 Ordovician 440 Cambrian 505 Precambrian Time Vendian 544 Figure Interpreting Graphics How many geologic periods are shown in Figure 17-1, and which one is the earliest? 2. Applying Concepts The Paleozoic Era ended with the disappearance of many land and aquatic species. What is that type of event called? Use Figure 17-1 to name the period in which that event took place. 3. Calculating Use Figure 17-1 to determine how many years the Silurian Period lasted. 4. Interpreting Graphics According to Figure 17-1, the end of the Mesozoic Era marks the extinction of dinosaurs. How long ago did the dinosaurs become extinct? 5. Interpreting Graphics The first marsupials, a group that includes the modern kangaroo, evolved about 100 million years ago. According to Figure 17-1, during which geologic period did marsupials evolve? 1

2 PART #2 Figure Using Table and Graphs Use Figure 17-2 to determine the approximate half-life of carbon Using Tables and Graphs According to Figure 17-2, how many half-lives have passed if a fossil has 1/8 of its original amount of carbon-14? 8. Using Tables and Graphs A fossil bone was found to contain about 1/16 of the amount of carbon- 14 that was originally present. Use Figure 17-2 to determine the approximate age of the bone. 9. Inferring According to Figure 17-2, in which case would carbon-14 be more useful for radioactive dating: for wooden beams in native American cave dwellings, which are probably less than 7000 years old, or for the fossil of an early mammal that is probably 100,000 years old? Explain your answer. 10. Predicting As carbon-14 decays, it changes to nitrogen-14, which is released as a gas. Refer to Figure 17-2 to predict how the amount of nitrogen gas produced would change over the period of radioactive decay. Why does that change take place? 2

3 PART #3 Figure Interpreting Graphics According to Figure 15-2, how did overall body size of the horse change during its evolution? 12. Observing In Figure 15-2, how does the shape of the head change as the horse evolves? 13. Inferring Scientists have never seen the ancient horses shown in Figure What do you think was the main type of evidence scientists used to prepare these diagrams? 14. Comparing and Contrasting According to Figure 15-2, how did the number of toes of Mesohippus compare with that of Equus, the modern horse? 15. Inferring Does Figure 15-2 show that all species get much larger as they evolve? 3

4 PART #4 Figure Interpreting Graphics What differences are apparent in the bodies of the three tortoise species shown in Figure 15-3? 17. Interpreting Graphics Which of the tortoises shown in Figure 15-3 has the longest neck? 18. Applying Concepts Can you tell from Figure 15-3 how closely the three tortoise species resemble the ancestral species? Why or why not? 19. Inferring Vegetation on Hood Island is sparse and sometimes hard to reach. How might the vegetation have affected the evolution of the Hood Island tortoise shown in Figure 15-3? 20. Forming Hypotheses Considering the body structure of the tortoises shown in Figure 15-3, which tortoises a population from Pinta Island or a population from Isabela Island might survive more successfully on Hood Island? Why? 4

5 PART #5 Comparison of Two Vertebrates Characteristics Shark Dolphin Habitat Ocean Ocean Type of Vertebrate Composition of Skeleton Type of Teeth Respiration Fish Cartilage Large numbers of sharp teeth Breathes in water Mammal Bone Large numbers of sharp teeth Breathes in air Figure Applying Concepts Charles Darwin would say that sharks like the one in the diagram exhibit fitness. Explain what that means, and discuss two specific adaptations as part of your explanation. 22. Applying Concepts Evidence indicates that dolphins evolved from ancestors that walked on land. How can the concept of natural selection be used to explain the evolution of the present-day dolphin body? 23. Comparing and Contrasting Sharks and dolphins, which belong to different vertebrate groups, are not closely related. How can Darwin s ideas about evolution help explain such a similar appearance? 24. Inferring If you wanted to find out whether sharks and dolphins share homologous structures, what structures would you examine? Explain. 25. Predicting Suppose a dolphin population becomes trapped in a harbor that is growing smaller and more shallow because of climate changes. Is it likely that the dolphins would evolve into a landdwelling species in a few thousand years? Explain your answer. 5

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