3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER 9 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras SECTION A View of Earth s Past KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What were the periods of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras? What were the major geologic and biological developments during the Mesozoic Era? What were the major geologic and biological developments during the Cenozoic Era? What Changes Happened During the Mesozoic Era? During a mass extinction, large numbers of species become extinct around the same time. At the end of the Permian, more than 70% of land organisms and 90% of marine organisms became extinct. The Mesozoic Era followed this mass extinction. The mass extinction left space and resources for the species that survived. During the Mesozoic Era, many new species evolved. TIMELINE OF THE MESOZOIC ERA READING TOOLBOX Graphic Organizer As you read, make a concept map using the following terms: Mesozoic Era, Age of Reptiles, Jurassic, Triassic, Cretaceous, Cenozoic Era, Age of Mammals, Tertiary, and Quaternary Ma The last dinosaurs become extinct. Catastrophic asteroid impact occurs. Cretaceous First modern birds 146 Ma Jurassic First flowering plants (angiosperms) First primitive birds Tyrannosaurus rex LOOKING CLOSER 1. Identify What is one geologic change that happened in the Mesozoic Era? 200 Ma Triassic 251 Ma First mammals Pangaea begins to break apart. Archaeopteryx 2. Interpret Graphics When did the first mammals appear? Holt McDougal Earth Science 133 A View of Earth s Past

2 3. Describe Describe the general climate during the Mesozoic Era. GEOLOGIC AND BIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS During the Mesozoic Era, Pangaea broke into smaller continents. Shallow seas and marshes covered much of the land. In general, the climate was warm and humid. The conditions were good for reptiles. Lizards, turtles, crocodiles, snakes, and many dinosaurs thrived during the Mesozoic Era. This era is often called the Age of Reptiles. The Mesozoic Era left a rich fossil record. Based on the fossil record, scientists divide the Mesozoic Era into three periods: Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. THE TRIASSIC PERIOD Many dinosaur species lived during the Triassic. Some dinosaurs were the size of squirrels. Others were nearly 30 m long. Most dinosaurs were about 2 m to 5 m long and moved quickly. Reptiles called ichthyosaurs lived in the oceans during the Triassic. New marine invertebrates evolved, such as the ammonite. On land, small mammals appeared in the forests. THE JURASSIC PERIOD Dinosaurs became the dominant organism during the Jurassic. Fossil records show that two major groups of dinosaurs evolved. Scientists distinguish the dinosaurs in these groups by their hip bones. The Jurassic also had flying reptiles, such as the pterosaur. The pterosaur flew on skin-covered wings, like modern bats do. Jurassic rocks also show evidence of early birds, such as Archaeopteryx. Talk About It Make Comparisons Just how big was a 30-m-long dinosaur? Imagine 30 meter sticks lying end to end. With a partner, discuss everyday objects or buildings that are about the same size as a large dinosaur. Share your ideas with the class. The forests of the Triassic were made up of conifers. Today, conifers include pine and fir trees. Holt McDougal Earth Science 134 A View of Earth s Past

3 The Two Major Groups of Dinosaurs Saurischians Ornithischians Meaning of the name lizard-hipped bird-hipped Herbivores (plant eaters) or carnivores (meat eaters)? herbivores and carnivores herbivores Example Apatosaurus Stegosaurus THE CRETACEOUS PERIOD Dinosaurs continued to dominate Earth during the Cretaceous. Tyrannosaurus rex was almost 6 m tall, which made it one of the largest carnivores from this time. Its sharp teeth were up to 15 cm long. The armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians were other dinosaurs of the Cretaceous. Flowering plants, or angiosperms, evolved during this period. Angiosperms include magnolia and willow trees. Later, trees such as maples, oaks, and walnuts became common. Angiosperms are the dominant type of land plant today. The Cretaceous ended in a mass extinction that included the dinosaurs. Some scientists think that changes such as volcanoes and continental shifts caused the extinction. However, many scientists use the impact hypothesis to explain the mass extinction. According to the impact hypothesis, an asteroid crashed into Earth 65 million years ago. The crash threw dust into the air. The dust blocked the sun and caused Earth s climate to cool. Many species could not survive the cooler climate. Over time, the dust settled over Earth and formed a layer of sediment. This sediment was full of the element iridium. Iridium is common in asteroids, but uncommon in rocks on Earth. What Changes Happened During the Cenozoic Era? The Cenozoic Era began 65 million years ago after the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era. Earth had many climate changes during the Cenozoic Era. At times, ice sheets covered almost one-third of Earth s land. New species that could survive in cool climates appeared. Mammals became the dominant organisms. Thus, the Cenozoic Era is called the Age of Mammals. Critical Thinking 4. Synthesize Graphics and Text To which group of dinosaurs did T. rex belong? Explain your answer. 5. Evaluate Hypotheses In what way does the presence of an iridium layer give evidence for an asteroid impact? Holt McDougal Earth Science 135 A View of Earth s Past

4 LOOKING CLOSER 6. Calculate How long did the Tertiary last? How long has the Quaternary lasted? 7. Interpret Graphics Which two epochs make up the Quaternary? 8. Identify Name the era, the period, and the epoch we live in today. 9. Identify During which epoch did the first primates evolve? TIMELINE OF THE CENOZOIC ERA Tertiary Quaternary present Holocene Ma Pleistocene 1.8 Ma Pliocene 5.3 Ma Miocene 23.0 Ma Oligocene 33.9 Ma Eocene 55.8 Ma Paleocene 65.5 Ma Modern humans Modern Ice Age begins. First hominids (early human ancestors) India collides with Asia, and Antarctica drifts over South Pole. First grasses Most modern mammal families, including whales, carnivores, hoofed animals, and primates, have appeared. Cave painting made by early humans between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago Small mammals This timeline is not drawn to scale. In other words, the length of an epoch on the timeline is not related to how long the epoch actually lasted. The Cenozoic Era is divided into two periods: the Tertiary and the Quaternary. These periods are divided into seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. During the Paleocene, many new mammal species evolved. The first primates also evolved during this time. The tarsier is a modern primate with ancestors from the Paleocene. During the Eocene, the first horses, whales, flying squirrels, and bats appeared. Small reptiles continued to thrive. At the end of the Eocene, Earth s climate cooled further. During the Oligocene, continents collided and formed the Himalayas in Asia. Earth s climate became cooler and drier. Many early mammals became extinct. However, large species of deer, pigs, horses, camels, cats, and dogs survived. Marine invertebrates, such as clams and snails, continued to thrive. Grasses and hardwood trees flourished in this climate. Holt McDougal Earth Science 136 A View of Earth s Past

5 THE MIOCENE EPOCH The Miocene had changes in currents and sea levels. The largest known land mammals existed during this epoch. Miocene rocks contain fossils of horses, camels, deer, rhinoceroses, pigs, raccoons, wolves, and foxes. They also contain fossils of saber-toothed cats, which are now extinct. THE PLIOCENE EPOCH During the Pliocene, predators such as bears, dogs, and cats evolved into their modern forms. Modern horses also appeared. Critical Thinking 10. Apply Concepts Scientists have a harder time dividing the Mesozoic Era into epochs than dividing the Cenozoic Era. Why do you think this is true? Giant ground sloths lived during the late Pliocene in parts of North America and South America. Near the end of the Pliocene, climate changes caused the ice sheets to grow. As more water froze, sea levels fell. A land bridge appeared between Eurasia and North America. Changes in Earth s crust formed a land bridge between North and South America. Organisms moved between the continents on these land bridges. THE PLEISTOCENE EPOCH During the Pleistocene, ice sheets changed in size many times. Some animals, such as the woolly mammoth, had thick fur that helped them survive the cold climate. Other species survived by moving to warmer areas. Some species became extinct. Pleistocene rocks have fossils of early modern humans. Cave paintings suggest that early humans may have been hunters. THE HOLOCENE EPOCH The Holocene began about 11,500 years ago as the last glacial period ended. The Holocene continues today. As the ice sheets melted, sea levels rose. Coastlines took on their present shapes. In the early Holocene, modern humans began to farm and use tools made of bronze and iron. 11. Explain How did climate changes affect Earth s surface in the Pliocene? Math Skills 12. Calculate About what percent of the Cenozoic Era does the Holocene represent? Holt McDougal Earth Science 137 A View of Earth s Past

6 Section 3 Review SECTION VOCABULARY Cenozoic Era the current geologic era, which began 65.5 million years ago; also called the Age of Mammals mass extinction an episode during which large numbers of species become extinct Mesozoic Era the geologic era that lasted from 251 million to 65.5 million years ago; also called the Age of Reptiles 1. Compare What do the start of the Mesozoic Era and the start of the Cenozoic Era have in common? 2. Summarize Complete the table below to identify the periods of the Mesozoic Era. For each period, describe at least one major life-form that evolved during the period or was dominant during that period. Major Life-Forms 3. Explain What do many scientists think caused the mass extinction of the dinosaurs? 4. Identify What is one major geologic development during the Mesozoic Era? What is one major geologic development during the Cenozoic Era? 5. Identify Relationships How could you identify the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary s in a rock sample? Explain your answer. Holt McDougal Earth Science 138 A View of Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil

More information

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

Geologic Time Scale Notes

Geologic Time Scale Notes Name: Date: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Notes Essential Question: What is the geologic time scale? Vocabulary: Geology: the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that

More information

Dinosaur Time-line. What other animals lived then? How long ago did the dinosaurs live? Did dinosaurs live at the same time as people?

Dinosaur Time-line. What other animals lived then? How long ago did the dinosaurs live? Did dinosaurs live at the same time as people? Dinosaur Time-line How long ago did the dinosaurs live? The Age of Dinosaurs began nearly 250 million years ago, but the first true dinosaurs appeared closer to 220 million years ago. Some dinosaurs evolved

More information

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

More information

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic

More information

giganotosaurus Michael P. Goecke

giganotosaurus Michael P. Goecke giganotosaurus Michael P. Goecke Giganotosaurus A Buddy Book by Michael P. Goecke VISIT US AT www.abdopublishing.com Published by ABDO Publishing Company, 4940 Viking Drive, Edina, Minnesota 55435. Copyright

More information

Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale

Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to comprehend the age of the Earth and the time that various geologic events occurred in the past. A model drawn to scale is often useful

More information

Geologic History Review

Geologic History Review 1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

More information

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (pulses, intermittent, isotopes, chronicle, methane, tectonic plates, volcanism, configurations, land-locked, erratic); concepts (geological evidence and specific

More information

What is a fossil? 1. What does the name of your dinosaur mean? 2. In which geological time period did your dinosaur live?

What is a fossil? 1. What does the name of your dinosaur mean? 2. In which geological time period did your dinosaur live? Name: School: Date: 1. What does the name of your dinosaur mean? 2. In which geological time period did your dinosaur live? 3. Where in the world are the fossil remains of your dinosaur found today? 4.

More information

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

ES Chapter 10 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ES Chapter 10 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Scientists used the pattern of alternating normal and reversed

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Puzzling Evidence What evidence suggests that continents move? In the late 1800s, Alfred Wegener proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to this hypothesis, the continents once formed a

More information

CRETACEOUS ALBERTA SCIENCE HALL. Changing Earth. What is Palaeontology. Changing Time. 1. This exhibit is based on a discovery made in

CRETACEOUS ALBERTA SCIENCE HALL. Changing Earth. What is Palaeontology. Changing Time. 1. This exhibit is based on a discovery made in Worksheet Level 2 p. 1 CRETACEOUS ALBERTA 1. This exhibit is based on a discovery made in 2. What type of dinosaur was found at this site and how many individuals were there? 3. What was their age range?

More information

E.ST.06.42 Describe how fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have.changed.

E.ST.06.42 Describe how fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have.changed. Dawn Wagner Lesson Plan- What is the Geologic Time Scale? BIG IDEA: Earth is 4.6 billion years old 2.6 Life on Earth began more than 3.5 billion years ago 2.7 Over Earth s vast history, both gradual and

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time. History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give

More information

Dinosaur Hall Second Grade Dinosaur Lesson Teacher Pages Pre Visit On site Visit

Dinosaur Hall Second Grade Dinosaur Lesson Teacher Pages Pre Visit On site Visit Dinosaur Hall Second Grade Dinosaur Lesson Teacher Pages Pre Visit Earth Sciences 3d. Students know that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and that scientists learn

More information

Real World Science: Fossils & Dinosaurs

Real World Science: Fossils & Dinosaurs Real World Science: Fossils & Dinosaurs INTRODUCTION TO THE AIMS TEACHING MODULE (ATM) Rationale...................................................4 Organization and Management....................................5

More information

History of the Earth/Geologic Time 5E Unit

History of the Earth/Geologic Time 5E Unit History of the Earth/Geologic Time 5E Unit Description: Students will create a timeline of Earth history in the classroom and learn about major changes to the Earth and life through time. Standards Targeted:

More information

DINOSAUR FAMILY TREE DO YOU WANT TO BE A PALEONTOLOGIST? PANGEA

DINOSAUR FAMILY TREE DO YOU WANT TO BE A PALEONTOLOGIST? PANGEA A CHANGING WORLD Here are some important facts to know before you begin your tour of the gallery: Dinosaurs lived 228-65 million years ago. The Mesozoic Era (MES-OH-ZOH-IK) is also known as the Age of

More information

Non-fiction: Dinosaur Discovery. Scientists stumbled upon strange-looking dinosaur bones in Germany.

Non-fiction: Dinosaur Discovery. Scientists stumbled upon strange-looking dinosaur bones in Germany. Non-fiction: Dinosaur Discovery Dinosaur Discovery Dinosaurs 1 lived millions of years ago. Scientists recently discovered something new about dinosaurs. What did they find? Little Big Dinosaur wikipedia.org

More information

FORMATION OF EARTH. Today we are going to talk about the earth.how it was formed.

FORMATION OF EARTH. Today we are going to talk about the earth.how it was formed. FORMATION OF EARTH Have you ever wondered about the universe? What made it possible.how it was formed? Of course, religion has explained for centuries the intricacies of creation. And as always, science

More information

Mini Dinosaurs. Grades K 1 2. Compiled by

Mini Dinosaurs. Grades K 1 2. Compiled by Mini Dinosaurs Grades K 1 2 Compiled by Leanne M. Burrow, Extension educator, 4 H/ Youth development, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Henry County Resources and References Exploring 4 H,

More information

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth Overview Name Period 1. In the last chapter, you were asked about macroevolution. To begin this chapter, give some examples of macroevolution. Include at least one novel example not in your text. Concept

More information

11A Plate Tectonics. What is plate tectonics? Setting up. Materials

11A Plate Tectonics. What is plate tectonics? Setting up. Materials 11A Plate Tectonics What is plate tectonics? Earth s crust plus the upper mantle forms the lithosphere. Earth s lithosphere is broken in a number of different pieces. How these pieces move and interact

More information

Theropods. Name: Picture: Period: Size Interesting Facts: Cretaceous - 40 ft. long - 20 ft. tall - 6 tons. Tyrannosaurus Rex

Theropods. Name: Picture: Period: Size Interesting Facts: Cretaceous - 40 ft. long - 20 ft. tall - 6 tons. Tyrannosaurus Rex Theropods The theropod (meaning ʺbeast footedʺ) dinosaurs are a diverse group of bipedal saurischian, or lizardhipped, dinosaurs. They include the largest terrestrial carnivores ever to have made the earth

More information

GEL 113 Historical Geology

GEL 113 Historical Geology GEL 113 Historical Geology COURSE DESCRIPTION: Prerequisites: GEL 111 Corequisites: None This course covers the geological history of the earth and its life forms. Emphasis is placed on the study of rock

More information

www.amnh.org Continental Drift is the movement of the Earth s continents in relation to one another.

www.amnh.org Continental Drift is the movement of the Earth s continents in relation to one another. A Plate Tectonic Puzzle Introduction The Earth s crust is not a solid shell. It is made up of thick, interconnecting pieces called tectonic plates that fit together like a puzzle. They move atop the underlying

More information

Supported by. A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science.

Supported by. A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science. Supported by A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science. Find out about the different types of teeth in your mouth. Milk Teeth As a child you have 20 milk teeth. Your first tooth appears

More information

Investigating Adaptations

Investigating Adaptations Investigating Adaptations 4 th Grade Duration Pre-Visit: 40 minutes Museum Visit: 60 minutes Post Visit: 50 minutes Concepts Adaptations reveal what organisms need in their environment to survive. Location

More information

What is a Dinosaur? Part I: Birds and Dinosaurs Adapted from original What is a Dinosaur? Activity from MOR Dinosaur Trunk

What is a Dinosaur? Part I: Birds and Dinosaurs Adapted from original What is a Dinosaur? Activity from MOR Dinosaur Trunk What is a Dinosaur? Part I: Birds and Dinosaurs Adapted from original What is a Dinosaur? Activity from MOR Dinosaur Trunk Grade Level: K-8 Preparation Time: 5 minutes or less (after background material

More information

Dinosaurs and Fossils

Dinosaurs and Fossils Dinosaurs and Fossils T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers............... vi Equipment

More information

Classification and Evolution

Classification and Evolution Classification and Evolution Starter: How many different ways could I split these objects into 2 groups? Classification All living things can also be grouped how do we decide which groups to put them into?

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

Part 1: Hall of Ornithischian Dinosaurs

Part 1: Hall of Ornithischian Dinosaurs Part 1: Hall of Ornithischian Dinosaurs 1. When you enter the hall, you should see a large dinosaur to your left that has large plates on its back. What is the name of this dinosaur? (Please place one

More information

KINDERGARTEN PAST LIFE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN PAST LIFE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN PAST LIFE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Distinguishing the four types of matter. LAB: Classifying heavy and light rocks. POST:

More information

The Milwaukee Public Museum optional extra credit assignment

The Milwaukee Public Museum optional extra credit assignment Geo Sci 100 MPM Optional Extra Cedit Assignment - Page 1 of 8 Name: Lab #: The Milwaukee Public Museum optional extra credit assignment This assignment is due to your TA (in person, or in their mailbox

More information

Dinosaurs and Fossils

Dinosaurs and Fossils Delta Science Reader Dinosaurs and Fossils Delta Science Readers are nonfiction student books that provide science background and support the experiences of hands-on activities. Every Delta Science Reader

More information

Evolutionary Evidence

Evolutionary Evidence Evolutionary Evidence 7th Grade, Science and English/Language Arts: Age of Mammals Make the most of your Museum field trip by integrating it into your classroom curriculum. These lesson plans provide a

More information

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot

Plate Tectonics. Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics. And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Plate Tectonics Hi, I am Zed and I am going to take you on a trip learning about Plate Tectonics And I am Buddy Zed s mascot Continental Drift Alfred Wegener proposed that continents were not always where

More information

Continents join together and split apart.

Continents join together and split apart. KEY CONCEPT Continents change position over time. BEFORE, you learned Earth s main layers are the core, the mantle, and the crust The lithosphere and asthenosphere are the topmost layers of Earth The lithosphere

More information

Lesson Plan Title. Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time

Lesson Plan Title. Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time Lesson Plan Title Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time Name (last, first): Serratos, Danielle J. Scientific Theme(s): Life Science *Changes in Life Forms over Time Earth Science *Forces that Shape

More information

archaeologist artifact WC-1

archaeologist artifact WC-1 WC-1 archaeologist artifact A scientist who studies the life and culture of ancient people. An object, such as a tool, made by humans. WC-1 climate climate zone The weather in an area averaged over a long

More information

There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth

There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift There are numerous seams on the surface of the Earth Questions and Topics 1. What are the theories of Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift? 2. What is the evidence

More information

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

More information

Worksheet: Mass extinctions and fossils

Worksheet: Mass extinctions and fossils Worksheet: Mass extinctions and fossils FET Phase Grade 10 Learning area: Life Sciences Strand: Diversity, change and continuity Theme: History of life on Earth Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of natural

More information

Dynamics of dinosaurs

Dynamics of dinosaurs MATH0011 Numbers and Patterns in Nature and Life Lecture 1 Dynamics of Dinosaurs http://147.8.101.93/math0011/ Questions: Dynamics of dinosaurs How heavy are dinosaurs? Would sand support a big dinosaur

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide

Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica

More information

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

More information

Three Bears by Erin Ryan

Three Bears by Erin Ryan Three Bears by Erin Ryan Did you know that there are eight different kinds of bears found around the world? Three very different ones are polar bears, grizzly bears and Giant Pandas. Polar bears live in

More information

6.4 Taigas and Tundras

6.4 Taigas and Tundras 6.4 Taigas and Tundras In this section, you will learn about the largest and coldest biomes on Earth. The taiga is the largest land biome and the tundra is the coldest. The taiga The largest land biome

More information

Food Chains and Food Webs

Food Chains and Food Webs Program Support Notes by: Spiro Liacos B.Ed. Produced by: VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning Editor: Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. Executive Producers: Edwina Baden-Powell B.A, CVP. Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. You

More information

Wetlands by Leslie Cargile

Wetlands by Leslie Cargile Name: by Leslie Cargile What do the bogs in Ireland, the marshes in South Carolina, and the swamps of Louisiana have in common? If you said they re all wetlands, you d be right! are any land that is flooded

More information

Worksheets Dinosaurs are back! 2012

Worksheets Dinosaurs are back! 2012 Worksheets Dinosaurs are back! 2012 VOCABULARY 1 Match the words to the definitions. 1 paleontologist 2 dinosaur 3 cave 4 tusk 5 shark 6 pterasaur a. an ancient lizard that lived millions of years ago.

More information

The fossil record: provides direct evidence of evolution shows that lineages change. time gives information about

The fossil record: provides direct evidence of evolution shows that lineages change. time gives information about Evolution & The Fossil Record The fossil record: provides direct evidence of evolution shows that lineages change and diversify through time gives information about the process of evolution (modes) gives

More information

DOG Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster - rabbit - fish

DOG Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster - rabbit - fish CAT Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster - rabbit - fish DOG Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster - rabbit - fish HORSE Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster - rabbit - fish HAMSTER Pets cat - dog - horse - hamster

More information

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Introduction and Origin of the Earth Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

More information

Teaching the Dynamic Earth Plate Tectonics Interactive Master sheets

Teaching the Dynamic Earth Plate Tectonics Interactive Master sheets Teaching the Dynamic Earth Plate Tectonics Interactive Master sheets Contents Page Master Sheets for continental jigsaws Gondwanaland continents (blank outlines)...2 Four continents, showing gaps and overlap

More information

ORIGIN OF EARTH AND EVOLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

ORIGIN OF EARTH AND EVOLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT Origin of Earth and Evoluation of the Environment MODULE - 1 1 ORIGIN OF EARTH AND EVOLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT We live on a beautiful planet called earth, along with a wide variety of plants, animals

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the parts of a volcano. LAB: Comparing the parts of a

More information

Geologic Timeline. Objectives. Overview

Geologic Timeline. Objectives. Overview Geologic Timeline Overview Students will build a timeline using both a physical and digital medium to better grasp geologic time that encompasses all the time that has passed since the formation of Earth.

More information

Boy, Were We Wrong about Dinosaurs!

Boy, Were We Wrong about Dinosaurs! TEXT STUDY Boy, Were We Wrong about Dinosaurs! BY KATHLEEN V. KUDLINSKI MAP Grade 3 Unit 6 UNIT Fantastic Adventures with Dragons, Gods, and Giants TYPE Informational Text (Lexile 900L) OVERVIEW RATIONALE

More information

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy Assessment Bank Matter and Energy in Living Things SC.8.L.18.4 1. What is energy? A. anything that takes up space B. anything that has mass C. the ability to conduct current D. the ability to do work 2.

More information

E Is for Extinction CHAPTER 3. Great Glargal, what just happened? Life on earth was just dealt a devastating blow.

E Is for Extinction CHAPTER 3. Great Glargal, what just happened? Life on earth was just dealt a devastating blow. Great Glargal, what just happened? Life on earth was just dealt a devastating blow. CHAPTER 3 E Is for Extinction At the end of the Permian Period 80 to 90% of species in the sea were lost, two-thirds

More information

Igneous rocks formed when hot molten material (magma) cools and hardens (crystallizes).

Igneous rocks formed when hot molten material (magma) cools and hardens (crystallizes). Objectives You will learn about how the land of North Dakota was formed. Introduction North Dakota is a wonderful place to live. Have you ever though about how it was formed? To answer that question, you

More information

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics. Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930.

Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics. Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Alfred Wegener s Theory of Continental Drift Became Modern Plate Tectonics Wegener in Greenland about 1912. He froze to death there in 1930. Science is self correcting. The Scientific Method The history

More information

CONTINENTAL DRIFT, SUPER VOLCANOS, ASTROIDS AND UNDERSTANDING THEIR EFFECT ON SPECIES

CONTINENTAL DRIFT, SUPER VOLCANOS, ASTROIDS AND UNDERSTANDING THEIR EFFECT ON SPECIES CONTINENTAL DRIFT, SUPER VOLCANOS, ASTROIDS AND UNDERSTANDING THEIR EFFECT ON SPECIES By Bernard Harrison, Principal Partner, Bernard Harrison & Friends The art and science of zoos and aquariums, Joint

More information

Talking About Penguins by Guy Belleranti

Talking About Penguins by Guy Belleranti Talking About Penguins Penguins are one of the world s most interesting birds. They waddle when they walk, and have flippers instead of wings. The bones in a penguin s flippers are heavier and more solid

More information

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification

Classification Why Things are Grouped classify Methods of Classification Classification What features do biologists use to group living things? You know that most plants are green and do not more around. You also know that most animals are not green and do move around. The

More information

The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment

The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment 2005 2006 Science Item and Scoring Sampler Grade 8 Pennsylvania Department of Education Bureau of Assessment and Accountability 2005 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test

Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 8: Plate Tectonics -- Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the

More information

CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS

CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS INTRODUCTION The film The Day the Mesozoic Died identifies the presence of high quantities of iridium (Ir) in the clay layer at the boundary between the Cretaceous

More information

Activity 1 Exploring Animal Diets and Sizes

Activity 1 Exploring Animal Diets and Sizes Activity 1 Exploring Animal Diets and Sizes Objective & Overview: Using measurement and books, students will gain a better understanding of animal size, diversity, and diet through the fun study of wildlife.

More information

World Oceans Day at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo

World Oceans Day at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo World Oceans Day at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo Teachers notes KS 1 & KS 2 This booklet will help you to focus your self guided trail on ocean animals, looking at the adaptations of the species and focusing in on

More information

Leighton Moylan and Olivia Silva

Leighton Moylan and Olivia Silva DINOSAUR BEHAVIOR Leighton Moylan and Olivia Silva Table of Contents 1 Introduction Classification Herbivores Omnivores Carnivores Extinction Birds Glossary Image Credits About the Authors 2 4 5 7 9 11

More information

Rain Forests. America's. Web of Life. Rain Forest Ecology. Prince William Network's OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES SUBJECTS

Rain Forests. America's. Web of Life. Rain Forest Ecology. Prince William Network's OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES SUBJECTS Rain Forest Ecology National Science Education Standards Standard C: Life Sciences Populations and ecosystems. Standard C: Life Sciences Diversity and adaptation of organisms. Standard F: Science in Personal

More information

Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Principle of Original Horizontality. Relative Time. Absolute Time. Geologic Column

Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Principle of Original Horizontality. Relative Time. Absolute Time. Geologic Column Geologic Time Relative Time 5 Principles of Relative Dating Absolute Time Radiometric Dating Geologic Column Relative Dating principle of horizontality principle of superposition principle of cross-cutting

More information

Lesson Title: Kincaid Creatures Subject: Texas history, science, math By: Carol Schlenk. Grade level: 7 th (Can be modified for 4 th grade)

Lesson Title: Kincaid Creatures Subject: Texas history, science, math By: Carol Schlenk. Grade level: 7 th (Can be modified for 4 th grade) Lesson Title: Kincaid Creatures Subject: Texas history, science, math By: Carol Schlenk Grade level: 7 th (Can be modified for 4 th grade) Rationale or Purpose: To illustrate how archeologists use stratigraphy

More information

6. Evolution and Domestication of Wolves

6. Evolution and Domestication of Wolves 6. Evolution and Domestication of Wolves Wolf Evolution Scientists are not absolutely certain how and where the wolf evolved. By examining fossil bones, especially skulls, of animals that lived millions

More information

Texas Memorial Museum. Hall of Geology and Paleontology Background Information

Texas Memorial Museum. Hall of Geology and Paleontology Background Information Texas Memorial Museum Hall of Geology and Paleontology Background Information Table of Contents Hall of Geology and Paleontology Deep Time in Texas Grades 3-5 Geology, Paleontology and the Age of the Earth...1

More information

Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore?

Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore? Carnivore, omnivore or herbivore? Physical adaptations of the giant panda Student booklet (ST) October 2010 panda_st_student.doc Context The Giant Panda is a species that is faced with extinction. It is

More information

CLASSROOM DINOSAUR DIG. Teacher Guide with Reproducibles Everything you need to create a realistic T. rex dig experience in your school yard!

CLASSROOM DINOSAUR DIG. Teacher Guide with Reproducibles Everything you need to create a realistic T. rex dig experience in your school yard! EI-5136 Ages 8+ Grades 3+ CLASSROOM DINOSAUR DIG Teacher Guide with Reproducibles Everything you need to create a realistic T. rex dig experience in your school yard! T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Teacher

More information

Lesson Plan Two - Ecosystems

Lesson Plan Two - Ecosystems Lesson Plan Two - Ecosystems Summary Students discuss what living things need to survive. They identify the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem and describe the roles and interactions of producers

More information

1 Branches of Earth Science

1 Branches of Earth Science CHAPTER 1 1 Branches of Earth Science SECTION The World of Earth Science BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the four major branches of Earth

More information

ROCKS, FOSSILS AND SOILS SECTION 8: FOSSILS From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003

ROCKS, FOSSILS AND SOILS SECTION 8: FOSSILS From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003 ROCKS, FOSSILS AND SOILS SECTION 8: FOSSILS From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003 STANDARDS: Westminster College Students will write or draw descriptions of a sequence of steps, events and observations,

More information

Silent, Nighttime Hunters By Guy Belleranti

Silent, Nighttime Hunters By Guy Belleranti By Guy Belleranti Owls are raptors, or birds of prey. They are carnivores who quickly and silently swoop down on their prey from above. Most raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are day hunters. They

More information

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts?

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts? Ecosystems and Biomes 1. All of the living organisms in a forest plus their environment is an example of A. a biome. B. a community. C. a population. D. an ecosystem. 2. Which of the following best describes

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

Producers, Consumers, and Food Webs

Producers, Consumers, and Food Webs reflect Think about the last meal you ate. Where did the food come from? Maybe it came from the grocery store or a restaurant. Maybe it even came from your backyard. Now think of a lion living on the plains

More information

The Polar Climate Zones

The Polar Climate Zones The Polar Climate Zones How cold is it in the polar climate? Polar areas are the coldest of all the major climate zones The Sun is hardly ever high enough in the sky to cause the plentiful ice to melt,

More information

ELEMENTARY-LEVEL SCIENCE TEST

ELEMENTARY-LEVEL SCIENCE TEST 4THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK SPRING 2008 GRADE 4 ELEMENTARY-LEVEL SCIENCE TEST WRITTEN TEST Student Name School Name Print your name and the name of your school on the lines above. The test

More information

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Deciduous Forest INTRODUCTION Temperate deciduous forests are found in middle latitudes with temperate climates. Deciduous means that the trees in this forest change with the seasons. In fall, the leaves

More information

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 7 WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q.1. Why weather changes so frequently? Ans. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The movement of the

More information

1 Branches of Earth Science

1 Branches of Earth Science CHAPTER 1 1 Branches of Earth Science SECTION The World of Earth Science BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the four major branches of Earth

More information

Answer Keys to Unit Tests

Answer Keys to Unit Tests Reading Geography Series Answer Keys to Unit Tests Unit 1 The Five Themes of Geography Unit 2 Patterns in Physical Geography Unit 3 Natural Resources 7 Portage & Main Press Unit Test for The Five Themes

More information