III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

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1 Chemical Bonds and Reactions (Water) Grade Level: 7 (Applied Technology) Presented by: James Rubright, Three Oaks Middle School, Fort Myers, Florida Length of Unit: Ten Daily Lessons and Activities I. ABSTRACT Students will be able to test and evaluate water samples for hardness and the effects it has on drinking water. Students will apply the principles of the Scientific Method. This addresses the Core Knowledge topic, Chemical Bonds and Reactions. II. OVERVIEW A. Concept Objectives 1. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on the Earth s water supply.. 2. Students will develop an awareness of the limited fresh water supply available on Earth B. Content from the Core Knowledge Sequence (List specific content from the Core Knowledge Sequence that will be covered in the unit.) 1. Chemical Bonds and Reactions 2. The water cycle (Review from Grade 4) a. Acid rain C. Skill Objectives (List specific skills to be taught in each lesson.) 1. Read physical maps. 2. Use note taking to record scientific observationsl 4. Identify the reasons and sources for water contamination 5. Apply knowledge of the scientific method. 6. Test, observe and record findings on various water samples III. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE A. For Teachers 1. The Tap Water Tour. 2. Environment and Ecology (Both available through Paxton Patterson Company, Chicago, IL.) B. For Students 1. Geography: Locations for fresh water on earth 2. Science: Fresh water/acid rain 3. Language Arts: Writing reports 4. Mathematics: Weight and measurement IV. RESOURCES 1. The Tap Water Tour. Activity Book Paxton-Patterson Company. 2. Environment and Ecology. Activity Book Paxton-Patterson Company. 3. Video: Down The Drain. 4. Where Does Water Come From? McArthur-Burney Falls Park publication V. LESSONS Lesson One: Introduction to tap water, tap water sources and the water cycle A. Daily Objectives: 1.Concept Objective(s) a. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on the Earth s water supply Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 1

2 b. Students will develop an awareness of the limited fresh water supply available on Earth 2. Lesson Content a. Acids, ph, reactions with acids and bases 3. Skill Objective(s) a. Read physical maps. b. Use note taking to record scientific observations c. Apply knowledge of the scientific method by practicing observation and reporting B. Materials 1. Individual maps, or paper to draw 2. Crayons, or markers 3. Pencils 4. Ruler 5. Notebook or journal 6. Water Facts sheet 7. Research Contract (Appendix A) 8. Water Facts (Appendix B) 9. Water Words ( Appendix C) 10. Where Do We Get Our Water? (Appendix E) 11. Pretest (Appendix S) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Drinking Water Fresh water for everyday use by all living things 2. Evaporation The change of state of water from liquid to gas, part of the hydrological cycle 3. Acid and acidic a condition that causes water to be corrosive. 4. Hardness, as in hard water, the amount of minerals found in some fresh water 5. ph a scale used to measure the content of chemicals (hardness) in water 6. Neutral a ph of 7 D. Procedures/Activities 1. Administer pretest to students 2. Watch the video Down the Drain 3. Observe, and note from the video, the concept of the water cycle 4. Observe, and note from the video, the statistics for our daily consumption of water 5. Using knowledge gained from the video have students hypothesize where used water goes E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Review the student s journals for accurate notes 2. Students write short essays using the four vocabulary words for this lesson 3. Students will develop a chart that shows the understanding of water consumption Lesson Two: Testing for Chlorine A. Daily Objectives: 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions,a nd their impact on the Earth s water supply. b. Students will develop an awareness of the limited fresh water supply available on Earth. 2. Lesson Content a. Reactions with acids and bases. 3. Skill Objectives a. Use note taking to record scientific observations. b. Apply knowledge of the scientific method by practicing observation Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 2

3 B. Materials 1. Chlorine bleach 2. Distilled water 4. DPD #4 Tablets 5. Sample bags 6. Pre Mixed Water Samples a. Chlorine sample #1 i. In a cup, mix one teaspoon of liquid bleach with three teaspoons of water ii. Use an eyedropper to add one drop of the solution you made in step i to one quart of distilled water. This represents the amount of chlorine found in the average drinking water b. Chlorine sample #2 i. Use an eyedropper to add ten drops of the solution in ii to one quart of distilled water c. Student Data Sheet (Appendix P) d. Scramble Game (Appendix M) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Chlorine A toxic, corrosive chemical element used in water supplies to disinfect and in bleaching applications. 2. Disinfect To remove, or reduce, harmful bacteria from areas used by, or items consumed by, living organisms. 3. Distilled the process of removing minerals and other impurities from water by evaporation. D. Procedures/Activities 1. Watch the video Down The Drain a. Instruct students to take notes about key terms. b. Instruct students to be alert for the explained water cycle, the technical term for this (hydrological cycle) and the importance of this cycle. c. Suggest that students begin to understand the importance of the theory that all the water that was on Earth when it formed is still here, and how our use is causing shortages. (Nature cannot recycle as fast as our current needs) E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Have students write, in their journals, short essays using each vocabulary word, an essay about how we can reduce the amount of fresh water we use, and one essay describing the hydrological cycle. 2. Have students read their work product to the class. Lesson Three: Testing For Iron A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on the Earth s water supply. b.. 2. Lesson Content a. Oxidation b. Reactions with Acids and Bases 3. Skill Objective(s) a. Use note taking to record scientific observations. b. Apply knowledge of the scientific method. c. Test, observe and record findings on various water samples. Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 3

4 d. B. Materials 1. Two quart containers 2. Iron supplement tablets 3. One cup 4. Three quarts distilled water 5. ½ cup measuring cup 6. Sample bags 7. Iron LR tablets 8. Student Data Sheet (Appendix O) 9. Word Search Game (Appendix D) C. Key Vocabulary 1. React To change chemically 2. Indicator A method or chemical that will allow you see the reaction of one chemical to another. In this case, a purple reaction. D. Procedures/Activities 1. Fill one-quart container with distilled water. Leave one empty. 2. Place one iron supplement tablet in a cup; add three teaspoons (15ml) of distilled water. 3. Swirl to dissolve the tablet coating. Ask students why they think we do this. 4. Remove the now uncoated tablet into one quart, or one liter of distilled water. Mix for 30 seconds. 5. Promptly pour the solution into an empty container. Be careful not to pour in the undissolved portion of the tablet. 6. Now, pour out ½ cup of this solution into a clean one-quart container. 7. Fill this container with distilled water. 8. Hand out Iron Data sheets 9. Fill two sample bags to line C. 10. Add an Iron LR tablet to each bag. 11. Have students hypothesize what reaction they will observe. 12. Have students record their observations. 13. Have students hypothesize the result of a test on tap water. Do the experiment and compare the results to the samples. Record their observations and results. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Check student journals for proper entries 2. Observe student laboratory procedures 3. Have students write an essay explaining the steps taken to do this experiment and the purpose of the reactant. Lesson Four: Testing for Copper A. Daily Objectives 1. Concept Objective(s) a. To develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on our water supply. 2. Lesson Content a. Kinds of reactions 3. Skill Objective(s) a. Apply knowledge of scientific method by practicing observation and recording. b. Use note taking to record scientific observations. B. Materials 1. Copper HR tablets 2. Sample bags Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 4

5 3. Tap water 4. Copper Data Sheet (Appendix Q) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Acidic A corrosive solution 2. Indicator A system for measuring, observing, the condition of items. 3. Blue/green stains The result of high copper content water 4. Dissolve The ability of chemicals and minerals in water to cause pipes to dissolve. D. Procedures/Activities 1. Fill a sample bag to line C with tap water 2. Add a copper HR tablet. Close bag and shake 3. Write on the board: a. Orange no copper in the water b. Red-brown Water may taste bitter and stain c. Blue Water WILL taste bitter and stain 4. Students complete data sheet 5. Students write about the effects of excessive copper in drinking water. 6. Pour a small amount of vinegar in a jar. Place a penny in the vinegar and close the lid. Have students check the penny over the next few days. Have them record their findings. Keep the jar in a conspicuous place throughout the year for continued observation of the reaction-taking place. E. Assessment/Evaluation 1. Review student journals for accuracy and completeness. 2. Have students hypothesize about what other materials might be affected by vinegar (acid). Have them design their own experiment. Lesson Five: Testing for hardness (ph) using home water samples A. Daily Objectives: 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on the Earth s water supply 2. Lesson Content a. ph scale b. Kinds of reactions 3. Skill Objective(s) a. Identify the reasons and sources for water contamination. b. Use note taking to record scientific observations. c. Apply knowledge of the scientific method. B. Materials 1. Wide range ph tablets 2. Sample bags 3. Baking soda 4. Vinegar 5. Aspirin 6. Tap water 7. Straws 8. Distilled water (4 Quarts) 9. Quart containers (3) 10. Data sheet (Appendix H) 11. Paper and materials for class result chart 12. Bubblegram Game (Appendix K) 13. Crossword Puzzle (Appendix N) 14. Water Pipe Diagram (Appendix G) Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 5

6 15. ph Scale (Appendix F) 16. Water Quality Report (Appendix I) 17. Hardness Data Sheet (Appendix J) 18. Matching Game (Appendix L) C. Key Vocabulary 1. Basic- Referring to ph of water 2. Hardness Referring to ph of water 3. Neutral Referring to the ph of water 4. Minerals- Referring to the content of minerals in water. 5. Scale- Deposits left behind by evaporated water that contained minerals D. Procedures/Activities 1. Hand out ph scale ( Alternate project from your overhead projector and have students create their own ph scale) 2. Hand out sample bags 3. Hand out ph tablets (Alternate teacher places liquid ph test material in each bag) 4. Hand out ph data sheet 5. Divide class into teams 6. Test tap water 7. Write on board a. pink ph 4 b. orange ph 5 c. yellow ph6 d. apple-green ph7 e. blue-green ph8 f. blue ph9 g. purple ph10 8. Locate results for water sample, place on chart 9. Place straw in bag, blow gently record results. Have students explain (Added carbon dioxide) Write a paragraph explaining what happened. 10. Make water samples a. Sample #1. Dissolve one teaspoon of baking soda in one quart of distilled water b. Sample #2 Mix 5 drops of vinegar in one quart of distilled water c. Sample #3 Dissolve one aspirin in one quart of distilled water 11. Have students fill sample bags to line C. Place a ph tablet in each F. Assessment/evaluation 1. Review student journals 2. Examine student s ph chart 3. Students write an essay using key vocabulary words to explain the concept of ph ranging from basic to acidic. VI. CULMINATING ACTIVITY A. Daily Objectives: 1. Concept Objective(s) a. Students will develop an awareness of chemical bonds and reactions, and their impact on the Earth s water supply b. Students will develop an awareness of the limited fresh water supply available on Earth. 2. Lesson Content a. Chemical bonds and reactions b. The water cycle (review from Grade 4) 3. Skill Objective(s) a. Read physical maps. Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 6

7 b. Use note taking to record scientific observations. c. Identify the reasons and sources for water contamination d. Apply knowledge of the scientific method. e. Test, observe and record findings on various water samples. B. Materials: (To be included in Final Report ) 1. Student designed cover sheet 2. Table of Contents 3. Daily student notes organized by lesson 4. All hand out sheets organized by lesson. These should include: a. Appendix A: Research Contract b. Appendix B: Water Facts c. Appendix C: Water Words d. Appendix D: Word Search e. Appendix E: Where Do We Get Our Water? f. Appendix F: ph Scale g. Appendix G: Water Pipe Diagram h. Appendix H: Data Sheet (ph Test) i. Appendix I: Water Quality Report (For ph) j. Appendix J: Data Sheet (Hardness) k. Appendix K: Bubblegram Game l. Appendix L: Matching Game 5. Pre and post test paper 6. Final essay describing the water cycle and why, if there is the same amount of water on Earth since the beginning of time, there is a danger of serious shortages. C. Key Vocabulary 1. no new vocabulary D. Procedures/Activities 1. Administer post test 2. Pass out Where Does The Water Come From? Have students read this to reinforce understanding of the water cycle. 3 Help students set up their journals for final publication. This includes instructions for the cover page, table of contents, graphics, work sheets, test papers and essay. VII. HANDOUTS/WORKSHEETS A. Research Contract B. Water Facts C. Water Words (to be used as needed) D. Word Search E. Where Do We Get Our Water? F. ph Scale G. Water Pipe Diagram H. Data Sheet ph I. Water Quality Report J. Data Sheet Hardness K. Bubblegram Game L. Matching Game M. Scramble Game N. Crossword Game O. Data Sheet Iron P. Data Sheet Chloring Q. Data Sheet Copper R. Shopping List Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 7

8 S. Pre/Post Test T. Pre/Post Test Answer Key VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Where Does The Water Come From? Newspaper article from McArthur-Burney Falls Memorial State Park publication, fifth edition Published by McArthur- Burney Falls Interpretive Association, P.O. Box 777, Burney CA B. Publication rights for all other materials used in this unit are owned by the Paxton- Patterson Company, Chicago, IL. Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 8

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26 Appendix R CHEMICAL BONDS AND REACTIONS James Rubright Presenter 941/ Shopping List Supplies Needed 7 quart containers Down The Drain VHS video tape 1 box plastic drinking straws 1 eye dropper 3 quarts distilled water water sample bags teaspoon 1 box baking soda 1 bottle chlorine bleach 1 bottle white vinegar 1 bottle liquid soap ph wide range tablets iron LR tablets DPD tablets Copper tablets hardness tablets Pre Mix Solutions Label quart bottles: ph sample #1 ph sample #2 ph sample #3 Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 26

27 Appendix S Pre/ Post Test For Chemical Bonds and Reaction Name: Date: Period 1. T F 2/3 of your body is water 2. T F It takes 10 gallons on water, on average, to take a shower 3. T F Three states of water are liquid, solid and gas 4. T F Without water, the planet Earth would become too hot and too cold 5. T F About half of the water moving through the water cycle is drinkable 6. T F About half of all things that pollute water, seep down through the ground water supply 7. T F We personally average about 50 gallons a day in use of water 8. T F In an average American city, about 20% of the usable water supply is wasted due to leaks 9. T F Evaporation is the process of water changing from liquid to solid 10. T F Condensation is the process of water turning from gas to a liquid 11. T F Ground Water is water that has gone through a grinding process 12. T F By blowing into a water sample the carbon dioxide you exhale will change the ph of the sample to being more acidic 13. T F Chlorine is added to our drinking water to help with the color 14. T F Filtration of water removes impurities 15. T F A reacted sample refers to a visible change that has taken place in a sample Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 27

28 Appendix T Answer Sheet For Pre and Post Test For Chemical Bonds and Reactions 1. True 2. False, 50 gallons 3. True 4. True 5. False About 1% 6. True 7. False 120 gallons 8. True 9. False Changing liquid to gas 10. True 11. False It is the water that is returned to Earth that seeps into the ground for our reuse 12. True 13. False It is added to kill unwanted bacteria 14. True 15. True Chemical Bonds and Reactions, Grade Conference 28

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